Coal Mining

separatesnottySoftware and s/w Development

Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Coal Mining

Anne
Sloter
, Maia Palma,
Edis

Cehic
,
Marissa Henze

Historical Context

O
In 1701, coal was found by Huguenot settlers

O
1736, several “coal mines” showed up on several maps

O
The first coal “miners” in the American colonies were likely
farmers who sold it by the bushel.

O
First commercial coal production began from mines around
Richmond, Virginia in 1748

O
By the late 1700s, coal was being mined on Mount Washington

O
In 1814, coal was burned to heat salt brines to provide a
source of salt in southwestern Pennsylvania.

O
The first major boon for coal use occurred in 1830 when the
Tom Thumb was manufactured.

O
1820 First commercial mine, known as the "McLean drift
bank" opened in Kentucky,

O
To meet the increasing demand for coal, the steam shovel was
invented in 1839

O
In
1848, the first coal miners' union was formed


Historical Context Cont
.

O
T
he
rise of iron and steel, coal production increased
by 300 percent during the 1870s and early 1880s.

O
By the early 1900s, coal was supplying more than
100,000 coke ovens.

O
In 1882 Edison built the first practical coal
-
fired
electric generating station

O
In 1901, General Electric Company built the first
alternating current power plant at
Ehrenfeld
,
Pennsylvania.

O
By 1961, coal had become the major fuel used by
electricity utilities to generate electricity, and a new
era for coal began taking shape. U.S.

O
coal production nearly doubled, increasing from 520
million tons in 1970 to one billion tons for the first
time in 1990 and to nearly 1.1 billion tons currently


Geographical Context

O
Proven Coal deposits exist on every continent in
the world, including Antarctica.

O
The U.S. has the world’s largest supply of
recoverable coal reserves. This accounts for
24% of the world’s coal.

O
Coal is found is found in 38 states in the U.S.

O
Nearly 1/8 of the country sits over coal beds.

O
Top coal mining states include: Montana, Illinois,
Wyoming, West Virginia, Kentucky, Pennsylvania,
Ohio, Colorado, Texas, and Indiana.

O
The world’s leading coal mining countries
include: China, India, Australia, Germany, Russia,
and Indonesia.


Major Players: Coal

O
Top 10 Hard Coal Producers (2009)


PR China



297 Mt


USA



919 Mt


India



526 Mt


Indonesia



263 Mt


South Africa


247 Mt


Russia



229 Mt


Kazakhstan


96 Mt


Poland



78 Mt


Colombia



73 Mt

Major Players: Coal

O
h
ttp://www
-
958.ibm.com/software/data/cognos/manye
yes/visualizations/top
-
10
-
world
-
consumers
-
of
-
coal
-
in
-


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
-
2TyMqwftJE

Sources of Conflict

-

The Danger of Coal Mining
:

O
Miners often lack data on the current underground conditions.
This would include the levels of methane and carbon
monoxide, as well as the location of other miners.

O
Miners in low light often injure themselves by walking into
unseen hazards or patches of weak rock.

O
Coal mining naturally causes the production of combustible
materials such as coal dust and methane. Operators often fail
to pick up the loose coal and flush out the trapped gas.

O
Coal’s Effect on the Environment
:

O
Burning coal emits dangerous gases such as carbon dioxide,
arsenic, ash, and
sulpheric

acids.

O
When producing heat, burning coal produces twice the
amount of carbon dioxide when compared to natural gas. The
emissions from burning fossil fuels, such as coal, now
accounts for 65% of the extra carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere.

Sources of Conflict Cont.

O
The burning of coal by large
-
scale factories to produce
power, has led to problems with acid rain.

O
The retrieval of coal scars the landscape, while the
large, noisy equipment may affect the wildlife in the
area.

O
The transportation of coal can cause problems, as it
takes an extensive transportation system to move the
coal. The vehicles required to move the coal also add to
the pollution factor, due to the emissions from the
trucks.

O
Mining for coal can cause serious health difficulties that
are related to the excessive amounts coal dusts in the
lungs of miners. This has been known to cause lung
scarring, lung cancer, and
pneuconiosis
, or “ black lung
disease”.

O
Coal mining also carries the great risk of underground
coal fires.


Impact on U.S.

O
The U.S. has the world’s largest coal
reserve.

O
90% of U.S. mined coal is used for
electricity.

O
Modern technologies have decreased the
mining workforce from 335,000 to 104,824
in the past 50 years.

O
More than 100,000 miners have been killed
over the past century due to accidents.



Solutions

O
Better Equipment


New wireless systems can track where miners go
in the mine while testing toxic gas levels.


New lamps on helmets with 12
-
volt LED light
surrounded by a circle of lower beam lights gives
miners better depth and a wider range of light.


Ventstop

system can redirect airflow and blocks
openings to control fumes, smoke and
atmosphere.

O
Environmental


New technologies have found ways to capture
methane gas from coal mines and use it to
produce energy.


This makes coal mines safer for the miners by
removing methane fumes.


Resources

O
http://
www
-
958.ibm.com/software/data/cognos/manyeyes/visualizations/top
-
10
-
world
-
consumers
-
of
-
coal
-
in


O
http://
www.netl.doe.gov/KeyIssues/historyofcoaluse.html

O
http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/energy/coal
-
oil
-
gas/3
-
coal
-
mining
-
safety
-
problems
-
and
-
how
-
to
-
fix
-
them

O
http://fossil
-
fuel.co.uk/coal/the
-
disadvantages
-
of
-
coal

O
http://www.teachcoal.org/aboutcoal/articles/faqs.html

O
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal

O
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_g4jfQ9COILQ/R0maKli2HmI/AAAAAAAACuw/x0hpKGnL5LA/s
400/underground%2Bcoal%2Bfire.jpg

O
http://www.lungcancerfact.com/lung
-
cancer
-
causes/coal
-
dust/

O
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://thisisprobablyaninterestingblog.files.word
press.com/2009/06/gatesofhellturkmenistan.jpg%3Fw%3D470%26h%3D313&imgrefur
l=http://thisisprobablyaninterestingblog.com/2009/06/&usg=__ATPXMPfdNePOjy6CoD
7CMWqMUvI=&h=313&w=470&sz=25&hl=en&start=13&zoom=0&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid
=frVmA2zAIohX_M:&tbnh=86&tbnw=129&prev=/images%3Fq%3DUnderground%2Bcoal
%2Bfires%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dstrict%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dcom.micr
osoft:en
-
us%26tbm%3Disch&ei=60abTZPMLYnItAb5kKWABg


Resources Cont.

O
http://
www.robsright.com/2009/12/

O
http
://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal_mining_in_the_United_S
tates

O
http://
www.carrollengineeringco.com/products/monitoring.
php


O
http://
www.adb.org/documents/feature
-
stories/2010/prc
-
methane
-
pollution
-
solution.asp