CS.462 Artificial Intelligence

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Oct 24, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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CS.462

Artificial Intelligence

SOMCHAI THANGSATHITYANGKUL


Lecture 01 : What is AI

Artificial Intelligence

Chapter 1

2

Class Attendance 10 %

Quiz 10 %

Midterm 20 %

Project 20 %

Final 40 %

Text Book: “Artificial Intelligence: A Modern

Approach,” (2nd or 3rd Edition) Stuart Russell

and Peter Norvig, Prentice Hall, 2003

Course Structure


What is Artificial Intelligence?





Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial Intelligence


Computer Encyclopedia


(Artificial Intelligence) Devices and
applications that exhibit human intelligence
and behavior
including robots, expert
systems, voice recognition, natural and
foreign language processing.

It also implies the ability to
learn and adapt
through experience.

Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial Intelligence

Wikipedia

The term Artificial Intelligence (AI) was
first used by John McCarthy who
considers it to mean "the science and
engineering of making intelligent
machines".[1]


It can also refer to intelligence as
exhibited by an artificial (man
-
made,
non
-
natural, manufactured) entity.

Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial Intelligence

Wikipedia

AI is studied in overlapping fields of
computer science, psychology,
neuroscience and engineering
,
dealing with
intelligent behavior,
learning and adaptation

and usually
developed using customized
machines or computers.

Artificial Intelligence

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TURING TEST

Alan Mathison Turing

Columbia Encyclopedia


Artificial Intelligence

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TURING TEST

Columbia Encyclopedia



Columbia Encyclopedia


Turing test, a procedure to test whether
a
computer

is capable of humanlike
thought. As proposed (1950) by the
British mathematician Alan
Turing
, a
person (the
interrogator
) sits with a
teletype machine isolated from two
correspondents

one is another person,
one is a computer.

Artificial Intelligence

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Criteria for success


How will we know if we have succeeded?




Turing test.

Human
Computer

Person asking
?



DENDRAL : is a program that analyzes organic
compounds to determine their structure.



HUMAN CHEMIST
COMPUTER


Artificial Intelligence

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History

of Artificial Intelligence

1950

Alan Turing introduces the
Turing test

intended to test a machine's capability to
participate in human
-
like conversation.

1951

The first working AI programs were written to run on the Ferranti Mark I machine
of the University of Manchester: a
checkers
-
playing program

written by
Christopher Strachey and a chess
-
playing program written by Dietrich Prinz.

1956

John McCarthy coined the
term "artificial intelligence"

as the topic of the
Dartmouth Conference.

1958

John McCarthy invented the
Lisp programming language.

1965

Joseph Weizenbaum built

ELIZA
, an interactive program that carries on a dialogue
in English language on any topic.

1965

Edward Feigenbaum initiated
DENDRAL
, a 10
-
yr effort to develop software to
deduce the molecular structure of organic compounds using scientific instrument
data. It was the first expert system.

Artificial Intelligence

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1966

Machine Intelligence

workshop at Edinburgh
-

the first of an influential annual series
organized by Donald Michie and others.

1968

HAL 9000 made its appearance in the
science fiction

movie 2001: A Space Odyssey.

1972

The
Prolog programming language

was developed by Alain Colmerauer.

1973

Edinburgh Freddy Assembly Robot: a versatile computer
-
controlled assembly system.

1974

Ted Shortliffe's PhD dissertation on the MYCIN program (Stanford) demonstrated a very
practical rule
-
based approach to medical diagnoses, even in the presence of
uncertainty.

While it borrowed from DENDRAL, its own contributions strongly influenced the future of
expert system development, especially commercial systems.

1997

The Deep Blue chess program (IBM) beats the
world chess champion
, Garry Kasparov.

1999

Sony introduces the AIBO
, an artificially intelligent pet.

2004

DARPA introduces the
DARPA Grand Challenge

requiring competitors to produce
autonomous vehicles for prize money.

History of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial Intelligence

Typical problems to which AI methods are applied

Pattern recognition

Computer vision, Virtual reality and Image processing

Optical character recognition

Diagnosis (artificial intelligence)

Handwriting recognition

Game theory and Strategic planning

Speech recognition

Game artificial intelligence and Computer game bot

Face recognition

Natural language processing, Translation and Chatterbots

Artificial Creativity

Non
-
linear control and Robotics

Artificial Intelligence

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AI Areas


Artificial Intelligence (AI) :


the branch o f computer science that is concerned with the
automation of intelligent behavior.



AI Areas :



Game Playing



Automated Reasoning and Theorem Proving



Expert Systems



Natural Language Understanding and Semantics Modeling



Modeling Human Performance



Planning and Robotics



Machine Leaning



Neural Networks


Artificial Intelligence

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Robotics


Shakey the Robot

Developed in 1969 by the
Stanford Research
Institute, Shakey was the
first fully mobile robot with
artificial intelligence. Seven
feet tall, Shakey was
named after its rather
unstable movements.
(Image courtesy of The
Computer History Museum,
www.computerhistory.org)

Artificial Intelligence

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Robotics


A legged game
from RoboCup
2004 in Lisbon,
Portugal


Team ENSCO's entry in
the first Grand
Challenge, DAVID


Artificial Intelligence

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Robotics


The
DARPA Grand Challenge

is
a race for a $2 million prize
where cars drive themselves
across several hundred miles of
challenging desert terrain
without any communication
with humans, using
GPS
,
computers and a sophisticated
array of sensors. In 2005 the
winning vehicles completed all
132 miles of the course in just
under 7 hours.

Artificial Intelligence

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Robotics


Huey, Dewey and Louie


Named after Donald
Duck's famous nephews,
robots at this Wayne,
Michigan plant apply
sealant to prevent possible
water leakage into the car.
Huey (top) seals the drip
rails while Dewey (right)
seals the interior weld
seams. Louie is outside of
the view of this picture.
(Image courtesy of Ford
Motor Company.)

Artificial Intelligence

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Robotics


ASIMO
,



a
humanoid

robot
manufactured by
Honda
.

Artificial Intelligence

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Computer Vision


Vision based biological
species identification
systems

Artificial Intelligence

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Computer Vision


Artist's Concept of
Rover on Mars,



an example of an
unmanned land
-
based vehicle.
Notice the
stereo
cameras

mounted
on top of the
Rover. (credit:
Maas Digital LLC)

Artificial Intelligence

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Captcha


C
ompletely
A
utomated
P
ublic
T
uring
Test to tell
C
omputers and
H
umans
A
part

= Captcha


A
CAPTCHA is a program that can
generate and grade tests that most
humans can pass, but current computer
programs can't pass.


Developed by Carnegie Mellon School of
Computer Science

Artificial Intelligence

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Captcha

Artificial Intelligence

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Captcha

Artificial Intelligence

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Captcha

Artificial Intelligence

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Captcha

Artificial Intelligence

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Machine Learning


Wikipedia


machine learning

is concerned with the
development of
algorithms

and
techniques that allow computers to
"learn".



At a general level, there are two types of
learning:
inductive
, and
deductive
.
Inductive machine learning

methods
extract rules and patterns out of massive
data sets.

Artificial Intelligence

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Expert System


Expertise consists of knowledge about a
particular domain, understanding of domain
problems, and skill at solving some of these
problems.


Knowledge in any specialty is of two types,
public and private.


Public knowledge

includes the published
definitions, facts, and theories which are
contained in textbooks and references in
the domain of study. But expertise usually
requires more than just public knowledge.

Artificial Intelligence

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Natural Language Processing


Wikipedia


Natural language processing (NLP)

is a
subfield of
artificial intelligence

and
linguistics
.
It studies the problems of automated
generation and understanding of
natural human
languages
.


Natural language generation systems convert
information from computer databases into
normal
-
sounding human language, and natural language
understanding systems

convert samples of human
language into more formal representations that are
easier for computer programs to manipulate
.

Artificial Intelligence

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Natural Language Processing


have the same surface grammatical structure.
However, in one of them the word
they

refers
to the monkeys, in the other it refers to the
bananas:


the sentence cannot be understood properly
without knowledge of the properties and
behaviour of monkeys


We gave the monkeys the bananas because
they were hungry

and
We gave the monkeys
the bananas because they were over
-
ripe.


Artificial Intelligence

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Heuristic


Computer Encyclopedia


heuristic


A method of problem solving using
exploration and trial and error methods.
Heuristic program design provides a
framework for solving the problem in
contrast with a fixed set of rules
(algorithmic) that cannot vary.

Artificial Intelligence

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tic tac toe

Artificial Intelligence

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Tic Tac Toe