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Dec 16, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Chapter 12

Sections 1, 2, and 16

By Alex Moore, Mercedes Elizalde,
and Caitlin Richter

12.1 Genes can be cloned in
recombinant plasmids


Biotechnology is the manipulation of organisms or their
components to make useful products


Recombinant DNA is when nucleotide sequences from
two different sources are combined to form one DNA
molecule


This is now widely used to mass produce useful
chemicals, from medications to pesticides


Plasmids, small DNA molecules that replicate separately
from the rest of the chromosome, can virtually carry any
gene


Plasmids can be used for gene cloning


Methods of gene cloning relate to genetic engineering

12.2 Enzymes are used to “cut and
paste” DNA


Recombinant DNA, DNA with genes from more than 1
source, is made by restriction enzyme and DNA ligase


Restriction enzymes cut DNA into restriction fragments


Restriction enzymes recognize specific DNA sequences,
called restriction sites


DNA ligase puts the fragments together


Once recombinant DNA is made, the DNA can be cloned
and the now plentiful important genes can be used


The cloned genes can be used to produce whatever they
are instructions for

Restriction enzyme
cuts the DNA into
fragments

Addition of a
DNA fragment
from another
source

Two or more fragments stick
together by base
-
pairing

DNA ligase
pastes the
strands together

12.16 RFLPs can be used to detect
differences in DNA sequences


The DNA sequence at a specific place on a chromosome may
exhibit small nucleotide differences or polymorphisms
(“many forms”).


Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are single base
-
pair
variations on the genome. They are found in at least one
percent of the population and may alter a restriction site.


Restriction fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs,
pronounced “Rif
-
Lips”) are alterations in the restriction site
that change the length or the restriction fragments created
by the restriction enzyme when it slices the DNA.


RFLPs help by being genetic markers for certain loci in the
genome.


Disease
-
causing alleles are diagnosed with high confidence if
a closely attached SNP or RFLP marker is found.


RF Analysis includes 2 methods, one is DNA fragments made
by restriction enzymes are sorted by gel electrophoresis.

Gel Electrophoresis

Questions

1)

What can plasmids be used for?


a) Gene cloning, making many identical copies of DNA with a certain gene


b) Brushing your teeth


c) Carrying a single gene


d) Nothing to do with genes

2)

What is recombinant DNA?


a) DNA with multiple genes


b) DNA with few genes


c) DNA with genes from two or more different sources


d) DNA that was separated then combined again

3)
How is recombinant DNA made?


a) Restriction enzymes cut DNA into fragments, DNA ligase puts them together


b) DNA is split


c) DNA is folded


d) All DNA is recombinant DNA

4)
What are SNPs?


a)

Snips of DNA, DNA fragments


b)

Single nucleotide polymorphisms, single base
-
pair variations in the genome


c)

Saturated Nephron Pons


d)

Snaps

5)
What are RFLPs?


a)

Rift Lips, lips with rifts in them


b)

Restriction enzymes


c)

A series of genetic mutations


d)

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms, alterations in the restriction site

1)A

2)C

3)A

4)B

5)D

Click mouse for answers

Works Cited

Campbell, Neil, Jane Reece, Martha Taylor, Eric Simon, and Jean Dickey.
Biology
Concepts and Connections
. 6
th

ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings,
2009. Print.


“DNA Cloning.”
Web Books
. Web Books, Web. 25 Jan. 2012.


“Reading a DNA sequencing agarose gel.”
Science Photo Library
. Web. 25 Jan. 2012.