Experiences with and Opportunities for Process
Institute for Software Research
University of California, Irvine
Irvine, CA 92697
© Copyright 2001, Walt Scacchi
Experiences over the past 15 years with process
centered ontologies that serve as process
models [Mi and Scacchi 1996].
Opportunities for Reinvention
based studies of process for developing organizational computing systems
[Bendifallah and Scacchi 1987, Kling and Scacchi 1982, Jazzar and Scacchi 1995,
Understanding and modeling observ
able roles, conditions, work processes, and
interstitial resources that animated the Soul of the New Machine (Kidder 1981).
ISHYS [Garg and Scacchi 1987, 1989]
Modeling and enactment support for routine and meta
tasks in software
i and Scacchi 1990, 1992, 1993; Mi, Lee, and Scacchi 1993]
based modeling, analysis, and simulation of software development
driven environments for software development processes integrated via
d process asset libraries.for software development
SMART [Garg, Mi,
Integrating and interoperating independently constructed software development
environments and tools via process ontology
automated generation of process
environments [Garg and Jazayeri 1996].
Articulator process meta
Comprehensive support for software development life cycle in industrial settings
[Mi and Scacchi 1996]
Comprehensive support for process life cycle engineering and integra
supporting tools [Scacchi and Mi 1997].
Reuse and reapplication across multiple domains: large
engineering, telecommunications system development, feature film production,
military procurement, interactive teleradiology, acquisition
of scientific research
services, business process redesign, and electronic commerce.
Ported reimplementation of meta
model using the Loom knowledge
representation scheme and description logic.
directed intranets and Navigational enactment of Web
PEOS as a
centered ontology for representing organizational processes
Developed to account for empirical data (grounded, not speculative domain
model representation integrates both declarative and
based) knowledge representation taxonomies
Relations as first
class objects are key to the representation scheme; hence, the
model is not a traditional object
oriented modeling scheme.
model serves as a computationa
l theory that can derive, infer, or predict
new outcomes that are not already present in the represented scheme.
Evolutionary development lead to ongoing expansion and condensation of
Make it self
Make it e
xtensible and domain
Make it easy to make it domain
Keep it thin
model can be engineered across a process meta
model life cycle, since
all engineering activities that apply to process models [Scacchi and Mi 1997],
g process reengineering [Scacchi and Noll 1997], can also be applied to
Opportunities for Reinvention
Much attention at present focuses attention to the development of ontologies that are
compatible with Java/C++ based tools or applic
ations, RDF and XML based schemes for
codifying a transporting (semi
)structured information representations, and interchange of
knowledge representation (or process specification) schemata in Web friendly markup
Process asset libr
based intranets/extranets that can be tailored to specific
centered software development environments that operate across
Web studies that focus on developing empirically groun
ded models, narrative
ethnographies, and navigational webs for analyzing organizational processes and
work practices that situate complex information systems [Orlikowski and Iacono
S. Bendifallah and W. Scacchi, Understanding Software
, IEEE Trans.
, 13(3), 311
323, March 1987.
J.S.C. Choi and W. Scacchi, Modeling and Simulating Software Acquisition Process
Journal of Systems and Software
, (to appear), 2001.
L. Eliot and W. Scacchi, D
eveloping a Knowledge
Based System Factory: Issues and
, 1(4), 51
58, Winter, 1986.
P.K. Garg and M. Jazayeri (eds.),
Centered Software Engineering Environments
IEEE Computer Society Press, 1996.
P.K. Garg, P. Mi, T. Pham, W
. Scacchi, and G. Thunquest, The SMART Approach to
Software Process Engineering,
Proc. 16th. Intern. Conf. Software Engineering
Computer Society, Sorrento, Italy, 341
350, May 1994.
P.K. Garg and W. Scacchi, On Designing Intelligent Hypertext System
s for Information
Management in Software Engineering, Proc. Hypertext '87, Chapel Hill, NC, ACM Press,
369, November 1987.
P.K. Garg and W. Scacchi, The Design and Implementation of Intelligent Software
, 4(3), 52
The Soul of a New Machine
Little, Brown, Boston, MA, 1981.
R. Kling and W. Scacchi, The Web of Computing: Computer technology as social
organization. In M. Yovits (ed.),
Advances in Computers
, Vol. 21, 3
90. Academic Press,
ew York, 1982.
P. Mi, M.J. Lee and W. Scacchi, A Knowledge
based Software Process Library for
Driven Software Development,
Proc.7th. Annual Knowledge
, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, 122
P. Mi and W. Scacchi, A Knowledge
based Environment for Modeling and Simulating
Software Engineering Processes.
IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Engineering
294, Sept 1990.
P. Mi and W. Scacchi, Process Integration in CASE Environments,
53, March 1992.
P. Mi and W. Scacchi, Articulation: An Integrative Approach to Diagnosis, Replanning,
Proc. 8th. Annual Knowledge
Based Software Engineering
Chicago, IL, IEEE Computer Society, 77
P. Mi and W. Scacchi, A Meta
Model for Formulating Knowledge
Based Models of
Decision Support Systems
, 17(3), 313
J. Noll and W. Scacchi, Specifying Process
Oriented Hypertext for Organizational
J. Network and Computer Applications
, 24(1), 39
W. Orlikowski and C.S. Iacono, Research Commentary
Desperately Seeking the "IT" in
IT Research: A Call to Theorizing the IT Artifact,
Information Systems Research
Understanding Software Productivity: Towards a Knowledge
Approach, in D. Hurley (ed.),
Advances in Software Engineering and Knowledge
, Volume 4, (1995).
W. Scacchi, Modeling, Simulating, and Enacting Complex Organizational Processes: A
ife Cycle Approach, in M. Prietula, K. Carley, and L. Gasser (eds.),
Organizations: Computational Models of Institutions and Groups
, AAAI Press/MIT
Press, Menlo Park, CA, 153
W. Scacchi, Experience with Software Process Simulation an
J. Systems and
, 46, 183
W. Scacchi and P. Mi, Process Life Cycle Engineering: A Knowledge
Intern. J. Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance, and
, 6(1), 83
i and J. Noll, Process
Driven Intranets: Life Cycle Support for Process
IEEE Internet Computing
, 1(5), 42
A. Valente, T. Russ, R. MacGregor, W. Swartout, Building and (re)using an ontology of
air campaign planning,
, 14(1), 27
A. Valente and W. Scacchi, Developing a Knowledge Web for Business Process
1999 Knowledge Acquisition Workshop
, Banff, Canada, October 1999.