Your New Desktop: Web 2.0 - אוניברסיטת בר אילן

saucecopywriterInternet and Web Development

Feb 2, 2013 (4 years and 9 months ago)

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A. Frank

What’s on the way to Web
3.0
?


?Web
3.0
ל ךרדב המ
-


קנרפ לאירא

בשחמה יעדמל הקלחמ

רב תטיסרבינוא
-
ןליא

ariel@cs.biu.ac.il

2

A. Frank

Contents


Web
1.0
& Web
2.0
highlights


Tim O'Reilly’s
7
principles of Web
2.0


Viewpoints on the next Web?


What is Web
3.0
?


Web
3.0
applications


Web
3.0
platforms


3

A. Frank

Web
1.0


Interactive Web of Hypertext structure.


Passive use/access (read, browse, search).


First generation of the commercial Internet, dominated by
content that was only marginally interactive.



Usually big teams that slowly and expensively labored to
produce overly complex Web applications whose usability was
low on behalf of clients with at best vague goals.


Intermingled data, presentation, and logic on monolithic, static
Web Pages (HTML).


On the back end, most often powered by technologies such as
CGI, Perl, ASP/JSP.


On the front end, mainly built with Web standards: HTML for
data and markup, Tables and CSS for layout, JavaScript for
behavior.

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A. Frank

Web
2.0


Improved, richer Web application and user interaction.


Software
-
as
-
a
-
Service (SaaS) business models.


Usually small, leaner, self
-
directed teams of sharp people that
quickly build sleeker Web applications that work better.


Separate Application Logic from pages (Web Services API)


On the back end, most often powered by open source
technologies like PHP or (especially) Ruby on Rails.


On the front end, mainly built with Web standards: XML for
data, XHTML for markup, CSS for layout, JavaScript and
DOM for behavior, and AJAX for interactivity.


Does not explicitly expose data models.

5

A. Frank

“Web
2.0
” Tags Cloud

, Open Gardens blog,

Ajit

Jaokar

_w.html
20
/mobile_web_
12
/
2005
http://opengardensblog.futuretext.com/archives/

6

A. Frank

Web
2.0
Key Phrases & Rational


User created/contributed contents


Contents publishing/sharing


Rich User Interface (GUI/MUI)


Online/Social collaboration (Community)


Interactivity/Interaction


Wisdom of the crowds


Harness collective intelligence


Monetization/Leveraging of the “long tail”


7

A. Frank

Web
2.0
Techniques/Tools


Blogs


Wikis


Podcasts/Vlogs (A/V Blogs)


Syndication feeds (RSS, Atom)


Tags (taxonomies called “Folksonomies”)


Mashups (AJAX)


Social Networks/Software


Web Services (API)


8

A. Frank

Example Web
2.0
Map Mashup

9

A. Frank

Example Web
2.0
Satellite Mashup

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A. Frank

Contents


Web
1.0
& Web
2.0
highlights


Tim O'Reilly’s
7
principles of Web
2.0


Viewpoints on the next Web?


What is Web
3.0
?


Web
3.0
applications


Web
3.0
platforms


11

A. Frank

Tim O'Reilly’s
7
principles of Web
2.0
(
1
)

, Open Gardens blog,
Ajit

Jaokar

/tim_o_reillys_s.html
04
/
2006
http://opengardensblog.futuretext.com/archives/

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A. Frank

Tim O'Reilly’s
7
Principles of Web
2.0
(
2
)

1.
The Intelligent Web


The idea of

“harnessing collective intelligence”



familiar principle of “wisdom of crowds”



the intelligence attributed to Web
2.0
arises from
us

as we
begin to communicate.

2.
The Web as a Platform



The only true infrastructure that unites us all together (any
place, any time, any platform, etc.)


mass participation.

3.
Data is the Next “Intel Inside”


Must have the capacity to process massive amounts of data



data is the Intelligence (Intel) inside.

4.
End of the Software Release Cycle


The concept of “Software as a Service” (SaaS)



perpetual “beta”


software as a “Product” can never keep

up
-
to
-
date with all the changing information and data sources.


13

A. Frank

Tim O'Reilly’s
7
Principles of Web
2.0
(
3
)

5.
Lightweight Programming Models


Use of lightweight programming models to reach more people
and sources of information so as to enable vast data collection
and more intelligent Web.

Example (Amazon): use REST (Representational State
Transfer), i.e., XML over HTTP, not SOAP (Simple Object
Access Protocol) in Web services stack.

6.
Software Above the Level of a Single Device




Many varied devices capture information with better flow of
information between these devices.

Example: PDA, Cellular, Mobile

7.
Rich User Experiences


Enable better Web applications leading to more Web usage
and better information flow on the Web.

Example: AJAX, Mashups, Web Services API

14

A. Frank

Web
2.0
Trends/Influences

hinchcliffe.org/ img/web
2
tree.jpg

15

A. Frank

Web
2.0
and Enterprise
2.0

Dion Hinchcliffe, Enterprise Web
2.0
,

71
http://blogs.zdnet.com/Hinchcliffe/?p=

16

A. Frank

Creating Business Value with Web
2.0

Dion Hinchcliffe, Enterprise Web
2.0
,

101
http://blogs.zdnet.com/Hinchcliffe/?p=

17

A. Frank

Learning Web
2.0
Trends in Business

Dion Hinchcliffe, Enterprise Web
2.0
,

103
http://blogs.zdnet.com/Hinchcliffe/?p=

18

A. Frank

Contents


Web
1.0
& Web
2.0
highlights


Tim O'Reilly’s
7
principles of Web
2.0


Viewpoints on the next Web?


What is Web
3.0
?


Web
3.0
applications


Web
3.0
platforms


19

A. Frank

The (X+
2
)C Model of Web X.
0

)
2003
-
1993
(
1.0
Web

C Model
3


Content

(canned

by owners)


Communication

(connection
1
-
way)



Commerce (cost)

?)
201
-
2004
(
2.0
Web

C Model
4


Content

(created/contributed

by users)


Communication

(connection
2
-
way,
interactivity)


Commerce (cash)


Community

(sharing, cooperation,
collaboration

)
-
?
201
(
3.0
Web

C Model
5



Content

(created/contributed

by users/agents)


Communication

(connection n
-
way,

3
D, virtual reality)


Commerce (cache)


Community

(intelligent team work)


Context

(personalization,

contextual
-
search)

Idea initially based on

Web
3.0
= (
4
C+P+VC)
Model suggested by

Sramana Mitra

20

A. Frank

Viewpoints on the next Web (John Markoff, John Borland)


A data/intelligent/semantic Web.


Online search more intelligent.


Efficient new ways to help computers organize and
draw conclusions from online data.


Give computers the ability


the seeming intelligence


to understand content on the Web.


Data
-
surfing computer servants that automatically
reason their way through problems.


Truly intelligent software agents automatically helping
people find better answers to questions.


Provide the foundation for systems that can reason in a
human fashion
-

Web guided by common sense.

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A. Frank

Holy Grail for the next Web


Say you'd had some lingering back pain: a program
might determine a specialist's availability, check an
insurance site's database for in
-
plan status, consult
your calendar, and schedule an appointment.


Another program might look up restaurant reviews,
check a map database, cross
-
reference open table times
with your calendar, and make a dinner reservation.


Give a reasonable and complete response to: “I’m
looking for a warm place to vacation and I have a
budget of $
3
,
000
. Oh, and I have a dog with me.”

22

A. Frank

The Semantic Web


Tim Berners
-
Lee originally expressed the vision of the
Semantic Web as follows:



I have a dream for the Web [in which computers]
become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web


the content, links, and transactions between people and
computers. A ‘Semantic Web’, which should make
this possible, has yet to emerge, but when it does, the
day
-
to
-
day mechanisms of trade, bureaucracy and our
daily lives will be handled by machines talking to
machines. The ‘intelligent agents’ people have touted
for ages will finally materialize.”


Berners
-
Lee, Tim & Fischetti, Mark,
Weaving the
Web
, Ch.
12
,


HarperSanFrancisco,
1999
.

23

A. Frank

Semantic Web Technologies


XML provides a surface syntax for structured documents, but
imposes no semantic constraints on the meaning of these
documents.


XML Schema is a language for restricting the structure and
content elements of XML documents.


RDF is a simple data model for referring to objects
("resources") and how they are related; An RDF
-
based model
can be represented in XML syntax.


RDF Schema is a vocabulary for describing properties and
classes of RDF resources, with a semantics for generalization
-
hierarchies of such properties and classes.


OWL adds more vocabulary for describing properties and
classes: relations between classes, cardinality, equality, richer
typing of properties, characteristics of properties, and
enumerated classes.


SPARQL is a protocol and query language for Semantic Web
data sources.

24

A. Frank

Initial use of these techniques

(John Borland)


Yahoo's food section organized to be more searchable.


Citigroup organizes and correlates information from
diverse financial
-
data feeds to help identify capital
-
market investment opportunities.


Used in Oracle's latest, most powerful database suite.


Production by Hewlett
-
Packard of open
-
source tools
for creating Semantic Web applications.


Construction of massive scientific databases,

on genetic/biotech papers, such as the Creative
Commons
-
affiliated Neurocommons.


25

A. Frank

Example of next Web unknowns


Are the “Data Web”, “Intelligent Web” and the
“Semantic Web” the same thing?


Will Human/AI constructed systems be the driving
force behind the next Web or whether intelligence will
emerge in a more organic fashion, from technologies
that systematically extract meaning from the existing
Web?


What will prevail from the various organizational
techniques, different kinds of data order, and variety of
ways to unearth data on the Web and reuse it in new
Web applications?

26

A. Frank

Contents


Web
1.0
& Web
2.0
highlights


Tim O'Reilly’s
7
principles of Web
2.0


Viewpoints on the next Web?


What is Web
3.0
?


Web
3.0
applications


Web
3.0
platforms


27

A. Frank

What is Web
3.0
?


Web
3.0

is a term coined to describe the
evolution of Web usage and interaction.


What will the Web
3.0
be/look like?


3
D Web?!


WebOS?!


The (transformed) Data Web?


The (artificially) Intelligent Web?


The (subset
)
Semantic Web?

28

A. Frank

3
D Web?!


Evolution towards the
3
dimensional vision
championed by the Web
3
D Consortium.


Open up new ways to connect, interact and
collaborate using
3
D shared spaces.


The Web will transform into a series of
3
D
virtual worlds, taking the concept realized by
Second Life further.


Overlay of Scalable Vectors Graphics (SVG).

29

A. Frank

WebOS?!


“The emergent Internet operating system" as an
open collection of Web services (Tim O'Reilly,
April
2002
).


Relevant Operating Systems technologies:


Distributed systems, utility/grid computing


Ubiquitous connectivity (broadband access, mobile
Internet access and mobile devices)


On
-
demand software services (SaaS)


Web Desktops (WebTops)


Examples: YouOS, Goowy, G.ho.st,
DesktopTwo

30

A. Frank

The (transformed) Data Web?


Transforming the Web into a database, or a Web of
distributed databases


World Wide Database (WWD).


The focus is principally on making structured data
available using reusable and remotely query
-
oriented
formats, such as XML, RDF and microformats.


The recent growth of SPARQL technology provides a
standardized query language and API for searching
across distributed RDF databases on the Web.


The Data Web enables a new level of data integration
and application interoperability, making data as openly
accessible and linkable as Web pages.


Standards: XML, RDF(S), OWL, SWRL, SPARQL

31

A. Frank

The (artificially) Intelligent Web?


Academic research is being conducted to develop
software for reasoning, based on description logic and
intelligent agents.


Such applications can perform logical reasoning
operations using sets of rules that express logical
relationships between concepts and data on the Web.


Relevant AI technologies:


Natural Language Processing (NLP)


Machine Learning/Reasoning


Data/Text Mining techniques


Autonomous/I
ntelligent software
agents

32

A. Frank

The (subset) Semantic Web
?


The next step on the path towards the full Semantic
Web.


Widen the scope such that both structured data and
even unstructured or semi
-
structured content (such as
Web pages, documents, etc.) will be widely available
in RDF and OWL semantic formats.


It can reason about itself in a quasi
-
human fashion.


Relevant Semantic Web technologies:


Knowledge Representation/Management


Metadata and Ontologies


Semantic application platforms


Statement
-
based data stores

33

A. Frank

Web
3.0
Technicalities


Separate Data (Data Models), Presentation
(HTML and XHTML) and Logic (Web
Services APIs)


Transitions Web containment from Web Pages
to Web Data.


Simplifies the development and deployment of
Data Model driven composite applications that
provide easy, transparent and organized access
to the world’s data, information, and
knowledge.

34

A. Frank

Contents


Web
1.0
& Web
2.0
highlights


Tim O'Reilly’s
7
principles of Web
2.0


Viewpoints on the next Web?


What is Web
3.0
?


Web
3.0
applications


Web
3.0
platforms


35

A. Frank

KnowItAll Opine (Univ. of Washington)


Designed to extract and aggregate user
-
posted
information from product and review sites and to
provide useful direct answers.


One demonstration project focusing on hotels
“understands” concepts like room temperature, bed
comfort and hotel price, can distinguish between
concepts like “great,” “almost great” and “mostly
O.K.”, and knows that “spotless” is better than
“clean”.


Weighs and ranks all of the user comments and finds,
by cognitive deduction, just the right hotel for a
particular user.

36

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Opine

37

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Joost


New Internet television startup formed by the creators
of Skype and Kazaa.


First online global TV distribution platform using
customizable peer
-
to
-
peer TV software.


Use of RDF and RDFS/OWL notations allows writing
software without worrying about widely varying
content
-
use restrictions or national regulations, all of
which is accommodated afterwards using RDF's
Semantic Web linkages.


Users have wide
-
ranging control over the service and
can program their own virtual TV networks by using
the powerful search and filtering capacity inherent in
the semantic ordering of data.

38

A. Frank

Joost Screenshots

39

A. Frank

Contents


Web
1.0
& Web
2.0
highlights


Tim O'Reilly’s
7
principles of Web
2.0


Viewpoints on the next Web?


What is Web
3.0
?


Web
3.0
applications


Web
3.0
platforms


40

A. Frank

Radar Networks


Full development platform for commercial Semantic Web
applications.


Exploits the content of social networking/computing sites.


Technology is based on a next
-
generation database system that
stores associations, such as one person’s relationship to another
(colleague, friend, brother), rather than specific items like text
or numbers.


Provides collaboration and information
-
sharing tools.


Tools will be based on familiar ideas such as sharing
bookmarks, notes, and documents, but ordering and linking this
data within the basic Semantic Web framework will help teams
analyze their work more efficiently.

41

A. Frank

Radar Networks

42

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Metaweb Technologies


Goal is to help build a better infrastructure for the Web
application developers and publishers.


Will enable to extract ordered knowledge out of the
information chaos that is the current Internet.


Focus on organizing and managing complex data
structures (uses Semantic Web Technologies?).


Free + Database = Freebase.com

Open shared database of the world’s knowledge that

collects data from all over the internet to build a
massive, collaboratively
-
edited database of cross
-
linked data.

43

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Metaweb Technologies

44

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Freebase.com

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SemantiNet


Develops a semantic framework solution that
allows for rapid deployment of Web mashups,
applications and services, in a way that will
enhance the way people use the internet.


The first step was aggregating the information


the next step is mashing it all together using
semantic technologies.


The idea is to bring the content to the user
rather than the user to the content.

46

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SemantiNet

47

A. Frank

Web
4.0
:
-
?)

48

A. Frank

References


Web
3.0
, In
Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
,
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Web_
3.0
&oldid=
123368293



Web
3.0
, Jeffrey Zeldman,
A List apart (Blog)
, January
16
,
2006
,

http://www.alistapart.com/articles/web
3
point
0


Entrepreneurs See a Web Guided by Common Sense
,
John Markoff ,
New
York Times,
November
12
,
2006
,

http://www.nytimes.com/
2006
/
11
/
12
/business/
12
web.html?ex=
1320987600
&
en=
254
d
697964
cedc
62
&ei=
5088


Parts I & II: A Smarter Web,

John Borland,
Technology Review
,

March
19
-
20
,
2007
,
http://www.technologyreview.com/Infotech/
18396
/


Ajit

Jaokar
,
Open Gardens

(Blog)
,

http://opengardensblog.futuretext.com/


Dion Hinchcliffe,
Enterprise Web
2.0

(Blog)
,
http://blogs.zdnet.com/Hinchcliffe
/


Web
3.0
= (
4
C+P+VC),

Sramana Mitra (Blog),

http://www.sramanamitra.com/blog/
572