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Nov 24, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Wireless Systems

IK1330

Anders Västberg

vastberg@kth.se

08
-
790 44 55

1

IK1330 Wireless Systems


INL1: 4.5
hec

(A
-
F)


Three case studies, poster presentations and opposition reports


SEM1: 1.5
hec

(P/F
)


6 seminars, compulsory participation, homework and
assimilation problems


LABA: 1.5
hec
. (P/F)


Two labs: Propagation measurements, Cellular planning


Required reading:


Stallings, W., Wireless Communications and Network, Pearson,
2005


Course Webpage:


http://www.kth.se/social/courses/IK1330


Book Webpage:


http://williamstallings.com/Wireless/Wireless2e.html

2

IK1330 Wirless Systems


Learning
outcomes

This
course
provides an overview of wireless
systems
. It
describes the
basic design of radio
links
and
radio
networks, and describes
the system architecture and
function of
different existing standards for
wireless
systems. To
pass, the student should be able to:


Give an overview
how a fading radio channel affects the link performance of wireless
communication systems.


Dimensioning

a radio link in terms of range and channel capacity
based on given
conditions


Explain

how multiple access methods works.


Calculate

the capacity of radio networks
using simple models


Give an overview
of the system architecture of the various existing wireless
communication
systems.

For
the highest grade, the student should be able to:


Explain
wave propagation
mechanisms and make judgments based on how these
mechanisms affect the wave propagation.


Solve

a general design problem for the radio links and radio networks
by using simple
formulas


Give
an overview
of various existing systems for wireless communications and
compare
the capacity and performance of them.

Fulfilling parts of
the learning outcomes
of the
highest
grade results in grades D to
B.


3

Feisel
-
Schmitzs

taxanomy


1.
Define (
Beskriva
)

2.
Calculate (
Beräkna
,
Dimensionera


med
givna

förutsättningar
)

3.
Explain (
Förklara
)

4.
Solve (
Lösa
,
analysera
)

5.
Judge (
Göra

bedömningar
,
Jämföra
)


4

IK1330 Wireless Systems


Channel
capacity, transmission
,
multplexing


Antennas
, wave propagation, fading,


Digital
Modulation,


Spread
spectrum FHSS, DSSS,


Multiple access
FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA,


Error
detection and error correction,


Wireless
networks
standards
for cellular
and mobile
broadband systems, wireless LAN,
sensor networks
and
PAN.


5

Outline of the course


Introduction

(
chapter

1)


Part
one
:


Transmission fundamentals (
chapter

2)


Part
two
:


Antennas and
Propagation

(
chapter

5)


Signal
encoding

techniques

(
chapter

6)


Spread

spectrum

(
chapter

7)


Coding

and
error

control

(
chapter

8)


Channel
Capacity

(
chapter

2)

6

Outline of the course


Part three:


Satellite communcation (chapter 9)


Cellular wireless networks (chapter 10)


Cordless systems and Microwave links
(chapter 11)


Part four:


WLAN (802.11/Wi
-
Fi) (chapter 13, 14)


Bluetooth / ZigBee / Sensor networks (chapter
15)

7

Radio Communication


Radio

or
radio communication

means any transmission,
emission, or reception of signs, signals, writing, images,
sounds or intelligence of any nature by means of
electromagnetic waves of frequencies lower than three
thousand gigacycles per second (3000 GHz) propagated
in space without artificial guide.


Examples of radio communication systems:


Radio broadcasting.


TV broadcasting.


Satellite communication.


Mobile Cellular Telephony.


Wireless LAN.


Multimedia communication & Mobile Internet

[Slimane]

8

Electromagnetic Waves

[NE]

9

History


1864: Maxwell describes radio wave
mathematically


1888: Hertz generates radio waves


1896: Marconi makes the first radio transmission


1915: Radio tubes are invented


1948: Shannon’s law


1948: Transistor


1960: Communication Satellites


1981: Cellular technology

10

Classification of radio
spectrum

Application

Time and Frequency Normals,
Navigation, Underwater
Communication, Remote sensing
under ground, Maritme telegraphy

Long distance communication (fixed
and marite), Broadcasting,
Naviagation, Radio beacons

AM broadcasting, naviation, radio
beacons, distress frequencies.

Fixed point to point communication,
Mobile maritime aeronautical, land
services, military communication,
amateur radio and broadcasting

Broadcasting, TV, FM, Mobile
services for maritime, aeronautical
and land, Wireless microphones,
Meteor burst communicaiton

Broadcasting TV, satelites, Personal
telephone systems, radar systems,
fixed and mobile satelite services

Fixed services, Fixed statelite
services, Mobile serivces, Remote
sensing

Frequency assaignments up 60 GHz

Frequency

300
-
3000
Hz

3
-
30
kHz

30
-
300
kHz

300
-
3000
KHz

3
-
30
MHz

30
-
300
MHz

300
-
3000
MHz

3
-
30
GHz

30
-
300
GHz

Wavelength

1000

-
100 km

100

-
10 km

10

-
1 km

1000

-
100 m

100

-
10 m

10

-
1 m

100

-
10 cm

10

-
1 cm

10

-
1 mm

Term

ELF

VLF

LF

MF

HF

VHF

UHF

SHF

EHF

11

The Radio Spectrum


The frequency spectrum is a shared resource.


Radio propagation does not recognize geopolitical
boundaries.


International cooperation and regulations are required for
an efficient use of the radio spectrum.


The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an
agency, within the UN, that takes care of this resource.


Frequency assignment.


Standardization.


Coordination and planning of the international
telecommunication services.


12

Higher Carrier Frequency:


Shorter Range


= c/f


Higher Channel Capacity

13

Radio Communication


Three main problems:


The path loss


Noise


Sharing the radio spectrum


14

Current

Problems


Energy
efficiency


energy consumption at today's level while we can see
a 1000
-
fold
increase in traffic volume
to 2020.



reduce operational cost



minimized
RF
emission


”Revenue Gap”


Scalability

(Internet
of

Things
)


billions
of devices



ubiquitous
services



15

Evolution of Wireless
Systems

[Stallings., 2005]

16

Evolution of Cellular
Systems

[Slimane]

AMPS

TACS

NMT

GSM

GPRS

EDGE

D
-
AMPS

IS
-
136

CDPD

TD
-
SCDMA

WCDMA

UTMS

CDMA

IS
-
95

CDMAone

IS
-
95B

CDMA2000

1G (Analog)

2.5G (Packet)

2G (Digital)

3G

17

Evolution of Cellular
Systems (UTRA)

18

WCDMA

UTMS

HSDPA

HSPA
-
evolution

LTE

3G

3.5G

4G

LTE
-
Long Term Evolution




High spectral efficiency


Very low latency


Support of variable bandwidth


Simple protocol architecture


Simple Architecture


Compatibility and inter
-
working with earlier
3GPP Releases


Inter
-
working with other systems, e.g. cdma2000


FDD and TDD within a single radio access
technology

19

Other Technologies


WLAN (IEEE 802.11)


Bluetooth


Sensor networks (ZigBee and IEEE
802.15.4)



20

Communication Systems

Source of

information

Information

sink

Transmitter

Channel

Receiver

Message

signal

Estimate of

message
signal

Transmitted signal

Received signal

[Ahlin et. al., 2006]

21

Analog Communication
System

Source of

information

Signal

Processing

Modulator

RF
-
Stage

Channel

RF
-
Stage

Information

sink

Signal

Processing

Demodulator

[Slimane]

22

Digital Communication
System

Source of

Information

Source

Encoder

Modulator

RF
-
Stage

Channel

RF
-
Stage

Information

Sink

Source

Decoder

Demodulator

Channel

Encoder

Digital

Modulator

Channel

Decoder

Digital

Demodulator

[Slimane]

23

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