neurons and the brain

runmidgeAI and Robotics

Oct 20, 2013 (4 years and 21 days ago)

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eurons and the brain

Neuron:

a nerve cell. The basic building block of the
nervous system

Dendrite
:

The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that
receive messages and conduct impulses toward cell body

Axon
:

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching
terminal fibers. Used to pass messages to other neurons or
muscles and glands

Myelin Sheath
:

A layer of fatty tissue surrounding the axon
of many neurons. Speeds up message transmission



Neural connections are VERY small. It’s hard to see, even
with a microscope


Terminal branches of one neuron connect to the soma or
dendrite of another neuron creating a
synapse

Synapse
:
the connection point of one neuron to another

Neurotransmitters
:

chemical messages that are sent across
synapses to start an impulse (message)



1.
Message formed and sent from the
soma
. Don’t forget
that messages are simply
neurotransmitters

(chemicals)

2.
Message travels down the
axon


3.
Message is sped up by the
Myelin Sheath

4.
Message reaches
terminal branch

and prepares to jump

5.
Message jumps
synapse

6.
Message is received by the next neuron

Nervous System
:

the body’s speedy, electrochemical
communication system

Central Nervous System (CNS)
:
The brain and spinal chord

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
:
the sensory and motor
neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of
the body. Two parts:

1.
Autonomatic

(ANS)
: controls the glands and muscles of
the internal organs. AUTOMATIC

2.
Somatic (SNS)
: controls the body skeletal muscles
SKELETAL


Mirror Neurons Video (TED Talks)

Endocrine System
:

the body’s slow chemical communication
system that uses hormones and the blood stream

Hormones
:
chemical messengers, made by endocrine glands

Pituitary Gland
:

regulates growth and controls other
endocrine glands. Located under the Hypothalamus

Adrenal Glands
:
a pair of endocrine glands just above the
kidneys that produce adrenaline and noradrenaline which
arouse the body in times of stress



The Nervous System is FAST and is ELECTROCHEMICAL


The Endocrine System is SLOW and uses HORMONES