B3_Revision_Posters.pptx

sandwichtumtumBiotechnology

Dec 16, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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B3 Revision Posters

B3a


Molecules of Life

Controls movement in & out of cell

Chemical reactions take place here


e.g. enzymes

Site of
respiration
(provides
energy)

Site of Protein
Synthesis

DNA Fingerprinting

Comparing samples of DNA to help
identify samples

B3b
-

Diffusion


The movement of a substance from a region of high
concentration to a region of low concentration


FOR EXAMPLE:


Leaves:


Lungs:


Placenta:


Intestines:


To INCREASE the rate of
diffusion


have a LARGE
surface area and GOOD
blood supply


B3c
-

Keep it Moving

Plasma


yellow
-
ish fluid,
carries glucose and CO
2

Red Blood Cells


carry the
oxygen

White Blood Cells


fight off
infection

Platelets


clot the blood

The Heart

4 chambers


ventricles
-

atrium

Too much saturated fat and cholesterol


fatty
deposits in blood vessels


coronary heart disease

B3d


Divide & Rule


MITOSIS

A diploid cell produces two diploid cells

For
growth, repair and replacement


MEIOSIS

A diploid cell produces four haploid cells

To make gametes (egg and sperm)


FERTILISATION

When sperm joins with egg

B3e


Growing up

Growth involves (a) Cell Division


by
MITOSIS
(producing identical cells)

and (b)
Cell

Differentiation.

Cell differentiation involves producing
different
types

of cells from
undifferentiated cells called STEM CELLS

A
gestation period

is the time spend
developing in the
womb in most
animals.

B3f


Controlling plant growth

Plant hormones

(also known as PLANT
GROWTH REGULATORS or
AUXINS
) are
chemicals that control

growth of ROOTS and SHOOTS

Roots are
negatively phototropic
, away
from light


Roots are
positively
geototropic
,
towards gravity

Leaves are
positively phototropic,
towards light


Leaves are
negatively
geotrophic
,
away
from gravity

AUXINS are
hormones
which collect
on the dark
side of a
shoot
causing the
cells to
lengthen

B3g


New genes for old

The order of
triplets in a gene
determines the
sequence

of amino acids.

The
amino
acids join
together
to form a
protein
molecule
.

If genes produce incorrect proteins, cells may not function
properly. This is the cause of many inherited diseases.

1


select the characteristic you want to
improve


larger eggs

2


cross breed the best hen with the best
cockerel

3

select the offspring which produce the
largest eggs and mate that with your best
cockerel

4. and repeat this over several generations

Is when scientists transfer one gene from
one living organism to another.

GENETIC ENGINEERING

B3h


More of the same

ADVANTAGES OF CLONING

Why clone animals?

Animals or plants with special qualities
could be mass produced to help in the
manufacture of important drugs.

DISADVANTAGES OF
CLONING


About 98% of cloning efforts fail.


Usually a cloned embryo dies before birth
but sometimes afterwards too.

Stem cells have the
ability to differentiate
into different sorts of
cells


muscle, liver,
bone, etc

Cells lose this
ability as the
human gets older