STUDY OF IRIS RECOGNITION SCHEMES
Under guidance of
DR K R RAO
UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON
This project focu
ses upon studying
the various iris
recognition schemes availab
e and an analysis of the different algorithms using
Chinese academy of sciences
institute of automation (
Iris recognition is amongst the most robust and accurate b
available in the market today with existing large scale applications supporting
databases in excess of millions of people.
is a thin, circular structure in
, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the
the amount of light reaching the
. Eye color is the color of the iris, which
can be green, blue, or brown. In some cases it can be hazel (a combination of
light brown, green and gold), grey, violet, or even pink. In response to the
mount of light entering the eye, muscles attached to the iris expand or contract
the aperture at the center of the iris, known as the
. The larger the pupil,
the more light can enter.
The iris is a protected organ whose random texture is stable throug
hout the life
and hence can be used as an identity document offering a very high degree of
e 1 shows the location of iris in the human eye.
Figure1:Location of iris in human eye
Advantages of using iris as a recognition
Iris is an internal organ that is well protected against damage and wear by a
highly transparent and sensitive membrane (the cornea). This distinguishes it
from fingerprints, which can be difficult to recognize after years of certain types
The iris is mostly flat, and its geometric configuration is only controlled by two
complementary muscles (the sphincter pupillae and dilator pupillae) that control
the diameter of the pupil. This makes the iris shape far more predictable tha
for instance, that of the face.
An iris scan is similar to taking a photograph and can be performed from about
cm to a few meters away.
There is no need for the person being identified to touch any equipment that has
recently been touched by a stran
ger, thereby eliminating an objection that has
been raised in some cultures against fingerprint scanners, where a finger has to
touch a surface, or retinal scanning, where the eye must be brought very close
to an eyepiece (like looking into a
Disadvantages of using iris for identification
As with other photographic biometric technologies, iris recognition is
susceptible to poor image quality, with assoc
iated failure to enroll rates for
recognition with respect to matching of images.
Many commercial Iris scanners can be easily fooled by a high quality image of
an iris or face in place of the real thing.
The accuracy of scanners can be affected by changes in
As with other photographic biometric technologies, iris recognition
susceptible to poor image quality, with asso
ciated failure to enroll rates for
recognition with respect to mat
ching of images.
General working of biometric systems 
A biometric system first captures the sample of the feature which is then
transformed using some sort of mathematical function
into a biometric template
and this biometric template will provide a normalized, efficient
discriminating representation of the feature, which can then be
compared with other templ
ates in order to determine identity.
Most biometric systems allow two modes of operation namely enrolment and
In the proposed project also these two modes are used.
Overview of the proposed project:
In the project the various algorithms
are discussed and a
ed like as
Recognition of human i
ris patterns for
ntification as proposed by
Phase based iris
identification by Miyawaza
iscrete cosine transform
Iris recognition by Monro et al
and other like techniques available.
The various functions, filters and the processes involved will be studied and the
compared on the basis of previous studies done using the same
 will be used
for images of iris to be analyz
for the different codes
By understanding the techniques available and doing a comparative study an
will be done
about the features involved,
dvantages and the
nd the project will be extended for a more genuine detection.
Future scope and extension:
The project can be extended to include a
database with increased genuine
detection which involves forming more templates and improvising the current
code. The h
ardware of the equipment
can be worked upon
which is used to capture the image
to improve the performance
J. Daugman, "High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of
Transactions on Pattern Analysis and
, Vol. 15, No. 11,
J. Daugman, " How iris recognition works",
deo technology, Vol.14,
 L. Masek, "Recognition of human iris patterns for biometric
M.S. thesis, University of Western Australia, 2003
R. Wildes, " Iris recognition: an emerging biometric technology",
, Vol. 85, No. 9, pp.
Biometric personal identification system based on iris
analysis. United States Patent, Patent Number:
S. Sanderson and J. Erbetta, "
Authentication for secure environments
based on iris scanning technology",
IEE Colloquium on Visual Biometrics
R. Wildes, J. Asmuth, G. Green, S. Hsu, R. Kolc
zynski, J. Matey and
" A system for automated iris
Applications of Computer Vision
, Sarasota, FL, pp.
W. Boles and B. Boashash,
A human identification technique using
images of the iris and wavelet transform",
IEEE Transactions on
, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp.1185
Gongazaga and R.
M. da C
Extraction and selection of dynamic
of human iris", IEEE Computer Graphics and Image P
MATLAB functions for computer vision and i
L. Masek and P. Kovesi
MATLAB source code for a biometric
em based on iris
school of computer
science and software engineering, The university of w
S.Rakshit and Z. Dexin,
"DCT based iris recognition",
attern analysis and machine inte
Issue 4, pp.
sample source codes available at:
 Chinese Academy of Sciences
ute of Automation. Database of
greyscale eye i
 K. Miyazawa, K. Ito, K. Aoki, T. Kobayashi and K. Nakajima,
efficient iris recognition algorithm using phase based image matching ",
nference on Image processing, pp.
 W. Kong and D. Zhang,
Accurate iris segmentation based on novel
eyelash detection model",
Proceedings of 2001 International
Intelligent Multimedia, Video and
Speech Processing, Hong
 N. Ritter,
"Location of the pupil
iris border in slit
lamp images of the
Proceedings of the International
Conference on Im
 Y. Zhu, T. Tan and Y.
Biometric personal identi
ings of the 15th International Conference on
ecognition, Spain, Vol.
K. R.Rao and P.
''Discrete cosine transform