Intelligent Support Systems

scarfpocketAI and Robotics

Oct 24, 2013 (4 years and 14 days ago)

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Intelligent Support Systems

Copied from:

www.wiley.com/college/turban2e

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Intelligent Systems and Artificial
Intelligence


Artificial intelligence and intelligent
behavior


Comparing artificial and natural intelligence


Conventional versus AI computing


Commercial artificial intelligence field


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Artificial Intelligence and
Intelligent Behavior


Artificial intelligence (AI) is concerned
with two basic ideas. First, it involves
studying the thought processes of humans;
second, it deals with representing those
processes via machines (computer, robots,
etc.).

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Objectives of AI


To make machines smarter


Understand what intelligence is


To make machines more useful

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Intelligent Behavior


Learning or understanding from experience


Making sense of ambiguous or
contradictory messages


Responding quickly and successfully to new
situations


Using reason to solve problems and direct
actions effectively

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Intelligent Behavior


Dealing with complex situations


Applying knowledge to manipulate the
environment


Recognizing the relative importance of
different elements in a situation

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Artificial and Natural Intelligence

AI Advantages over Natural Intelligence


AI is more permanent


AI offers ease of duplication and
dissemination


AI can be less expensive


AI is consistent and thorough


AI can be documented


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Artificial and Natural Intelligence


Natural Intelligence Advantages over AI


Natural intelligence is creative


Natural intelligence enables people to
benefit from and directly use sensory
experiences


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Artificial and Natural Intelligence


Natural Intelligence Advantages over AI


Natural intelligence enables people to
recognize relationships between things,
sense qualities, and spot patterns that
explain how various items interrelate


Human reasoning is always able to make
use of a context of experiences

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Commercial AI Field


Expert systems (ES)


Natural language


Robotics and sensory systems


Computer vision and scene recognition


Intelligent computer
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aided instruction
(ICAI)


Machine learning


Handwriting recognizers

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Expert System (ES)


An ES is decision
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making software that can
reach a level of performance comparable to
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or even exceeding that of
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a human expert
in some specialized problem area.

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Benefits of ES


Increased output and productivity


Increase quality


Capture of scarce expertise and its
dissemination


Operation in hazardous environments


Accessibility to knowledge

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Benefits of an ES


Reliability


Increased capabilities of other computerized
systems


Ability to work with incomplete or
uncertain information


Provision of training

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Benefits of ES


Enhancement of problem solving
capabilities


Decreased decision making time

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Other Intelligent Systems


Natural language processing (NLP) and
voice technology


Neural computing


Fuzzy logic


Intelligent agents

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Natural Language Processing and
Voice Technology


Applications of natural language processing
(NLP)


Speech (voice) recognition and
understanding


Advantages of speech recognition


Voice synthesis

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Advantages of Speech
Recognition


Ease of access


Speed


Manual freedom


Remote access


Accuracy

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Benefits and Applications of
Neural Computing


Potential to provide some of the human
characteristics of problem solving


Recognition of patterns and characteristics


Fault
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tolerance


Generalization


Adaptability

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Artificial Neural Networks
(ANN)
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Business Applications


Tax fraud


Financial services


Loan applications evaluation


Solvency prediction


New product analysis


Airline fare management


Prediction

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Artificial Neural Networks
(ANN)
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Business Applications


Evaluation of personnel and job candidates


Resource allocation


Data mining


Foreign exchange rate


Stock, bond, and commodities selection and
trading


Signature validation

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Fuzzy Logic


Fuzzy logic is a technique, developed by
Zadeh, that deals with uncertainties by
simulating the process of human reasoning,
allowing the computer to behave less
precisely and logically than conventional
computers do.

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Intelligent Agent (IA)


Intelligent agents are software entities that
carry out some set of operations on behalf
of a user or another program, with some
degree of independence and in so doing,
employ some knowledge or representation
of the user’s goals.

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Major Tasks Performed by IA


Information access and navigation


Decision support and empowerment


Repetitive office activity


Mundane personal activity


Search and retrieval


Domain experts

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Applications of IA


User interface


Operating systems agents


Spreadsheet agents


Workflow and administrative management
agents


Software development


Negotiation in electronic commerce

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Emerging Technology:

Virtual Reality (VR)


How does it work


VR and the internet/intranets


VR and decision making


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How Does VR Work

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Managerial Issues


Cost
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benefit and justification


Heightened expectations


Acquiring knowledge


System acceptance


System integration

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Copyright


1999 John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. All rights
reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act
without the express written permission of the copyright owner in
unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to
the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Son, Inc. Adopters of
the textbook are granted permission to make back
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up copies for
his/her own use only, to make copies for distribution to student of
the course the textbook is used in, and to modify this material to
best suit their instructional needs. Under no circumstances can
copies be made for resale. The publisher assumes no
responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use
of these programs or from the use of the information contained
herein.