Accessible digital textbooks in

sandwichclippersMobile - Wireless

Nov 24, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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Accessible digital textbooks in
the mobile learning environment

Stephen R. Acker
-

OhioLINK
/Ohio Board of
Regents

Ken Petri
-

The Ohio State University


Presented to the

2011 Accessing Higher Ground Conference

Denver, Colorado November 16, 2011

Context and content


Three learning megatrends


Explosion of smart phones and mobile computing


Ascendance of digital books and
eTexts


Growth of mobile learning in higher education


Making mobile learning accessible


Design issues


User issues


Beyond accessible PDF



Apple (not) computer

Amazon (not) books


105 eBooks for every 100 print books sold by
Amazon in April 2011 (both paperback and hard
cover).


The comparison excludes free eBooks (which would
increase ratio).


6% of
all
books sold in 2010 were digital; 14% of
general nonfiction and fiction were digital.




New York Times (May 19, 2011)

Education (not) static


Mobile Learning and eBooks one year from
major impact (
2011 Horizon Report
)


(Gradual) rise of the digital
t
extbook


2011: Digital textbooks are
2.5% of $5.5 Billion annual
market in new textbook
sales


P
rojected
to be 19% by 2014


On average 53% cheaper than paper


South Korea investing $2 Billion to move to digital
textbooks


Equivalent for America?: < $50 Billion


Proposed legislation part of K12 public schools bill in
Florida mandates all
textbooks digital
by
2015







-

onlineeducation.net (October 2011)

Our E
-
Book Study

Collaborators


OhioLINK
, Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus
State Community College, The Ohio State
University, Wright State University, Ohio
Rehabilitation Services Commission


McGraw
-
Hill, Inkling, Flat World Knowledge,
Stitz

&
Zeager
, AMAC

Technologies


R
eaders: Kindle,
iBooks
,
Blio
, Read2Go,
ReadHear
,
Adobe Digital Editions,
VitalSource
, Inkling, Nook
Study


Formats
: DAISY (+
MathML
),
ePub
, PDF, XPS,
Amazon
MOBI, proprietary


Platforms:
iPad

2, Netbooks (Lenovo x120e),
Android Tablet,
Kindle 3,
iPhone, Android Phone,
Nook Color


iPad

and Netbook loaded with other AT and study
and productivity oriented software


Research
q
uestions


Are access and learning opportunities
substantially equivalent for equal effort for
students with print disabilities in all
eReader
/digital format pairings?


What technology, policy, and purchasing
strategies are likely to achieve equivalent
access
and
support innovation in educational
practices?

User experience
d
ata
c
ollection


Students are paid volunteers


3 LD (ADHD, degrees of dyslexia), 1 blind


A

major limitation: no students with motor disabilities


Students are oriented to hardware and software


Student keep journals describing 40 hours mobile platform
use


Each student uses 2 platforms for 20 hours each


Students write a 2
-

to 3
-
page Research Process Paper


Facebook Community serves for data collection and sharing


Usability
specialist collects and analyzes journals and paper
and conducts pre, mid, and post interviews




Facebook

sharing/data collection

Orienting participants

Soft/Hardware: PC Netbook


E
-
book readers: Adobe Digital Editions (1.8
preview),
Blio
, Kindle for PC with Accessibility
Plugin,
NookStudy
,
gh

ReadHear
,
VitalSource

Bookshelf


AT and study tools: Firefox with
Diigo

add
-
on,
Balabolka
, R & W Gold, JAWS and NVDA,
XMind
, MS Suite,
Evernote

Soft/Hardware: Kindle 3


Has
TTS
with restrictions (set by publisher)
and limitations (of the device)


Reads menus and book text


Soft/Hardware:
iPad

2


E
-
book
readers:
Blio
, Google Books,
iBooks
,
Inkling, Kindle, Read2Go,
VitalSource

BookShelf


AT and Study Tools: Dictionary,
Wikipanion
,
Flashcardlet
,
iThoughtsHD
, Elements,
Reminders,
AudioNote
,
Evernote
, Dragon
Dictation,
WritePad
,
Dropbox
,
GoodReader

and a ton of “social” and “news” apps,
including OSU Mobile


Soft/Hardware:
S
hould’a

had


Probably
should have had
CourseSmart

Accessible Web Reader on PC and
iPad


CourseSmart

is involved with
AccessText

and
AMAC through STEPP (
STudent

E
-
rent Pilot
Project) in making books readily accessible
through the
CourseSmart

platform


What we’re discovering


Disabilities play a role in the perception of the
technology and shape student preferences

What we’re discovering


Students
wondering
if problem is theirs or
app’s (“it may be just me…”


very
common
question in
usability testing, but perhaps more
important with
PwD
)


Online help not very
useful (or rarely
referenced).
Usually just
Googled

it. Used
Orientation guide infrequently. Desire

What we’re discovering


Want text to be highlighted as it is
read


Not a surprise to DS folks, but our usability
specialist noted that “split attention” often
interrupts reception


(Some) want
user highlighting with colors,
bookmarking, noting
-
taking


Want syncing across
platform (progress, notes,
etc.) and between devices (iTunes)


What we’re discovering


Kindle not very
useful


For a blind participant: “Close to useless”


Keyboard and note
-
taking hobble device


Positive?: Portability


But
size not a huge factor. Outweighed by
utility.

What we’re discovering


iPad

is a device that “integrates with my life”


Though only one student would buy it with
own money, all suggested DS office should
loan device

What we’re discovering

But

iPad

not necessarily a silver bullet


“Myth of Apple” tended to color feedback


Lots of “it must be me” because device is so “intuitive”


Favorite device for blind student (but did no in
-
app note taking)


Input a problem


Bluetooth and virtual keyboard a problem for LD students


Voice recognition (Dragon) works but cumbersome


Handwriting recognition not usable


Screen sensitivity a problem for some


VoiceOver

not suited for visual access


Modal interface a problem


Too much “interface” read aloud


Uneven across apps (still the case with
iOS

5 “Speak Selection
”)


Even
iBooks

(simplest non
-
disability interface) bookmark usage not usable
for blind user and PDF with
VoiceOver

navigation very limited


Lessons (so far)

Lessons (so far)


Accidents can happen (see previous slide…)


Scope of study


A goal was an “ideal” set up of e
-
book readers and
apps.


But short time really requires limited scope:
particular
disability
and/or
particular
e
-
book
readers.

Desired: rich math access

Desired: cross
-
referencing and
comparison

Desired: synchronized reading +
highlighting

Desired: synced platforms

Desired: Typographic control

Desired: “real” book pages

Desired: rich screen reader access

Textbook replicated

T
extbook reinvented

Re
-
visiting why it matters

Pew Report August, 2011

Social aspects

Raine
, November 10, 2011 Sloan
-
C Conference, Orlando, FL

Questions? Comments?

Contacts


Steve Acker (
acker.1@osu.edu
)


Research Director, Ohio Digital Bookshelf


OhioLINK
/The Ohio Board of Regents


Ken Petri (
petri.1@osu.edu
)


Director, Web Accessibility Center


The Ohio State University