Intelligent Smart Approach to Design an Automatic Featured Car

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Oct 29, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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VSRD
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IJEECE, Vol. 2 (4
), 2012
,
1
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5


____________________________

1
Lecturer
,

2
Assistant Professor,

1,2
Department of
Electronics
& Communication
Engineering,
Galgotia College of
Engineering & Technology
,
G.Noida
,
Uttar
Pradesh
, INDIA
.

*Correspondence :
navneet1979@gmail.com

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Intelligent

Smart

Approach

to

Design
an

Automatic Featured Car

1
Navneet Sharma
*

and

2
Divya Dixit

ABSTRACT

Intelligent vehicles enhance the safety and convenience for
both the drivers and passengers. An intelligent
vehicle uses various intelligent sensing and control algorithms to assess the vehicle’s environment and assist the
driver with safe driving. These algorithms include the collision warning system that allows t
he driver to avoid a
collision. Because of the ability to enhance the safety and convenience, intelligent vehicles becomes a crucial
research area for the intell
igent transportation system
Car headlights are among the most efficient safety
measures availab
le. Studies have shown that the accident rate is 1.5 to 2 times higher during night
-
time than in
daylight.
The general trend in the Westernized world has been a decrease in road casualties, although the impact
that road deaths and injuries have on society
is still too great

t
echnology can be used to make vehicles that allow
a much greater level of vehicle automation to take place. These changes will also mean a much greater
interaction between the driver, the road environment, the vehicle, and other vehicle
s using the transport system.
All the steps taken towards automation of vehicles, reduces the instances of driver error, which is a contributory
factor in at least 9 out of every 10 road accidents. Technology supports a driver in different ways and at diff
erent
times depending on the vehicle or circumstances, and there are many potential interventions to prevent an
accident that can be implemented up until the point at which the accident occurs. There are areas of passive
safety in which improvements can be

made, such as safer vehicle drive system which has automatic headlights
and wipers and anti
-
collision system and vehicle
-
to
-
vehicle compatibility. However, progress in this field is
expected to slow and any future work about passive safety is likely to be

based around enhancing and
developing existing technology rather than new design initiatives.

Keywords :
***

1.

INTRODUCTION

Correct positioning of the light spot depends on many factors such as, for example, road conditions and the
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condition of the vehicle
. These factors change dynamically, and therefore, it is necessary for the light spot
position adjustment to be made continuously, by appropriate methods.There is research on headlight orientation
related to the position of the steering wheel so as to ensu
re proper lighting when taking a corner. There are also
many researches aimed at providing the automatic positioning of the lights depending on the car load and its
position in relation to the road. In addition, while the car is moving, its position in rel
ation to the road depends
on the acceleration and on any irregularities of the road [4] [5].The main reason for using vehicle headlights is
to improve the driving safety and visibility conditions of the driver, other traffic users and pedestrians [6].
Late
ly, several research papers and studies related to vehicle headlights and visibility conditions of the driver
have been published [7]
-
[9].In night
-
time driving conditions the purpose of road lighting is mainly to illuminate
the road surface, while the head
lights provide illumination to vertical surfaces, i.e. targets on the road. When the
impact of dipped headlights is added to the effects of road lighting, both the road surface and the target are
illuminated. In case the target is seen darker than the road

surface, the vehicle headlights may result in
decreasing the visibility of the target and may have a negative effect on driving safety [10].Development of
vehicle headlights has led to the increase of luminous fluxes of the headlights. High intensity disc
harge (HID)
headlamps with much greater intensity than halogen headlamps are becoming more and more common. Unlike
halogen headlamps, HID headlamps do not use a filament. Instead, they contain an inert gas (Xenon), which
emits light when it comes in contac
t with a high
-
voltage electrical arc [10].The project is about the movement of
headlight with the movement of steering wheel in the corners or on the road, giving the driver a better look of
the road. Microcontroller along with the steering motor is used t
o move the headlights with the movement of the
steering motor.
Light sensor, which sense intensity of light and turn on Headlight whenever intensity of light fall
below certain value and display massage “Night mode”
Several studies on visibility measures of

realistic
roadway tasks indicate that in road lighting conditions targets located on the road have mainly lower luminance
than the background [11]
-
[12]. Thus, increasing the luminance of the background against which a target is
viewed increases the target

contrast and chances of the target to be detected. It has been shown that under fixed
road lighting conditions, visual performance improves with increase in road surface luminance and with
decrease in vertical illuminance [13].When the impact of dipped he
adlights is added to the effects of road
lighting, both the road surface and the target are illuminated.During the night when a car comes from the
opposite side it’s hard for the driver to look it if its head lights are on, in such cases it is necessary th
at both the
cars use dippers. So the not to give problem to the driver the dippers should be automatic and should give a flash
before glowing such that the other car also uses its dipper. With the help of LDR and microcontroller the dippers
can be made aut
omatic providing no reason of distraction to the driver and a better vision at night. This can help
in reducing the accidents during night.Windshield wipers are important because they permit driving during rainy
and snowy conditions. Figure 1 shows the his
tory of wipers. Note that the last remarkable development was that
of electric wipers. Intermittent wipers which are convenient when it is drizzling or just after it has stopped
raining have recently been developed. In addition, stepless intermittent wiper
s, the interval of which can be
freely selected by the driver, and speed following wipers, the interval of which automatically changes in
response to the vehicle speed, are becoming popular [14].

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Research and development for raindrop detection started a

long time ago, but became more popular around
1970. The available detection methods are based on the following:



Impact energy variations,



Capacitance variations,



Conductivity variations,



Intensity variation.

Unfortunately, these wipers have drawbacks in
that they sometimes malfunction when exposed to vibration or
loud noise and may fail to operate when it is drizzling or snowing.

In developing the automatic wiper, we intended to fulfill the following purposes:



Convenience :

To dispense with troublesome wi
per operation needed when rainfall condition change or
when driving conditions change, including the car speed and entry to or exit from tunnels.



Comfort :

To operate the wiper with response to changing rainfall and driving conditions, thus keeping the
dri
ver’s windshield clear.



Installation :

T
he system is easy to install.

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2.

AUTOMATIC COLLISION DETECTION

Reducing the potential for collisions between vehicles, overhead cranes, monorail systems and fixed
objects/obstructions has been a challenge for the automo
bile and overhead material handling industry for many
years. Mechanical means like bumpers have been the major means of limiting the destructive effect of the
impact, besides this, road signs are also fixed on the roads to alert drivers of the nature of th
e road ahead simply
to avoid collision or accident. Advancement in technology has however turn things around. Sophisticated
designs and devices are now available to intelligently predict possibilities of collision and prevent it as
well.There have been man
y attempts through the years to develop an effective collision avoidance system that is
practical for use. In an ideal world, the system should supply timely, accurate and easily interpreted collision
avoidance information, warning of all other vehicles or

other obstructions that are likely to impinge on his path.
In recent time, a “Smart” cruise control on S
-
Class Mercedes Benz Vehicle is widely dispersed.The problem
with the sluggish development of this device is likely due more to complex liability issue

in the United States of
America than insufficient technology [15].Mention of collision avoidance often brings about the vision of
computer driven vehicles or automated highways with sensors embedded in the pavement. These systems would
direct vehicle to t
heir destinations in perfectly spaced convoys while occupant sit back and enjoy the ride. Such
a system is known as the Intellectual Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) and is been tested on a stretch of
highway in Southern California.But there are other less es
tablished systems that are classified as collision
avoidance. Many of these systems give vehicles “eyesight” enabling the vehicle to keep a watch on all the sides
and give a warning or automatically slow down if a collision situation is likely to occur.Col
lision avoidance
system operates in the following manner: a sensor installed at the front end of a vehicle constantly scans the
road ahead for vehicles or obstacles. When found, the system determines whether the vehicle is in imminent
danger of crashing, a
nd if so, a collision avoidance maneuver is undertaken [16].The project deals with the
collision of car while driving in reverse mode. Sensors are used to detect any obstacle/object in the path way and
give the data to the microcontroller, it process the d
ata and give the information about the obstacle to the driver.

3.

AUTOMATIC TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF CAR

3.1.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF ENGINE

Engine of a car is very important when driving safely is concerned. When the temperature of engine increases a
excess limit t
he engine can burst or may go to not working state. So to have the knowledge of engine’s
temperature is very necessary for the driver to drive safely. Various accidents have happened because of the
excess heating of the engine in the past [17]. To avoid su
ch circumstances driver should be informed with
proper data of the temperature of the engine.

We can use temperature sensor for the purpose along with the microcontroller to provide such a information.
Microcontroller processes the sensed data and compares

it with the limit provided to it to raise an alarm and
signal it to the driver, so that the driver can slow down the car or halt it to take necessary actions.

3.2.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL INSIDE THE CAR

To provide a good environment with cool temperature inside th
e car, air conditioners are used these days. In
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some cases the air conditioner do not work according to the temperature inside the car and keep on conditioning
the temperature on the settings in which they are set.To avoid such problems with the air condit
ioner
temperature sensing inside the car is necessary. Temperature sensor can be used to sense the temperature and
send it to the microcontroller. Microcontroller processes the data and sends the signal to the air conditioner to
regulate the temperature in
side the car according to the temperature inside the car and maintains it to a specific
temperature.

Because of the ability to enhance the safety and convenience, intelligent vehicles becomes a crucial research
area for the intelligent transportation syste
m.Automatic headlights are very important for the safe drive in nights
also the light spot position adjustment is very much required. The automatic control of the headlight position is
made with a microcontroller using fuzzy sets [18].
It was first introduc
ed to the North American market for the
2003 model year on the Porsche Cayenne and the Mercedes. The bulb housing is motorized and will physically
swivel with the movement of the steering wheel, deciding how far and how fast to turn based on the driving
in
puts.

Also the use of dippers is very important during night to avoid any collision or accident. Several studies on
visibility measures of realistic roadway tasks indicate that in road lighting conditions targets located on the road
have mainly lower lumin
ance than the background [11]
-
[12]. Thus, increasing the luminance of the background
against which a target is viewed increases the target contrast and chances of the target to be detected. It has been
shown that under fixed road lighting conditions, visua
l performance improves with increase in road surface
luminance and with decrease in vertical illuminance [13]. When the impact of dipped headlights is added to the
effects of road lighting, both the road surface and the target are illuminated [19].
Automati
c Light dimmer, which
consist of two LDR based light intensity sensor. These two sensors are placed 12 inch apart in front of vehicle in
vertical position. If upper sensor senses more intensity of light, it activates light in dimmer mode.
Among the
vehicle
parts that influence the driver's safety and convenience, a windshield wiper is an important part that
allows a driver to collect visual information during precipitation. The traditional wiper systems, however,
requires driver’s constant attention in adjus
ting the wiper speed and the intermittent wiper interval because the
amount of precipitation on the windshield constantly varies according to time and vehicle’s speed. Because the
manual adjustment of the wiper, it distracts driver's attention, which may b
e a direct cause of traffic accidents
[20].Intelligent wiper uses a rain or a water sensor, which sense the rain or precipitation on the windshield and
send the sensed data to the microcontroller. Microcontroller processes the data and sends it to the wipe
r switch
and wiper motor to turn on the wiper automatically without giving problem to the driver [14].There have been
many attempts through the years to develop an effective collision avoidance system that is practical for use. In
an ideal world, the syste
m should supply timely, accurate and easily interpreted collision avoidance information,
warning of all other vehicles or other obstructions that are likely to impinge on his path. In recent time, a
“Smart” cruise control on S
-
Class Mercedes Benz Vehicle i
s widely dispersed. Collision avoidance system
operates in the following manner: a sensor installed at the front end of a vehicle constantly scans the road ahead
for vehicles or obstacles. When found, the system determines whether the vehicle is in imminen
t danger of
crashing, and if so, a collision avoidance maneuver is undertaken [16].Collision detection involves algorithms
for checking for collision, i.e. intersection, of two given solids. Simulating what happens once a collision is
detected is sometimes

referred to as "collision response”. The Advanced Pre
-
Collision System is designed to
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help reduce the crash speed and damage in certain frontal collisions only. The included Driver Attention
Monitor is designed to alert the driver if a potential hazard is

detected ahead and the driver's face appears to be
turned away [16].The collision detection system can also help in by applying breaks. Brake Assist is designed to
help the driver take full advantage of the benefits of Automatic Brake Service (ABS). It is

not a substitute for
safe driving practices [21].In car temperature sensor of automobile air conditioner suffers from response
-
time
lag and drift causing control problem during transient modes and even during steady state conditions. Automatic
control of
air temperature in a vehicle is made difficult by environment variables such as radiant heat exchange,
distribution of air temperature, velocity around occupants [22], human clothing and humidity in passenger
compartment.Temperature sensor can be used to s
ense the temperature and send it to the microcontroller.
Microcontroller processes the data and sends the signal to the air conditioner to regulate the temperature inside
the car according to the temperature inside the car and maintains it to a specific te
mperature,When the
temperature of engine increases a excess limit the engine can burst or may go to not working state [23]. So to
have the knowledge of engine’s temperature is very necessary for the driver to drive safely. Temperature sensor
can be used fo
r this purpose along with the microcontroller to provide such a information. Microcontroller
processes the sensed data and compares it with the limit provided to it to raise an alarm and signal it to the
driver, so that the driver can slow down the car or
halt it to take necessary actions.

4.

SCOPE IDENTIFIED IN EXISTING WORK

Existing technology of headlight do not move it with steering and also do not turns the headlight on
automatically when the light is not appropriate for driving.

Directionally adaptive h
eadlight technology was
first introduced to the North American market for the 2003 model year on the Porsche Cayenne and the
Mercedes. So the work is going on on this technology from so many days but the technology is new and very
advantageous for the driv
er and to avoid accidents. In the project the attempt is to make such a headlight system
which turns on automatically when the light is inappropriate and also move headlight with the steering
movement.Use of dipper in night is very important for the better

view of the road and object on it to avoid.
Automatic dipper technology is not new and a lot of work has been done over it. Dipper automatically turns on
when a car with a high beam comes from the opposite way. Before tuning on the dipper it flashes to as
k the
other driver to use their dipper also for the better view in night and to avoid accident.
Windshield wiper is a
important part of any car and many wiper systems are available today such as electric wiper, intermittent wiper
etc. but they do not offer
comfort to the driver as he has to turn on the wiper every time it rains or windshield
get precipitated, which causes problem while driving and can cause damage in some cases. Thus the attempt in
the project is to make a automatic wiper system which start
s automatically by sensing the rain or precipitation
on the windshield and do not disturb the driver while driving the car.Collision detection is a new technology and
recently coming in cars like
Mercedes, Aston Martin, Tata Safari etc. but the recent tech
nology is about the
parking safely and driving in reverse direction. The IR sensor can be used to detect the obstacle and
correspondingly applying breaks if any obstacle is there in car’s path in front or back. Here the attempt is to
inform the driver of t
he obstacle to avoid any collision which can cause damage to the driver and to the car.
Although using break assistance is not a safety measure but it helps from damage.

Temperature sensing is common these days in case of the car with air conditioners but
sensing the temperature
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of the engine to inform the driver about the temperature is a new technology and work is going over it to
improve the engine life and driving conditions. This can be used to make the cooling of engine more easy and
automatic through

water pumps and radiator.


Fig. : Block Diagram Of Automated Smart Car System

5.

SMART CAR
DESCRIPTION

This module of project is very much useful for driver’s safety during driving espacially in the night on highway
where there are no dividers and road is h
aving turns.as the driver rotates the steering ,the car used to take a turn
but the focus of headlight goes put of intended road section. Through this module if the driver will rotate the
steering then the headlight will also rotate and focusses the intend
ed section of the road and hence this can
prevent accidents. The steering movement is sensed and send to the PIC16F887 which converts the analog
signal into digital through the internal ADC and processes the data. After processing data is send to the motor

drive through outport. Motor drive will rotate the headlight according to the steering movementThe rotation of
steering will lead to the change in the output voltage across potentiometer i.e.from 0V to 5V this output voltage
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will be taken by PIC microcont
roller and as per the outpup of potentiometer across 2.5V either in + or in


will
lead to the movement of headlight either left or in right by using a motor. Also
Light sensor, which sense
intensity of light and turn on Headlight whenever intensity of li
ght fall below certain value and display massage
“Night mode”
.

6.

AUTOMATIC DIPPER

This module helps the driver to show he path on high speed vehicles on road where there is no any dividerand
vehicles are coming from opposite side also. This module will
receive the intensity of light coming from
opposite side and turn on the dipper.

Auto Dipper keeps the head light in "High" beam if there is no vehicle
from opposite direction.


While crossing, first momentary dip is given by the vehicle fitted with the au
to dipper
automatically when the two vehicles are at a distance of about 120 meters. Low beam continues till distance
between the two is reduced to about 90 meters than this vehicle shifts to "High" beam, which continues till the
two vehicles are 30 meters

apart. Now the vehicle fitted with auto dipper automatically shift to "Low" beam and
continues in the "Low" beam till the two vehicles cross each other.

Automatic Light dimmer, which consist of two LDR based light intensity sensor. These two sensors are
placed
12 inch apart in front of vehicle in vertical position. If upper sensor senses more intensity of light, it activates
light in dimmer mode
.

7.

AUTOMATIC COLLISION DETECTOR

This module uses IR sensors in form of optocouplers, if any vehicle or wall or
any obstruction comes either in
front or rear of the car, then this module recieves the incoming signal and show the display over screen as well
as it will blow the alarm about collision and hence the driver can prevent collision.

8.

AUTOMATIC WIPER

A contin
uously working wiper is a big problem when it is raining slightly.

T
his module will detect the rain and
start the wiper and when the rain will be over it will turn wiper off. Thus the driver can let himself free to turn
on/off the wiper.

9.

AUTOMATIC TEMPERA
TURE CONTROL

This module will read the temperatue of car and as per the requirement it will turn on/off the AC to maintain the
temperature inside the car.
Temperature sensor, which sense engine temperature and plays alarm when engine
temperature exceed abov
e certain value. It also give massage “Warning
------
Over heated” on LCD.

10.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

***


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11.

HOW SMART CAR WORKS

11.1.

Automatic Headlight

The rotation of steering will lead to the change in the output voltage across potentiometer i.e.from 0V to 5V, this
outpu
t voltage will be taken by PIC microcontroller throught pin7 which is a general purpose i/o port A and as
per the o/p of potentiometer of resistence 20K across 2.5V either in + or in


microcontroller digital output
through port C will driver the motor th
at will lead to the movement of headlight either left or in right. This
voltage is taken by PIC microcntroller and the output is given to L293d which is
PUSH
-
PULL FOUR
CHANNEL DRIVER WITH DIODES.

12.

Automatic Dipper

Two circuits are placed 12 cm apart, above and below the headlights each having one LDR connected across
LM358 which is
Low Power Dual Operational Amplifier and the output from LM358 will be provided to port A
of PIC. The intensity of light falling on uppe
r or lower circuit will decide the regulation of dipper.

The LDR light sensor is used to sense intensity of light. Two LDR based light intensity sensor is placed in front
of vehicle in vertical position. If upper sensor senses more intensity of light, mean
ing the high light beam of
opposite car is ON. So to acknowledge font car driver to dim their light the head light of our vehicle flash once
and becomes in dimmer position.

The output voltage of a sensor is amplified by an operational amplifier. The output

from Operational Amplifier
is connected to the AD pin of microcontroller. The microcontroller converts it into digital form and with the
help of embedded formula it activates or deactivates head light relay.

13.

Automatic Collision Detector

This module uses
IR sensors in form of optocouplers.if any vehicle or waal or any obstruction comes either in
front or rear of the car, then this module recieves the incoming signal and show the display over screen as well
as it will blow the alarm about collision and henc
e the driver can prevent collision.

14.

Automatic Wiper

This module will detect the rain and start the wiper and when the rain will be over it will turn wiper off. Thus
the driver can let himself free to turn on/off the wiper.

15.

Automatic Temperature Controller

This module will read the temp of car and as per the requirement it will turn on/off the AC to maintain the temp
inside the car.
A temperature sensor (LM35DZ) can measure from 0°C to 100°C. However, the output is 0V at
2°C. Therefore, the voltage of minus
is required in order to measure 0°C. Since the minus power supply is not
used with this equipment, the measurable temperature is above 2°C. The output of a sensor goes up by 10mV for
every 0°C. The output voltage in 32°C is 300mV. The output voltage of a
sensor is amplified by an operational
amplifier. The temperature sensitivity adjusting the gain of an operational amplifier by VR.The output from
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Operational Amplifier is connected to the AD pin of microcontroller. The microcontroller convert it into digit
al
form and with the help of embedded formula t calculate critical high temperature point 90C and start warning
buzzer and LCD.

16.

RESULT AND CONCLUSION

When in the night mode the headlights moved with the movement of the steering in both the directions. When

the light was not proper, it showed night mode message on the LCD screen and switch on the headlights
automatically.When the light on one of the light sensor was low, model switch on the dippers automatically.IR
sensor used for obstacle detection work fin
e and shows a message on LCD screen for a obstacle and raises
alarm.The temperature is constantly shown on the LCD screen and if it rises above a limit LCD shows a
warning of overheating and raises alarm.Automatic wiper system sense the water and started t
he wiper
automaticallyThis work “to design an automated featured car” has been carefully carrued out. It has to a large
extent performed according to the design expectations and specifications. All the modules were realized
separately then added together t
o make a good automatic car. Collision avoidance controls like automatic brake
system, mild alarm and liquid crystal display (LCD) were incorporated.This device will have great relevance in
the cars on our roads as it will no doubt limit accidents due toco
llision. Besides this, it is applicable in both
private and commercial car parks as it will protect collision with obstacles, automatic headlights, automatic
wipers and temperature control.The main advantages of the presented system are: high reliability t
hrough the
reduced number of components, control of the light spot position under the vehicle’s lights change task and in
rough road conditions, the increase in traffic safety, easy to use, the possibility of connecting to the electronic
system of the vehi
cle.

This system can potentially reduce the number of accident on the roads.

There are a lot of scope in this project work, such as automatic cooling of engine and breaking system to avoid
collision.

17.

REFERENCES

[1]

A. Broggi,
“Intelligent vehicle applications
worldwide”
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