Mobile - Wireless

Nov 24, 2013 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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Wireless Systems

IK1330

Anders Västberg

vastberg@kth.se

08
-
790 44 55

1

IK1330 Wireless Systems

INL1: 4.5
hec

(A
-
F)

Three case studies, poster presentations and opposition reports

SEM1: 1.5
hec

(P/F
)

6 seminars, compulsory participation, homework and
assimilation problems

LABA: 1.5
hec
. (P/F)

Two labs: Propagation measurements, Cellular planning

Stallings, W., Wireless Communications and Network, Pearson,
2005

Course Webpage:

http://www.kth.se/social/courses/IK1330

Book Webpage:

http://williamstallings.com/Wireless/Wireless2e.html

2

IK1330 Wirless Systems

Learning
outcomes

This
course
provides an overview of wireless
systems
. It
describes the
and
networks, and describes
the system architecture and
function of
different existing standards for
wireless
systems. To
pass, the student should be able to:

Give an overview
communication systems.

Dimensioning

based on given
conditions

Explain

how multiple access methods works.

Calculate

using simple models

Give an overview
of the system architecture of the various existing wireless
communication
systems.

For
the highest grade, the student should be able to:

Explain
wave propagation
mechanisms and make judgments based on how these
mechanisms affect the wave propagation.

Solve

by using simple
formulas

Give
an overview
of various existing systems for wireless communications and
compare
the capacity and performance of them.

Fulfilling parts of
the learning outcomes
of the
highest
B.

3

Feisel
-
Schmitzs

taxanomy

1.
Define (
Beskriva
)

2.
Calculate (
Beräkna
,
Dimensionera

med
givna

förutsättningar
)

3.
Explain (
Förklara
)

4.
Solve (
Lösa
,
analysera
)

5.
Judge (
Göra

bedömningar
,
Jämföra
)

4

IK1330 Wireless Systems

Channel
capacity, transmission
,
multplexing

Antennas

Digital
Modulation,

spectrum FHSS, DSSS,

Multiple access
FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA,

Error
detection and error correction,

Wireless
networks
standards
for cellular
and mobile
sensor networks
and
PAN.

5

Outline of the course

Introduction

(
chapter

1)

Part
one
:

Transmission fundamentals (
chapter

2)

Part
two
:

Antennas and
Propagation

(
chapter

5)

Signal
encoding

techniques

(
chapter

6)

spectrum

(
chapter

7)

Coding

and
error

control

(
chapter

8)

Channel
Capacity

(
chapter

2)

6

Outline of the course

Part three:

Satellite communcation (chapter 9)

Cellular wireless networks (chapter 10)

(chapter 11)

Part four:

WLAN (802.11/Wi
-
Fi) (chapter 13, 14)

Bluetooth / ZigBee / Sensor networks (chapter
15)

7

or

means any transmission,
emission, or reception of signs, signals, writing, images,
sounds or intelligence of any nature by means of
electromagnetic waves of frequencies lower than three
thousand gigacycles per second (3000 GHz) propagated
in space without artificial guide.

Satellite communication.

Mobile Cellular Telephony.

Wireless LAN.

Multimedia communication & Mobile Internet

[Slimane]

8

Electromagnetic Waves

[NE]

9

History

mathematically

1896: Marconi makes the first radio transmission

1948: Shannon’s law

1948: Transistor

1960: Communication Satellites

1981: Cellular technology

10

spectrum

Application

Time and Frequency Normals,
Communication, Remote sensing
under ground, Maritme telegraphy

Long distance communication (fixed

beacons, distress frequencies.

Fixed point to point communication,
Mobile maritime aeronautical, land
services, military communication,

services for maritime, aeronautical
and land, Wireless microphones,
Meteor burst communicaiton

fixed and mobile satelite services

Fixed services, Fixed statelite
services, Mobile serivces, Remote
sensing

Frequency assaignments up 60 GHz

Frequency

300
-
3000
Hz

3
-
30
kHz

30
-
300
kHz

300
-
3000
KHz

3
-
30
MHz

30
-
300
MHz

300
-
3000
MHz

3
-
30
GHz

30
-
300
GHz

Wavelength

1000

-
100 km

100

-
10 km

10

-
1 km

1000

-
100 m

100

-
10 m

10

-
1 m

100

-
10 cm

10

-
1 cm

10

-
1 mm

Term

ELF

VLF

LF

MF

HF

VHF

UHF

SHF

EHF

11

The frequency spectrum is a shared resource.

Radio propagation does not recognize geopolitical
boundaries.

International cooperation and regulations are required for
an efficient use of the radio spectrum.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an
agency, within the UN, that takes care of this resource.

Frequency assignment.

Standardization.

Coordination and planning of the international
telecommunication services.

12

Higher Carrier Frequency:

Shorter Range

= c/f

Higher Channel Capacity

13

Three main problems:

The path loss

Noise

14

Current

Problems

Energy
efficiency

energy consumption at today's level while we can see
a 1000
-
fold
increase in traffic volume
to 2020.

reduce operational cost

minimized
RF
emission

”Revenue Gap”

Scalability

(Internet
of

Things
)

billions
of devices

ubiquitous
services

15

Evolution of Wireless
Systems

[Stallings., 2005]

16

Evolution of Cellular
Systems

[Slimane]

AMPS

TACS

NMT

GSM

GPRS

EDGE

D
-
AMPS

IS
-
136

CDPD

TD
-
SCDMA

WCDMA

UTMS

CDMA

IS
-
95

CDMAone

IS
-
95B

CDMA2000

1G (Analog)

2.5G (Packet)

2G (Digital)

3G

17

Evolution of Cellular
Systems (UTRA)

18

WCDMA

UTMS

HSDPA

HSPA
-
evolution

LTE

3G

3.5G

4G

LTE
-
Long Term Evolution

High spectral efficiency

Very low latency

Support of variable bandwidth

Simple protocol architecture

Simple Architecture

Compatibility and inter
-
working with earlier
3GPP Releases

Inter
-
working with other systems, e.g. cdma2000

FDD and TDD within a single radio access
technology

19

Other Technologies

WLAN (IEEE 802.11)

Bluetooth

Sensor networks (ZigBee and IEEE
802.15.4)

20

Communication Systems

Source of

information

Information

sink

Transmitter

Channel

Message

signal

Estimate of

message
signal

Transmitted signal

[Ahlin et. al., 2006]

21

Analog Communication
System

Source of

information

Signal

Processing

Modulator

RF
-
Stage

Channel

RF
-
Stage

Information

sink

Signal

Processing

Demodulator

[Slimane]

22

Digital Communication
System

Source of

Information

Source

Encoder

Modulator

RF
-
Stage

Channel

RF
-
Stage

Information

Sink

Source

Decoder

Demodulator

Channel

Encoder

Digital

Modulator

Channel

Decoder

Digital

Demodulator

[Slimane]

23

inför

F2

Ta
reda

formeln

för

att

byta

bas

en
logaritm

(
kursen

i

matematisk

analys
)
och

lös

följande
:

Beräkna

log
2
10

24