Барановская IT

ruralrompSoftware and s/w Development

Dec 2, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Государственный университет


Высшая школа экономики

ФАКУЛЬТЕТ ЭКОНОМИКИ

КАФЕДРА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА






Барановская Т.А.,
Шемякина В.И.







УЧЕБНО
-
МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ


INFOTECH

HARDWARE


















МОСКВА 2009


2


Предисловие


Данное учебное пособие
п
редназначено для
студентов первого курса, изучающих
английский язык

в области информационных технологий

по теме
䡡r摷d牥

Цель курса
на
учить студентов работать со специальной
базой научно
J
технических данных

в
названной
област
и.

Представленный материал

со
стоит из 5 разделов, полностью охватывающих
указанное направление
W





Different

Types

of

Computers



Computer Basics



Input Devices



Output Devices



Secondary Storage Devices


Практика преподавания
настоящего
аспекта показала целесообразность
лексической направл
енности упражнений и закрепляющего материала.
Учебные

задания

должны способствовать усвоению специальных понятий и терминов в
области информационных технологий.

В первом
, третьем,

четвертом и

пятом разделах

пре
дста
влены задан
ия,
позволяющие развивать н
авыки учащих
ся давать собственную оценку полученной
информации.
Каждый

урок

этих разделов включает:

тексты
J
опоры; англо
J
русский
глоссарий; определения базовых терминов; упражнения, закрепляющие понимание
терминологии; лексические упражнения, развивающие ус
тную речь. Второй раздел
представляет собой изложение структурной схемы персонального компьютера, поэтому
упор
в этом разделе
делается
на
усвоение специальных терминов и перевод.


Специфика преподавания данного аспекта состоит в необходимости
постоянного
о
бновления материала
. Тексты
J
опоры, содержащие всю необходимую терминологию
I

д
ополняются материалами сайтов

ИТ

и
, прежде всего
I

сайтов выставок

C䕓

и
CeB楴
K

Представляется целесообразным предлагать

студентам самостоятельно наход
ить
необходим
ы
й материал,
ра
звивая

тем самым
навыки

поиска
и аннотирования
информации
. На занятиях предполагается вести обсуждение тем

с опорой на текст
пособия и знакомый учащимся лексико
J
грамматический материал
. Обсуждения

носят
информационно
J
познавательный характер.

Пособие учит
ывает наличие разноуровневых групп.

С этой целью введен раздел,
содержащий дополнительные

тексты, рассчитанные

на самостоятельное освоение
материала студентами первых групп.














3


Contents


Introduction
… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
4

Section 1. Different Types of Co
mputers


Unit 1. Five Generations of Computers

… … … … … … … … … …


5



Unit

2
. Types of C
omputers

. … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
13


Unit

3. Laptops vs Desktops

.… … … … … … … … … … … … … …
18



Unit

4
.
Notebooks vs Netbooks vs U
ltra
-
mobile PCs

.







… …
2
8



Section

2.
Computer B
asics



Unit
1
. Motherboard

..































35




Unit
2
.
Microprocess
or



… … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
40


Unit
3
.
Computer Memory



… … … … … … … … … … … … … …
48







Section 3. Input D
evices


Unit

1.
Computer Keyboard

..



… … … … … … … … … … … … …
5
8



Unit
2.
Computer Mouse

..


… … … … … … … … … … … … … …
64


Unit 3. Image Capture

.



… … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
70


Section 4. Output D
evices



Unit 1. Computer Monitor



… … … … … … … … … … … … … …
77




Unit 2. Types of Printers

..


… … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
84


Section 5.
Secondary
Storage D
evices


Unit 1. Hard disk drive




… … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
90



Unit 2. Optical D
iscs



… … … … … … … … … … … … … …

… …
97



Section 6.
Supplementary T
exts


… … … … … …
















104



Text 1.
UMPC, MID, Netbook, Nettop


Text 2.
The Future of PCs


Text 3.

Overclocking




Text 4.

Speech Recognition



Text 5. SSD
-
Solid State Drive


Text 6. USB Flash Drive


Text 7
. Different types of memory cards
















4


Introduction


Information technology, or IT,

describes any technology that powers or enables the
storage, processing

and information flow within an organization. Anything involved with
computers, software, networks, intranets, Web sites, servers, databases and
telecommunications falls under the IT umbrella.

T
he software and the ha
rdware make up a

compute
r system.


Hard
ware refers to the physical portion of the computer system, including the
electrical/electronic components (e.g. devices and circuits), electromechanical
components (e.g. a disk drive), and mechanical components.

Software

is most commonly used to refer to
the programs executed by a computer
system.

Central processing unit implies the principal operating part of a computer. It is
usually defined as the ALU (arithmetic and logic unit) and the control unit

(CU). It must

be joined to a primary memory to form th
e processor
-
memory

of the basic von Neumann
machine.

The term
peripheral
identifies any device, including I/O devices and backing store,
that is connected to the computer. The term originated in the mainframe era
. Since the
advent of the smaller computers,

printers etc., the term peripheral is seldom used.




















5


Section 1

Different Types of Computers


Unit 1

The Five Generations of Computers

The history of computer development is often referred to
the different generations of
computing
devices
. Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological
development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in
increasingly smalle
r, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices.

Read about each generation and the developments that led to the current devices that
we use today.

First Generation
-

1940
-
1956: Vacuum Tubes

The first computers used vacuum tubes for cir
cuitry and
magnetic drums

for
memory
,
and were often enormous, taking up en
tire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and
in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the
cause of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on
machine language

to perform
operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched
cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.

The UNIVAC and
ENIAC

computers are examples of first
-
generation computing
devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the
U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.

Second G
eneration
-

1956
-
1963: Transistors

Transistors

replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of
computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did n
ot see widespread use in computers
until the late 50s. The transistor was far superior to
the vacuum tube
, allowing computers to
become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy
-
efficient and more reliable than their first
-
generation predecessors. Though the t
ransistor still generated a
great deal of heat

that
subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube.
Second
-
generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for
output.

High
-
level programming languages

were
developed at this time, such as early
versions of
COBOL

and

FORTRAN
. These were also the first computers that stored their
instructions
in their memory
, which moved from a magnetic dr
um to magnetic core
6


technology.

The first co
mputers of this generation were developed for
the atomic energy industry.

Third Generation
-

1964
-
1971: Integrated Circuits

The development of the
integra
ted circuit

was the hallmark of the third generation of
computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed
on
silicon

chips
, called
semiconductors
, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.

Instead of punched cards an
d printouts, users interacted with third generation
computers
through
keyboards

and
monitors

and
interfaced

with an
operating system
, which
allowed
the device to run many different
applications

at one time with a central program
that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass

audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.

Fourth Generation
-

1971
-
Present: Microprocessors

The
microprocessor

brought the fourth

generation of computers, as thousands of
integrated circuits were built onto
a single silicon chip
. What in the first generation filled an
entire room could now
fit in

the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971,
located all the component
s of the computer
-

from the
central processing unit

and memory
to input/output controls
-

on a single chip.

In 1981

IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, a
nd in 1984 Apple
introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also
moved out

of the realm of desktop
computers and

moved

into

many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to
use microprocessors.

As these small computers became more powerful, t
hey could be linked together to
form networks, which eventually led to the
development of the Internet.

Fourth generation
computers also saw the development of
GUIs
, the
mouse

and
handheld

devices.

Fifth Generation
-

Present and Beyond: Artif
icial Intelligence

Fifth generation computing devices, based on
artificial intelligence
, are still in
development, though there are some applications, s
uch as
voice recognition
, that are being
used today. The use of
parallel processing

and superconductors is helping to make artificial
intelligence a reality.
Quantum computation

and molecular and
nanotechnology

will
radically change the face of computers
in years to come
. The goal of fifth
-
generation
computing is to develop devices that respond to
natural language

input and are capable of
learning and self
-
organization.



Vocabulary

7



vacuum

tube




электровакуумная лампа, вакуумная трубка

c楲i畩ury




схемы; цепи

浡mne瑩c

摲畭


магнитный барабан, внешнее запоминающее устройство
прямого доступа

gene牡te



производить, создавать, образовывать, формировать

浡汦畮u瑩潮o



сбой, неисправность

灵湣栠ha
牤rZ⁰畮 he搠da牤r

перфо
карта

灡灥爠瑡pe



перфолента

灲楮瑯畴



распечатка, твердая копия

a獳敭扬y慮guage


язык ассемблера

浡mne瑩c

c潲e




магнитопровод; магнитный сердечник

楮iegra瑥t

c楲c畩u





интегральная микросхема, ИС, микросхема
полупрово
дниковый прибор, содержащий несколько
электронных элементов

瑲t湳楳瑯爠

транзистор, электронный прибор, на котором строится
логика интегральной микросхемы

獩s楣潮

c桩h


кремниевая микросхема

獩s楣潮i




кремний, полупроводниковый материал

c桩h


микросхема,

кристалл, чип от слова
microchip
; общее
название интегральной схемы

c桩h

e汥浥湴

楮iegra瑥搠t楲c畩uⰠ浩c牯r桩瀠
микросхема



獥浩c潮摵o瑯爠

полупроводник

e晦楣楥ncy


эффективность, производительность

楮敦晩f楥icy

неэффективность

e晦楣楥ncyⰠ灥r景f浡mceI

p
潷o爬⁰r潤oc瑩癩vy


ca灡扩b楴y

ca灡c楴y
†††† †††
производительность

摵dy

cycle


производительность, [максимальная] нагрузка например,
число страниц, печатаемых на принтере в месяц

灥牦潲浡nce

производительность, быстродействие, эффективность

灯睥r


мощность, энергия, способность, производительность,
степень, показатель степени

8


productivity

производительность

楮ie牦ace

E
n
F

сопряжение; согласование

楮ie晡ce


⡶E

соединять

浯湩瑯t

осуществлять текущий контроль, контролировать

a灰汩ca瑩潮


a灰


прило
жение, прикладная программа

c潮瑲潬

устройство [орган] управления

灡牡汬el

灲pce獳sng


параллельная обработка, параллельное выполнение

獵灥牣潮摵o瑯r


сверхпроводник

煵q湴畭

c潭灵oer


квантовый компьютер


Basic T
erminology


i
nterface

(n)

a
common

bounda
ry between

two systems, devices, or programs

interface

(v)

to provide and interface; to interact

user interface
(n)

the means of communication between a human user and a
computer system, referring in particular to the use of
input/output d
evices with suppor
ting software

chip

1.
a device made up of a non
-
metallic semiconducting material
(silicon), which contains a set of integrated circuits, with high
-
speed performance


2.

informal name for
integrated circuit


1.

Answer the following questions:


What caused the

malfunctions in the first computers?

What are the advantages of transistors?

What was the main distinctive feature of the third generation of computers?

What advanced IBM to introduce first home computer?

What is

the goal
of
the
fifth
-
generation computi
ng?

2.

Find in the text the

equivalents to the following words and phrases :

с
овершенствование технологии

эффективны
е

и

надежные

устройства

занимать

целую комнату

9


причины

сбоя

транзисторы

значительно

превосходят

вакуумн
ые лампы

подвергать компьютер

повреждениям

отличительная

черта

третьего

поколения компьютеров

взаимодействовать

с

компьютером

посредством клавиатуры и монитора

находиться

в

стадии развития

искусственный

интеллект


Defining a term


If you
define

something, you show, describe, or state clearly what it is and what its limits are,
or what it is like.

To define a term you

have to use the following words and expressions:

apply to, refer to, relate with, imply, define, is used to identify, is used to describe
,

represent, constitute
.

a.

Algor
ithm

refers to

a series of instructions or a step
-
by
-
step procedure for the solution
o
f a problem.

b.

Byte
implies

a unit of information which consists of a fixed number of bits.

c.

The term disk
is used to identify

a storage device made of flat circular plates with
magnetizable surfaces.

d.

Input
represents

the process of transferring information
into the memory from some
peripheral unit.


3.

Match the terms to

the definitions:


Term
s

Definition
s

C
ircuitry

very small electronic circuit printed on a single silicon chip

M
alfunction

a solid
-
state electronic switch or amplifier

T
ransistor

the ma
in elec
tronic chip of a computer

integrated circuit

a type of computer technology which is concerned with making machines
work in an intelligent way, similar to

the way that the human mind works

microprocessor

a system of electric circuits

10


Artificial Intelligence

a common boundary between two systems, devices, or prog
rams

parallel processing

the branch of technology that deals

with dimensions
of less than 100
nanometres, especially the manipulation of individual atoms a
nd
molecules


I
nterface

a mode of computer operation in which a process is split into parts that
execute simultaneously on different processors attached to the same
computer

N
anotechnology

the occur
r
ence of a fault, usually a hardware fault


4.

Make up a p
lan and retell the text.


Phrasal V
erbs

The
term
phrasal verb

is used to describe a combinati
on of verb+preposition.
There is

a
strong tendency

to use phrasal verbs instead of their one
-
verb equivalents.


5.

Different meanings of the phrasal verbs are given.
Translate the following
phrasal
verbs and c
onstruct

your own sentences
:


move away




If you move away, you go and live in a different town or area of a country.

move in
, move into



When you move in somewhere, you begin to live there as your home.

move in



If

police, soldiers, or attackers move in, they go towards a place or person in order to
deal with or attack them. Intervene, especially so as to attack or take control.

move out




If you move out, you stop living in a particular house or place and go to live

somewhere else.

move on



When you move on somewhere, you leave the place where you have been staying or
waiting and go there.



If you move on, you finish or stop one activity and start doing something different.

11


move around



If you move around or move about
, you keep changing your job or keep changing the
place where you live.

move along



If someone, especially a police officer, tells you to move along, or if they move you
along, they tell you to stop standing in a particular place and to go somewhere else.

m
ove off



When you move off, you start moving away from a place.


6.

Render the following text.


Очевидно, что технопрогресс имеет положительную сторону: мы двигаемся
быстрее, едим вкуснее и работаем организованнее. Однако у этой медали есть и
оборотная сторо
на. Облегчив себе жизнь в той или иной ее сфере, мы становимся
зависимыми от нового «помощника», будь это социальные сети для разностороннего
общения, мобильник для быстрой связи или WiFi
J
роутер для беспроводного выхода в
интернет.

И все же куда больше бе
спокойства обычно вызывает патологическая тяга к
компьютеру. Психологи констатируют, что это серьезная угроза для человечества в
целом. Такой вывод они сделали, подведя итоги всемирной акции «Выключи свой
компьютер», которая проходила пару лет назад. Суть
акции была в том, что участники
клятвенно обещали не включать компьютер в течение суток. 14%, и это довольно
много, своего слова сдержать не смогли. Организаторы эксперимента говорят, что эта
доля просто не сумела справиться с психологической зависимостью
от ПК. Врачи
настаивают на том, чтобы официально внести ее в медицинские справочники: число
жертв этого недуга постоянно растет.

Есть и другой, как многие считают
J

негативный, аспект стремительного развития
технологий


роботы. Когда
J
нибудь машины научатс
я действовать самостоятельно.
Во всяком случае, такие прогнозы, если не сказать опасения, можно услышать
довольно часто. «Вокруг света» сообщает о первом шаге в этом направлении. Он был
сделан в мае 1997
J
го, когда компьютер IBM Deep Blue впервые обыграл че
мпиона мира
Гарри Каспарова

в шахматы. В июле того же года робот Sojourner начал полностью
автономное исследование Марса в рамках космической программы NASA.

В 1965 году было сделано наблюдение, которое известно как закон Мура и
12


заключается в том, что числ
о транзисторов на кристалле удваивается каждые 24
месяца. Представив в виде графика рост производительности запоминающих
микросхем, ученый
Гордон Мур

обнаружил закономерность: новые модели микросхем
разрабатывались спустя более или менее одинаковые периоды

после появления их
предшественников, а емкость их при этом возрастала каждый раз примерно вдвое. Если
такая тенденция продолжится, заключил Мур, то мощность вычислительных устройств
экспоненциально возрастет на протяжении относительно короткого промежутка

времени.

Если руководствоваться этим постулатом, можно предположить, что
быстродействие компьютеров к 2050 году увеличится почти в миллион раз. Значит, и
объем информации, который воспринимает мозг взрослого человека, без особых
усилий будет обрабатыватьс
я устройством не больше современного «наладонника». В
таком случае можно говорить о том, что вычислительных мощностей хватит для
создания более или менее полноценного искусственного интеллекта.




13


Unit 2

The Different Types of Computers


There are a lot
of terms used to describ
e computers. Most of these terms

imply the
size, expected use or capability of the computer. While the term
computer

can apply to
virtually any device that has a
micropr
ocessor

in it, most people think of a computer as a
device that receives input from the user through a
mouse

or
keyboard
, processes it in some

fashion and displays the result on a
screen
.

Desktop
.
A PC that is not designed
for portability
. The expectation with desktop
systems are that you will
set

the computer
up

in a permanent location.
Most desktops offer
more power,
storage

and versatility for less cost than portable computers.

Nettop
. A low
-
power

desktop
computer, designed for
surfing the Internet
.

Laptop
.
Also called
noteboo
ks
,
laptops

are portable computers that integrate the
display
, keyboard, a pointing device, processor,
memory

and
hard drive

all in a
battery
-
operated

package slightly larger than an average hardcover book.

Netbook
.

A l
ow
-
power

laptop, designed for
surfing the Internet
.

Palmtop
.
More commonly known as
Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)
, palmtops are

tightly integrated computers that often use
flash memory

instead of a hard drive for storage.
These computers usually do not have keyboards but rely on
touchscreen

technology

for user
input. Palmtops are very l
ightweight with a reasonable battery life. A slightly larger and
heavier version of the palmtop is the
handheld computer
.

Tablet PC
.
In general, a tablet PC is a
wireless

personal computer (
PC
) that allows a
user to take notes using natural handwriting with a
stylus

or
digital pen

on a
touc
h screen
.
The
handwriting is digitized and can be converted to standard text through
handwriting
recognition
, or it can remain as handwritten text. Tablet PCs also typically have

a
keyboard

and/or a
mouse

for input.

A
digitizer

is laid under or over
an
LCD

screen to create an electromagnetic field that
can capture the movement of a special
-
purpose pen, or
stylus
,

and record the movement

on
the LCD screen.

Workstation
.
A desktop computer that has a more powerful processor, additional
memory and enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of task, such as
3D
Graphics

or
game development
.

Terminal
.
A
visual display unit where data may be input to or output from a data
communications system.

14


Server
.
A computer that has been optimized to provide services to other computers
over a
network
.
Servers

usually have powerful processors, lots of memory and large hard
drives.

Mainframe
.
In the early days of computing,

mainframes were huge computers that
could fill an entire room or even a whole floor. As the size of computers has diminished
while the power has increased, the term mainframe has
fallen out of

use in favor of
enterprise
server
.

You'll still hear the term
used, particularly in large companies to describe the huge
machines processing millions of transactions every day.

Minicomputer
.
Another term rarely used anymore, minicomputers
fall in
between
microcomputers (PCs) and mainframes (enterprise servers). Mini
computers are normally
referred to as
mid
-
range servers

now.

Supercomputer
.
This type of computer usually costs hundreds of thousands or even
millions of dollars. Although some supercomputers are single computer systems, most are
comprised of multiple hig
h performance computers working in parallel as a single system.
The best known supercomputers are built by
Cray Supercomputers
.

Wearable
.
The latest trend in computing is wearable computers. Essentially, common
compute
r applications (e
-
mail, database, multimedia, calendar/scheduler) are integrated into
watches,
cell phones
, visors and even clothing!


Vocabulary


v
ersatility



эксплуатационная гибкость, универсальность

integrate



интегрировать, объединять в одно целое
Syn
:
unite


workstation



рабочая

станция


capability возможность; с
пособность; производительность

enhanced



улучшенн
ый
, расширенный, усовершенствованный

diminish



снижаться, убывать, уменьшать, уменьшаться

Syn
:
decrease
,
lessen
; ( о цене и т.п.)
reduce

fall

out

of

use




выйти

из

употребления

comprise



включать, заключать в себе

digitize



оцифровывать, преобразовыват
ь в цифровую форму

convert



преобразовывать, конвертировать

handwriting

recognition


распознавание рукописного текста

layout




схема размещения

15


keyboard

layout


раскладка клавиатуры; схема расположения клавиш на
клавиатуре


1.

Put 7
-
10 questions to the text
.

2.

Find in the text the

equivalents to the following words and phrases :


производительность

компьютера

плотно интегрированный

время автономной работы, период автономности

преобразовать рукописный текст

усовершенствованные характеристики

разработка компьют
ерных

игр

носимый микрокомпьютер


3.

Define each type of computers. Use the following expressions:






take out of production


снимать

с

производства

become obsolete



устаревать

be no longer in use

fall into disuse

go out of use

fall

out

of

use




выходит
ь из употребления [обихода]

to come into service / use


входить

в

употребление



come

to

stay

в
ойти в употребление,
укорениться, утвердиться;


4.

Retell the text.


5.

Different

meanings

of

the

phrasal

verbs

are given. Translate the following
phrasal verbs and c
onstruct your own sentences:


set up



If you set something up, you create or arrange it.




If you set up a temporary structure, you place it or build it somewhere.

16




If you set up a device or piece of machinery, you do the things that are necessary for it
to
be able to start working.



If you set up home or set up shop, you buy a house or business of your own and start
living or working there.

set to
,

set about



B
egin doing something vigorously
.


set out
,

set off



When you set out, you start a journey.



6.

Render th
e following text.

Главным загрязнителем окружающей среды в Великобритании оказалася
суперкомпьютер национального метеоцентра.

По иронии судьбы, суперкомпьютер, использующийся Метеоцентром
Великобритании для составления прогнозов погоды и определения измене
ний климата,
оказался одним из самых крупных загрязнителей окружающей среды.

Как сообщает
Вебпланета

со ссылкой на газету
The Daily Mail
,
суперкомпьютером британские синоптики обзавелись в мае этого года. Он занимает
такую же площадь, как и пара футбольных

полей, и, когда к 2011 году развернется в
полную мощность, сможет выполнять 1000 миллиардов операций в секунду.

За несколько месяцев, прошедших с запуска, суперкомпьютер
-
синоптик
подвергается нападкам во второй раз. Он уже ухитрился напророчить британцам
жаркое лето, а те вместо желанного солнца получили традиционные дожди.

Эта громадина, стоимостью в 30 млн фунтов, мощнее ста тысяч обычных
компьютеров. Но и энергии она потребляет соответственно: вместо суперкомпьютера к
электросети запросто можно было бы

подключить небольшой городок.

Однако потребление энергии напрямую связано с выбросами в атмосферу
углекислоты. Согласно опубликованным недавно расчётам, здание Метеоцентра за год
выбрасывает в атмосферу 12 000 тонн углекислого газа, то есть является одним

из
наиболее вредных зданий в стране. 75% от этих тонн лежат на совести компьютера
-
метеоролога.

Представители организации "Друзья Земли" успели усмотреть иронию в том, что
компьютер, призванный предупреждать изменения климата, вносит столь активный
вклад в

это самое изменение.

17


Однако метеорологи считают, что пользы от него куда больше, чем вреда. Отказ
от использования суперкомпьютера в прогнозировании погоды и изучении изменений
климата они сравнивают с возвратом в средневековье.



Extended activities:


1.

D
escribe your own computer. Use the following expressions:


entry
-
level




простой, начального уровня, для начинающих


Entry
-
level is used to describe basic low
-
cost versions of products such as cars or computers
that are suitable for people who have no pre
vious experience or knowledge of them.

Entry
-
level jobs are suitable for people who do not have previous experience or qualifications
in a particular area of work.


low
-
end




низкопроизводительный

high

end





высокопроизводительный, профессиональный


2.

Wha
t kind of user do you rank yourself with?

Use the following expressions:


advanced

user





power

user




подготовленный [опытный] пользователь

superuser

привилегированный пользователь,

имеющий доступ
ко всем ресурсам системы; системный администраор

end

us
er

конечный пользователь

high
-
rez

разбирающийся в технике человек

l
ow
-
rez

не разбирающийся в технике человек

naive

user

начинающий пользователь, новичок

lamer

неумный пользователь
;
ламер

(жарг)

luser

неумелый

пользователь



18


Unit 3

Laptops
vs D
esktops


In

a way, the skyrocketing popularity of laptop computers is ironic. They're
completely portable, and they use less power and make less noise than desktop models. But,
they're often a little slower and have less
graphics

and
sound

processing power, although
these differences can be too small for most users to notice.

Laptops are also more expensive than desktops. The price gap is cl
osing, though

-

laptop prices are falling faster than desktop prices, and laptop PCs actually outsold desktop
models for the first time in May of 2005.

How can all the equipment found in a desktop tower fit into such a small package?
And how can laptops b
e efficient enough to run on battery power alone?

Overall, laptop and desktop computers are very similar. They have the same basic
hardware, software and
operating systems
. The primary
difference is how their components
fit together.

A desktop computer includes a
motherboard
,
video card
,
hard drive

and other
components in a large case. The
monitor
,
keyboard
, and other periphe
rals connect
wirelessly

or with cables. Whether the case sits vertically or horizontally, it has lots of space for add
-
in
cards, cables and air circulation.

A laptop, however, is much s
maller and lighter than even the most compact
PC

tower.
Its screen is an integrated part of the unit, as is its keyboard. Instead of a spacious case with
lots of room for air circulation, a laptop us
es a small, flat design in which all the pieces fit
together snugly.

Because of this fundamental design difference and because of a laptop's inherent
portability, components have to:



Fit into a compact space



Conserve power



Produce less heat than desktop

components

Often, these differences make the components more expensive, which can contribute
to higher laptop prices.

In the following sections, we'll examine how laptops handle these differences.

The microprocessor, or
CPU
, works with the
operating system

to control the
computer. It essentially acts as the computer's
brain
. The CPU produces a lot of heat, so a
19


desktop computer

uses circulating air, a fan and a
heat sink

to draw heat off of the
processor
--

to cool off. Since a laptop has far less room
for each of these cooling methods,
its CPU usually:



Runs at a lower voltage and clock speed

--

This reduces heat output and power
consumption but slows the processor down. Most laptops also run at a higher voltage and
clock speed when plugged in, and at l
ower settings when using the battery.



Mounts to the motherboard without using pins

--

Pins and sockets take up a lot of
room in desktop PCs. Some motherboard processors mount directly to the motherboard
without the use of a socket. Others use balls instea
d of pins. These designs save space, but
in some cases mean that the processor cannot be removed from the motherboard for
replacement or upgrading.



Has a sleep or slow
-
down mode

--

The computer and the operating system work
together to reduce the CPU spee
d when the computer is not in use or when the processor
does not need to run as quickly.

Laptops usually have small fans, heat sinks to help dissipate the heat from the CPU.
Some higher end laptop models reduce heat even further with liquid coolant kept in

channels alongside the heat pipe. Also, most laptop CPUs are near the edge of the unit. This
allows the fan to move the heat directly to the outside instead of across other components.

A laptop's
memory

can make up for some of the reduced performance that comes from
a slower processor. Some laptops have
cache

memory on or very near the
CPU
, allowing it
to access data more quickly. Some also have larger busses, allowing data to move between
the processor,
motherboard

and memory more quickly.


Like a desktop
, a laptop has an internal
hard disk drive
, which stores the operating
system, applications and data files. However, laptops generally have less disk space than
desktops. A laptop hard drive i
s also physically smaller than that of a desktop. In addition,
most laptop hard drives spin more slowly than desktop hard drives, reducing both heat and
power consumption.

Desktop computers have multiple bays for installing additional drives, such as
CD

and
DVD

ROM drives. However, space in a laptop is in much shorter supply. Many laptops use
a
modular design
, allowing a variety of drives to f
it in the same bay.
These drives come in
three different designations:



Hot swappable

-

The computer can stay on while changing the drive.

20




Warm swappable

-

The computer can stay on while changing the drive, but the
corresponding bus (the path the drive us
es to send data to the CPU) must be inactive.



Cold swappable

-

The computer must be off during the swap.

A
graphics processing unit

(GPU)

is a
microprocessor

that handles the calculatio
ns
necessary for
3
-
D graphics

rendering. Like a CPU, a GPU produces a lot of heat. Most
laptops have graphics capability built into the
motherboard

or have smaller
graphics cards

with a GPU designed specifically for laptop use. Laptops frequently share memory between
the CPU and the GPU, saving space and reducin
g power consumption.

Many people don't notice a laptop's reduced graphics performance. Laptops have
plenty of processing power for Web surfing and productivity applications. However, they
may struggle with the latest 3
-
D games. A few specialty laptops, de
signed for gaming
enthusiasts, include more powerful GPUs and additional video memory.

A laptop displays its graphics on a
liquid crystal display

(LCD) screen. Most screens
measure between 12 and 1
7 inches, and the size of the screen affects the overall size of the
laptop.

Most laptops also have
sound cards

or integrated sound processing

on the
motherboard as well as small, built
-
in s
peakers. However, there is generally not enough
space inside a laptop for a top
-
of
-
the
-
line sound card or a high
-
quality speaker. Gaming
enthusiasts and audiophiles can supplement their laptops' sound capabilities with external
sound controllers, which use

USB

or
FireWire

ports to connect to the laptop.

Laptops and desktops both run on
electricity
. However, unlike a desktop computer, a
laptop is portable and can run on batteries alone.

LiIon batteries

are the current standard for laptop computers. They are light and have
long life spans. They can be charged randomly, and wo
n't overheat if overcharged. They are
also thinner than any other battery available for laptops, making them ideal for the new
ultra
-
thin notebooks
. LiIon batteries can last for anything from about 950 up to 1200
charges.

Many laptops with LiIon batteries
claim to have a 5
-
hour battery life, but this
measurement can vary greatly depending on how the computer is used.

Many people build custom PCs for themselves or customers. These home
-
made
computers, called
whiteboxes
, represent a significant portion of th
e computer market. Some
people also modify their computers for cosmetics or performance. This is called
modding
.
But what about building or modding a laptop?

A modded or homemade laptop is called a
whitebook
. Whitebooks represent about 5
percent of the no
tebook market right now, and this number is slowly rising. The industry has
21


done a pretty good job of keeping end users out of laptops. They've made it difficult to
open, modify and get parts for a laptop. In addition, opening the laptop chassis voids the
manufacturer's warranty in most cases.

It is still difficult to find parts to build a laptop from the ground up, but vendors like
ASUS

and
ECS

allow some customers to order blank laptop shells. They are especially open
to resellers who build whitebooks and sell them to customers. In a
ddition, people can mod
or upgrade what came with the shell. Companies like
TechStyle

have made a business of it.

A laptop shell consists of:



Chassis



Motherboard




Optical drive



Display



Keyboard




Graphics Card


This means that anyone wanting to build a whitebook must find:



Microprocessor




RAM




Wireless card

At this point, there are n
o real standards for the
form factor

(shape and design) of
laptop parts. Processors designed for laptops are available for sale, but finding a
motherboard for those chips is a different story. Hard drives are pretty standard, but other
parts may take some

digging.

In 1979, William Moggridge of Grid Systems Corporation created the first functioning
portable computer:
The
Grid Compass Computer 1109
. NASA bought a handful of them at
$800 apiece for use in the space program.

Other companies, like Gavilan Computer and Apple, introduced other portable
computers in the following years. The first commercially viable machi
ne, however, was
the
IBM PC Convertible
, introduced in 1986.

Weighing in at a hefty 12 lbs (5.4 kg), the PC Convertible sold for $3,500. It was the
first portable computer with the clamshell design used in today's laptops. The success of the
22


PC Convertibl
e was the catalyst for competitors like Compaq and Toshiba to switch to the
clamshell design

in their portable computers. And so began the era of the laptop computer.


Vocabulary


processing power

производительность (системы)
,

вычислительная мощность

graphics

processing


обработка графических данных

sound

power


акустическая мощность

equipment


аппаратура, оборудование, оснащение

cabinet
,
chassis
,
system

unit

системный блок

cabinet, chassis, enclos
ure,


housing, package, case

корпус




tower

башня, вертикальный корпус
,

одна из модификаций корпуса

add
-
in, built
-
in, embedded,

integrated


встроенный, дополнительный

power


мощность

produce

heat


нагревать

overheat



перегрев
,
перегревать
(
ся
)

cool = co
ol down; cool off

охлаждаться, остывать

voltage




электрическое напряжение

high

voltage



высокое напряжение

low

voltage



низкое напряжение

clock

speed

тактовая частота; измеряется в мегагерцах

power

consumption

потребляемая мощность

setting

установк
а; регулирование; регулировка; настройка

settings

установочные параметры, параметры настройки

mount

устанавливать; монтировать, собирать

mounting

монтаж, сборка; установка

plug

in

подключать, встраивать

pin

контакт, штырёк

ball


шаровой элемент; шар

socket

гнездо, сокет, разъём

sleep

mode

режим ожидания

run


проход, прогон (программы)

make up (for)

компенсировать

23


performance

производительность, быстродействие, эффективность

bus

шина

application

приложение, прикладная программа

productivity

application


раб
очее приложение (в отличие от "игрушки")

memory

module


модуль памяти, модуль запоминающего устройства

spin

(
spun
,
spun
),
rotate

крутить(ся), вращаться

bay

отсек для установки встраиваемых [дисковых] накопителей

modular design


блочная конструкция; модул
ьная конструкция

hot swapping

"горячая" замена, замена во время работы (без выключения
электропитания)

warm

swapping


"теплая" замена

capability

возможность; способность
;
производительность
;

характеристика

GPU


(
Graphics

Processing

Unit
)

графический про
цессор

r
endering

визуализация
;
предоставление (помощи и т. п.)
; перевод,
изложение; интерпретация

controller



контроллер микросхема

FireWire

стандарт высокопроизводительной последовательной шины
IEEE

1394

s
peaker



динамик ПК, акустическая колонка

LiIon

b
atteries



литиум ионная

power

supply

(
PS
)


источник [блок] питания

life span



срок службы; долговечность, жизненный отрезок

charge




заряд, заряжать

overcharge



перезаряжать, перегружать

overcharge

of

battery


избыточный заряд аккумуляторной батареи

r
echarge



подзаряжать

whitebook
,
whitebox


немарочная сборка( о компьютере)

modding

(mod),

modification



модификация

void




делать

недействительным
,
уничтожать
,
аннулировать

clam
-
shell



складной (о конструкции корпуса компьютера)


1.

Answer the followin
g questions:

24



H
ow can laptops be efficient enough to run on battery power alone?

What is the primary difference between laptops and desktops?

What contribute to higher laptop prices?

What distinguishes the laptop CPU?

How can laptop's
memory

make up for some of the reduced CPU performance?

2.

Find in the text the

equivalents to the following words and phrases :

ценовой разрыв
сокращается

продажи

портативных

компьютеров

фактически
превысили

продажи настольных

радикальное

отличие

состоит

в

способе

сборки

соединять

при помощи

проводов и беспроводным способом


встроенный

экран


работать

с

более низким

напряжением

и

т
актовой частотой


замедлять

работу

процессора

работать

от

сети

работать

на

батарейках

вскрытие корпуса приводит к аннулированию гарантии


3.

Match t
he terms to

the definitions:


Term
s

Definition
s

H
ardware

a printed circuit board into which other boards can b
e plugged

S
oftware

a combination of shape and design

operating system

a disk made from a magnetic material used a storage device

motherboard


the programs and routines which allow a computer to operate; it usually
consists of a group of programs which coordinate the software and
hardware of a computer system

hard disk

units connected to the CPU

p
eripheral
s

the physi
cal units that make up a computer system

25


C
loc
k

a type of memory that is used in high
-
performance systems, inserted
between the processor and memory

cache

memory

an electronic device, generally a

stable oscillator, that generates a
repetitive series of pulses

form factor

programs and instructions executed by the computer


4.

Make up a plan and retell the text.


5.

Different meanings of the phrasal verbs are given.
Translate
the
following
phrasal verbs

and c
onstruct

your own sentences
:

fit in




If you manage to fit a person or task in, you manage to find time to deal with them.



If you fit in as part of a group, you seem to belong there because you are similar to the
other people in it.

B
e socially compa
tible with other members of a group
.


fit in
,
fit into



B
e in harmony with other elements in a situation
. C
onstitute part of a situation or
larger structure
.


fit out, fit up



If you fit someone or something out, or you fit them up, you provide them with
equ
ipment and other things that they need.

make out



If you try to make something out, you try to understand it or decide whether or not it
is true.

make up



The people or things that make up something are the members or parts that form that
thing.



Be reconcile
d after a quarrel.


make up for




To make up for a bad experience or the loss of something means to make the situation
better or make the person involved happier.

Syn: compensate


6.

Render the following text
.

26


Нужно ли торопиться и менять
настольный компьютер на ноутбук
?


Действительно ли ноутбуки вытесняют настольные компьютеры? Попробуем
разобраться, чем хороши и плохи более сов
ременные решения.

Ни для кого не секрет, что появившиеся сравнительно недавно ноутбуки заметно
потеснили настольные к
омпьютеры
. Попробуем разобраться, к
аковы преимущества и
недостатки

более

современных

решений.


Главное, что отличает ноутбук от н
астольного компьютера,


его мобильность.
Небольшой вес и размер позволяют носить его с собой, взять в другой город. Нет
необходимости подсоединять к ноутбуку внешние устройства; благодаря аккумулятору
он может функционировать в условиях отсутствия электро
сети. Кроме того, обычно он
имеет встроенный Wi
-
Fi, что позволяет подключаться к беспроводному Интернету.


В то же время ноутбук стоит гораздо дороже десктопа. Кроме того, ноутбук
обычно имеет ограничения по мощности, и даже самый лучший из них ус
тупает в
мощности качественным настольным компьютерам. В десктопе можно
модернизировать те или иные составляющие, в то время как для ноутбука эта
возможность не всегда существует. В отдельных случаях возникают сложности,
связанные с совместимостью разных о
перационных систем. Из
-
за того, что лэптоп
очень небольшой по размеру, на его клавиатуре меньше клавиш, чем в настольном
компьютере, и пользоваться ею не так удобно.


Extended Activities


Expressing your Opinion


Useful expressions:

focus

on, discuss, exa
mine,
consider,

view
,
take

up





рассматривать
,
изучать

express
,
give
,
offer
,
pass
,
state

an

opinion

выражать

мнение


form

an opinio
n

about



состави
ть

мнени
е

о

have a high opinion of



быть

высокого

мнения

have a low opinion of




быть

низкого

мнения

hav
e

no

settled

opinions



не

иметь

определенных

взглядов


have

no

opinion

of




не иметь мнения о (ком
-
л., чем
-
л.)

in

my

opinion





по моему мнению, по
-
моему

27


conflicting opinion




противоречив
ое

мнени
е

considered opinion




обоснованное мнение

groundless
, baseless
opinion



необоснованное

мнение

opposing

opinion




противоположное мнение

an

opinion

about
,
on




мнение по поводу

rate
,
value





судить о ц
енности, значимости


1.

PC notebook sales outpace desktop sales. Will notebooks displace
desktops from th
e personal computer market? State your opinion.

28


Unit 4

N
otebooks

vs N
etbooks vs
U
ltra
-
mobile PCs


In early 2008, the mobile computer landscape was dominated by
laptop

computers.
There we
re a few alternatives to traditional laptops
--

tablet PCs, advanced
PDAs

and even a
few smartphones could perform many basic computing tasks. But the laptop computer set the
standar
d for mobile computing
--

some companies offered laptops that were nearly as
powerful as their desktop counterparts.

A year later, the traditional laptop faces some competition in the mobile computing
market. It can be confusing for consumers
--

there's a

host of new terms and categories to take
into consideration when shopping for a mobile computer. There are laptops, notebooks,
netbooks and ultra
-
mobile PCs. But what's the difference? Are the terms interchangeable? Are
they well
-
defined?

The answer to th
ese questions depends upon whom you ask. One person may call a
particular PC a netbook while another insists it's a notebook. There's no universal definition
upon which you can rely.

There are, however, some general guidelines we can use. Laptop computers,

notebooks
and netbooks use the same basic form factor
--

the main differentiator is size. That form factor
is a computer with two main parts: a screen and a
keyboard

attached by hinges. In gene
ral,
netbook computers are smaller and lighter than notebook computers, which in turn are smaller
and lighter than laptops. But there are no specific size or weight classes for computers. So, for
example, if the computer has an 11
-
inch (27.9 centimeter) sc
reen, is it a netbook or a
notebook? That's where people disagree.

Let's start with laptops and notebooks. Some people use the terms interchangeably
because many of the laptops on the market are smaller and lighter than their predecessors. As
laptop techn
ology evolves, manufacturers are able to pack more power into a smaller package.
The notebook format is becoming the norm.

But there are still some laptops that are too large to be considered notebooks. The
Lenovo ThinkPad W700ds has a 17
-
inch (43.2
-
centim
eter) main screen and a retractable 10
-
inch (25.4
-
centimeter) secondary screen. It weighs 11 pounds (about 5 kilograms) and is 2.1
inches (5.3 centimeters) thick. Gaming laptops can also be on the large side
--

Toshiba's
Qosmio X305 weighs 9 pounds and has

a 17
-
inch (43.2
-
centimeter) screen. While these
computers are portable, you probably don't want to lug them around all day long.

29


Notebook computers are lighter than the
laptops

we looked at i
n the previous section.
They usually have screens ranging from 12 to 17 inches (30.5 to 43.2 centimeters) and weigh
around 5 to 6 pounds (2.3 to 2.7 kilograms). Ideally, a notebook computer has the same
processing power and features as larger laptop comput
ers. Many manufacturers charge a
premium price for the convenience of a small computer that packs a big punch.

The Lenovo ThinkPad X300 is a notebook computer. It has a 13.3
-
inch (33.8
centimeter) screen and weighs only 3.2 pounds (1.5 kilograms), making i
t a lightweight in the
notebook category. When closed, it measures only .9 inches (2.3 centimeters) thick. It also has
many of the features you'd find in a typical laptop computer: a WiFi card, a
Bluetooth

antenna, a dual
-
core processor, 1 gigabyte (GB) of RAM and a 64
-
GB solid
-
state hard drive.
It also has a DVD drive and an integrated Web camera. It comes with the
Windows Vista

operating system.

Netbook computers are relative newcomers to the computer market. The general
definition for a netbook computer is that they are smaller, less powerful and less expensive
than notebook computers.


Netbooks and cloud computing go hand
-
in
-
hand. A
cloud computing network

is a
collection of servers that provides data storage and processing power over the Internet.
Ideally, a cloud computing service eliminates the need for an expensive, powerful personal
computer. The machines on the Internet
do all the hard work for you.

When they first began to get attention in early 2008, netbooks seemed to contradict the
popular philosophy in the computer market. For many years, the prevailing strategy for
computer consumers was to find the fastest, most po
werful computer in their price range. But
consumers are beginning to understand that they don't necessarily need a bleeding
-
edge
computer for most of the tasks they perform. And as the Web takes a more prevalent role in
computing, the processing requiremen
ts for consumer computers become less demanding.

Though people disagree on specific metrics for netbooks, in general they have screens
smaller than 12 inches (30.5 centimeters) and weigh only one or two pounds (.5 to .9
kilograms). Typically they cost betw
een $300 and $600. An example is the Asus EEE PC 4G.
It weighs two pounds (.9 kilograms) and has a seven
-
inch (17.8 centimeter) screen. The
processor is an Intel Celeron M 353/630 megahertz chip and it has 512 megabytes of
RAM
. It
comes with a 4 GB solid
-
state hard drive and costs around $400.

Tha
t leaves us with the
ultra
-
mobile PC

(UMPC). Technically, the term applies
specifically t
o a Microsoft product. It's a tablet computer
--

imagine a computer screen
without a keyboard. The interface for most UMPCs is a
touchscreen

with a stylus and an array
30


of physical keys set alo
ng the sides of the screen. These tablets tend to be light like netbooks
and feature small screens in the 4
-

to 7
-
inch (10.2
-

to 17.8
-
centimeter) range.

Some UPMC models have a full
QWERTY key
board

that you can slide out from under
the screen. Others rely exclusively on the touchscreen interface. Most run on the
Windows
Vista

operating system. While UMPCs are more portable than
notebooks, they are more
expensive than netbooks.

Samsung's Q1UP
-
XP Ultra Mobile PC is a good example. It has a seven
-
inch (17.8
-
centimeter) LCD touchscreen display and weighs just two pounds (.9 kilograms). It has a split
QWERTY keyboard with keys on eith
er side of the screen. It's also WiFi and
Bluetooth

compatible. The computer has a microphone and can serve as a voice over Internet protocol
(
VOIP
) device. The price tag for the Q1UP
-
XP at the time of this writing is $1,299.

But some people use the term UMPC to describe all small computer devices, including
netbooks. Others use it to differentiate pricey mobile computers fr
om inexpensive netbooks.
For example, while Apple calls its MacBook Air product a notebook, others say it doesn't fit
the notebook category. The Air is thin enough to fit inside a standard manila envelope and
features a 13.3
-
inch (33.8
-
centimeter)
LED

backlit display. But its processor is less powerful
than other MacBook models. It has limited storage space and only a few ports. The Air also
costs a pretty penny: the starting price is $1,799.

The Ai
r's design, processing power and price make it tricky to categorize. That's why
some journalists use the term UMPC to describe devices that are portable but are more
powerful and expensive than netbooks. Using this terminology, a netbook is small,
inexpens
ive and has modest processing power. A UMPC is small, more expensive and
generally has a better processor than a netbook.

New products will blur the lines further between netbooks, notebooks and UPMCs. At
CES 2009, Asus showed off the Eee T91 and T101H com
puters. These devices are a cross
between tablets and netbooks. They feature screens mounted on a pivot
--

you can turn the
screen around and fold it back over the keyboard. A
touchscreen

inte
rface allows you to use
the netbook as a tablet PC. These products will hit the market in 2009. At the time of this
article, Asus has not made an official announcement regarding the price of these products.

Smartphones

also have the potential to make the mobile computing landscape more
confusing. As smartphones become more powerful, they begin to fill the same niche as
netbooks. In general, smartphones range in price from around $199 to mor
e than $900.
They're very portable and multifunctional. Companies that design applications for
smartphones may incorporate more cloud computing strategies in their products in the near
future.

31


At the same time, some netbook manufacturers are partnering wit
h
cell phone

carriers to
include cellular technology in their products. Some netbooks can access 3G, EDGE and other
cellular networks for data transfers. While data transfers using these pro
tocols tend to be
slower than
WiFi
, the infrastructure for cellular networks has a stronger foundation than WiFi
networks.

One thing is for certain: mobility is important. People want to
be able to access
applications and data any time and anywhere. They may want a device that has its own
spacious hard drive or a netbook they can use to log into a remote data storage service
--

or
they may not know what they want.

While netbooks accounted
for a significant percentage of computer sales during the
2008 holiday season, the return rate on netbooks is relatively high. That may be due to
consumers misunderstanding the purpose of netbooks. The devices aren't as powerful as
notebooks, laptops and d
esktop computers. They also tend to have smaller keyboards and
some people have trouble typing during an extended computing session. And people who
choose netbooks running on
Linux

may become
frustrated with an unfamiliar operating
system (OS).

Despite the return rates, the popularity of netbooks and other portable computing
devices continues to grow. The convenience of these devices coupled with tough economic
times may mean the days of the su
per
-
powerful and expensive desktop PC are numbered.



Vocabulary


counterpart




эквивалент; аналог; прототип

interchangeable



заменяемый, сменный, равнозначный

well
-
defined




чёткий, определённый

hinge





шарнир

evolve





эволюционировать, развиваться

retractable




выдвижной

charge

a

price




назначить

цену

bleeding
-
edge




новейший
,
передовой

VoIP





передача голоса по IP
-
протоколу

backlit

display




дисплей с задней подсветкой эк
рана

blur

the

lines




стирать грань

access





доступ

32


rate

of

return




уровень
доходности, доходность, рентабельность

log in





зарегистр

ироваться, войти в систему

remote





дистанционный
,
удаленный


1.

Put 7
-
10 questions to the text.

2.

Find in the text th
e

equivalents to the following words and phrases :

современные КПК

вычислительная задача

принимать во внимание

взаимозаменяемые термины

технология развивается

выдвижной вспомогательный экран

экраны в диапазоне 12
-
17 дюймов

назначить цену

противоречить

доми
нирующая стратегия

новейший компьютер

термин применяется по отношению к продукции Майкрософт


3.

Find
in the text
the definitions to

the terms
laptop, notebook, netbook
,
UMPC
, and

tablet PC
.

Do you agre
e or disagree with the above
-
mention
ed definitions?

Discu
ss it with a

partner.


4.

Make
up a
plan

and retell the text.


5.

Render the following
text
.


Нетбук



это отличное решение, если вам часто нужен компьютер под рукой, но
нет желания постоянно носить с собой громоздкий и большой ноутбук. Согласитесь,
что в вашей
сумке всегда найдётся место для устройства размерами даже меньше листа
А4 и весом до от 1 до 1,5 кг. Да и средняя цена нетбука в 8−15 тыс. рублей гораздо
ниже цены хорошего ноутбука, стоимость которого только начинается от 27 тыс.
рублей.

33


Клавиатура устрой
ства хоть и меньше стандартных размеров, но это дело
привычки, и спустя несколько дней работы на нетбуке вы сможете так же спокойно
набирать тексты как и делали это на стандартной клавиатуре.

Небольшой тачпад



минус не только нетбуков, но и стандартных но
утбуков.
Подключите внешнюю мышку



работать станет удобнее, да и весит она немного
чтобы брать её с собой.

Ещё одно неудобство, как может показаться сначала



это отсутствие
встроенного привода CD/DVD
-
ROM в нетбуках. Но зато в них есть 2−3 USB порта для
п
одключения флешек или внешних жёстких дисков, так что с хранением информации
проблем быть не должно.

Из всего вышесказанного, можно сделать вывод, что нетбук идеально подойдёт
для путешествий и использования вне дома или офиса в качестве второго компьютера
.
Он портативен, обладает маленькими весом и размерами, а также небольшой ценой.
Нетбук удобно использовать для серфинга в Интернете, общения в ICQ и Skype,
работой с текстом и таблицами. Просмотр фильмов и прослушивание музыки также
можно осуществлять на
нетбуке, а с помощью VGA
-

выхода выводить изображение на
внешний проектор или монитор. Нетбук будет универсальным помощником, как
студенту, так и часто путешествующему бизнесмену, выполняя все обычные задачи,
которые требуются от компьютера.


Extended A
cti
vities


1.

Which computer will dominate the market? State your own opinion.


2.

Compare different types of portable computers you are familiar with.


Comparing and Contrasting

A
consideration or estimate of the similarities or dissimilarities between two
device
s


compare

to




ставить

наравне
,
уподоблять

compare

with

соответствовать

(
требованиям
,
стандартам
) ;
выдерживат
ь

сравнение

с

(
чем
-
л
.,
кем
-
л
.)

beyond

compare




beyond

(
all )comparison


вне (всякого) сравнения

34


bear

comparison

with




stand comparison with


выдержать

срав
нение

с

T
here is no

comparison between them.

Их

невозможно сравнивать.

contrast

(
n
)

['
k
ɔ
ntr
ɑː
st
]



контраст; полярность; противоположность

contrast

(
v
)

[
k
ə
n
'
tr
ɑː
st
]



противопоставлять, сравнивать

by

contrast

with

smth



по контрасту с чем
-
л.

present

a

c
ontrast



являть собой противоположность

in

contrast

to

/
with

smth


в противоположность чему
-
л.; по сравнению с чем
-
л.



35


Section 2

Computer Basics


Unit
1

Motherboard


The base of operations for the brains of a computer is the
motherboard
. The
motherboard

serves as a literal foundation for many of the other elements inside your
computer. It's a large printed circuit board. The motherboard provides the connections and
sockets that let other c
omponents communicate with each other. Motherboards come in
different shapes and sizes
--

a motherboard in a laptop computer might not look like one from
a desktop
PC
.

The computer brain is a
microprocessor

called the
central processing unit

(
CPU
). The
CPU is a chip containing millions of tiny transistors. It's the CPU's job to perform the
calculations necessary to make the computer work

--

the transistors in the CPU manipulate the
data. You can think of a CPU as the decision maker.

Another critical component in computers is memory. The two most important kinds of
memory are
read
-
only memory

(
ROM
) and
random access memory

(
RAM
). Computers

can
read data stored in
ROM
, but can't write new data to it. With
RAM
, computers can read from
and write to that memory. Without computer memor
y, every calculation on a computer would
be
stateless
. That means there'd be no way to preserve information from one moment to the
next and every process would start on a clean slate. That's not useful if you want to create
complex programs.

Many desktop
PCs have the capacity for additional RAM. The user simply has to open
the computer and plug RAM chips into the appropriate sockets on the motherboard. But other
computers are sealed systems
--

you aren't meant to open them and make changes so you're
pretty

much stuck with what you've got.

A chip called the
Basic Input/Output System

(
BIOS
) works closely with the CPU.
BIOS

is a specific kind of ROM. If you think of the CPU as the brain of the computer,
then you
might consider BIOS to be the spine. It's the job of BIOS to handle interactions between the
software running on a computer and the machine's hardware components.

The motherboard, CPU, ROM, RAM and BIOS handle most of the heavy lifting for
compute
r processes. They're in charge of allocating resources to applications so that they run
36


smoothly. They also accept input from devices like
keyboards
,
mice

and other computer
accessories.

So what else is inside your
computer
?



Power supplies and batteries



Drives



Modems and Wi
-
Fi cards



Sound and graphics cards



Cooling systems


The
power su
pply

component provides a supply of
electricity

throughout the rest of the
computer. When you plug your computer into a power socket, electricity flows from the cord
into a shielded box contain
ing a
transformer
. The
transformer
's job is to convert the incoming
electricity into the proper voltage for each part of the machine that needs electricity. If you're
using a
laptop
, some of that power goes to the
laptop's battery

to charge it. When unplugged, a
laptop has to rely on the charge inside
the battery for its power needs.

Computers have a small battery inside them that's always on, even when you power
down the rest of the computer. This battery helps preserve data stored in a special chip in
charge of maintaining information about your compu
ter's hardware. It also powers a clock,
which is why your computer should keep time accurately even if you turn it off or unplug it.

The
drives

in a computer are the devices that let you store and recall data and
applications. Most computers have a
hard dr
ive

--

either a series of thin
platters

that store
information using magnetic recordings or a
solid state

hard drive

with no moving parts. In
either case, the hard drive allows you to store info
rmation and applications directly to your
computer.

CD
-
ROM

or
DVD
-
ROM

drives allow you to use media storage devices like compact
discs or DVDs with your computer.

Modems

are machines that let computers communicate with other computing systems.
Modems are

closely related to
wireless cards
, which are radio transceivers that can send and
receive data through a specific frequency of radio waves.

Sound

and
graphics cards

are pretty self
-
explanatory. They give your computer the
ability to display graphics or pl
ay sounds and music. Not all cards are the same
--

some
support more software formats than others. Graphics cards in particular come in a wide
variety of specs.

Understanding PC Buses

37


Think of a
bus

as the electronic highway on which
data

travels within a
computer
,
from one component to another. Basically, it's the conduit u
sed by your entire system to
communicate with your
CPU
. A bus is a collection of wires and connectors through which
the data is transmitted. When used in reference to personal computers, the term bus

usually
refers to what is commonly called the
system bus
. This bus is considered the first bus on the
electronic highway and it connects the CPU to the
main memory

(RAM) on the
motherboard
. All buses consist of two parts
--

an
address bus

and a data bu
s.

The
data bus

transfers actual data whereas the
address bus

transfers information about
the data and where it should go. The address bus is used to identify particular locations
(
addresses
) in

main memory. The width of the address bus (that is, the number of wires)
determines how many unique memory locations can be addressed. Modern PCs and Macs
have as many as 36 address lines, which enables them theoretically to access 64
GB

of main
memory. However, the actual amount of memory that can be accessed is usually much less
than this theoretical limit due to chipset and
mothe
rboard

limitations.

The size of a bus, known as its width, is important because it determines how much
data can be transmitted at one time. The bus size actually indicates the number of wires in
the bus. For example, a
32
-
bit

bus has 32 wires or connectors that transmit 32 bits
simultaneously (referred to as


in
parallel
). It would be considered "32
-
bits wide." A
16
-
bit

bus has 16 wires or connectors that can transmit 16 bits of data in parallel. You would say it
is "16
-
bits wide."


Vocabulary


printed circuit board



печатная плата

plug





подключать, вставлять в разъём

socket






гнездо
,
(проф)

сокет

BIOS





БИОС, базовая система ввода / вывода

p
ower

suppl
y

(
PS
)



источник питания, блок питания

drive





дисковод

Wi
-
Fi

(
Wireless

Fidelity
)


стандарт

Wi
-
Fi

на

беспров
одную

связь

cord





(
эл
)

шнур
,
кабель

shielded




защищённый

charge





заряжать

power

(n)




мощность
,
энергия

power

(
v
)




снабжать энергией; питать (электро)энергией

38


frequency = f




частота

transceiver


устройство для подключения хост
-
устройства к
ср
едствам передачи данных, напр. хост
-
компьютера
к локальной сети, трансивер

bus

шина

system bus

системная

шина

address

bus




ши
на адреса, адресная шина

data

bus




шина данных


Basic T
erminology


Modem

Short for modulator and demodulator. A device that can convert a digital bit
stream into an analog signal suitable for transmission over some analog
communication channel (modulatio
n), and can convert incoming analog
signals back into digital signals (de
m
odulation).

Modems are used to connect
digital devices across analog transmission lines.


Use the following expressions t
o describe power supplies and batteries:


m
ains





сеть

элек
троснабжения
,
питающая

сеть

mains
-
operated, line
-
operated

работающий

от

сети
,
с

питанием

от

сети

run on batteries



работать

на

батарейках

run on

electricity

operate on electricity



работать

от

сети

ch
arge (up) a battery



зарядить

батарею


recharge a ba
ttery



перезарядить

батарею


d
ischarge / run down a battery

разряжать

аккумулятор


the battery is dead / flat


б
атарея села

power off, power down, switch off

выключить

power on, power up, switch on

включить


1.

Put 7
-
10 questions to the text.

2.