The Shift to Natural Gas in Transportation and Infrastructure: China and Beyond

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Nov 18, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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The global leader in natural gas engines.

The Shift to Natural Gas in Transportation
and Infrastructure: China and Beyond

December
2012

Natural Gas Technology Leader


Proprietary technology enables latest diesel
and gasoline engines to operate on natural
gas (or other gaseous fuels)


Compatible with current and future engine
technology; preserves and improves
performance, efficiency, emissions


Invested over $300mm in R&D and
commercialization since 1995


Global
patent portfolio pivotal to Westport
market leading position with
OEM’s


In addition to the charted engine
technologies, Westport also has patents
relating to fuel system components, control
methods, and other related technologies


In
total, more that
490
issued patents and
pending patent applications relating to over
140
distinct inventions

Bosch

117

Mitsubishi

96

Honda

112

Fiat

113

Ford

130

Siemens

120

CAT

141

GM

141

Toyota

171

Westport

317

company strength

(% revenue + % locations + % litigation)

intellectual property strength

(% patents + % classifications + % citations)

Top 10 Natural Gas Engine
Companies*


Based on the patent
search results of publicly available data within the International Patent Classification
F02, meeting the search term criteria: one of ("engine" or "combustion" or "injector" or "injection valve")
and ("natural gas" or "methane" or "gaseous fuel") and not ("fuel cell" or "turbine
").
This
chart includes
issued or granted patents from:


Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, European Patent Office Grants,
France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Poland, Russia, Spain, UK, USA, USSR, and pending
published patent applications from:


the European Patent Office, USA, and the World Intellectual
Property
Office

as
of
Aug. 2, 2012

2

Global Operations

China

Beijing &
Weifang

Canada

Vancouver

Italy

Pernumia

& Brescia

France

Lyon

U.S.A.

Signal Hill

Australia

Bayswater

Sweden

Gothenburg

Australia

Perth

3

Total Global
Employees:
1,098

U.S.A.

Louisville

U.S.A.

Detroit

Westport at a Glance

4

market focus

position

opportunity

Strong first mover
advantage with unmatched
IP, relationships, market
coverage, products,
capabilities

Caterpillar

Electro Motive

Cummins

General Motors

Kenworth

Weichai Power

Peterbilt

Volvo

Tata

Ford

Maruti

Suzuki

Toyota

Fiat

Volkswagen

Leading the global shift

from petroleum fuels to
natural gas for
transportation

Immediate profitable
expansion from where we
are;
colonize new territory
in light duty; offroad

Broad Range of Transport Applications

light
-
duty

automotive

& industrial

b
us &

vocational trucks

heavy
-
haul

transport

high
-
horsepower

mining, marine & rail

5

Significant High
-
Horsepower
Opportunities

RAIL

MARINE

MINING


(RESOURCE EXTRACTION)

target vehicles

current issues

engine OEMs

mine haul
trucks

drill rigs and
frac

pumps

2bn gal of diesel consumed annually by the
top 10 mining companies alone
1

with 28,600
large mine haul trucks (>100 ton capacity)
operating around the world
2

2,035 onshore drilling rigs working in U.S.
and Canada
3

with estimates of the pressure
pumping horsepower in North America set
to top 10mn hp in 2011
4

diesel
mainline
freight
locomotives

diesel
passenger
locomotives

Rail industry consumes 9bn gal of diesel fuel
annually, half of this in North America
5

Fuel represents approximately 24% of US
railroad operating costs
6

ferries

tugboats

PSVs

work and

crew boats

Marine industry consumes 13bn gal of diesel
fuel annually
5

Emissions reduction in sensitive coastal and
inland waterways are a priority

Some examples of LNG ferries and
platform
support vessels (PSV)

in Scandinavia, but no
widespread

adoption yet

1.
Westport analysis

2.
Morgan Stanley/Parker
Bay

3.
Baker
Hughes report, August
2010


4.
United
Holdings investor information presentation
2011

5.
UN
Energy Statistics Database
2008

6.
Burlington Northern 2008 Annual Report

6

Caterpillar
and

Electro
Motive
agreement
for off
-
road
equipment,
including

mine haul
trucks

and
locomotives,
announced
June 5,

2012

Consolidating key value
chain components such as:


fuel supply


customer support


comprehensive
maintenance

into a single, user
-
friendly
package

Fueling a Truck for Range & Capability

7

base location

Return
-
to
-
base or

hub and spoke scenario

base location

satellite location

satellite location

Point
-
to
-
point scenario

Downward Pressure on Natural Gas
Prices

8

Natural gas price projections are significantly lower than past years due to an expanded
shale gas resource base

sources
: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2011; EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2010; and EIA, An Updated Annual Energy Outlook 2009 Reference

Case

via
:
Shale
Gas and the Outlook for U.S. Natural Gas Markets and Global Gas Resources, Richard Newell, June 21, 2011

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0


1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

natural gas spot price (Henry
Hub); 2009
dollars per million Btu

history

2009

projections

$9/
MMBtu

$3.38


10/26/2012

updated

AEO2009

AEO2010

AEO2011

$7/
MMBtu

Infrastructure Corridors
(Dec. 2012 Projected)

source: Clean Energy Fuels

9

The global leader in natural gas engines.

China NGV Market: Summary Analysis

Table of Content

1.
China NGV Policy Development

2.
Natural Gas Vehicle Market


3.
Natural Gas Vehicle Competitors


4.
Natural Gas Station and Vehicular Natural Gas Price

5.
Appendix

11


2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012




“the 11
th

Five
-

Year ” Plan

“NG Utilization
Policy”:

Gas
used by
residents
(including NG
vehicle use) is
classified as a
Priority
Class.


improving
equipment
manufacturing
industry

11
th

five
-
year
plan:

Government
encourages
development
and use
of new
types of
vehicles
which
enhance
energy
saving and
environmental
protection


2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 …




“the 12
th

Five
-
Year ” Plan

12
th

Five
-
Year Plan
for Natural Gas
:

Increase NGV pilot
cities and provide
subsidies.

The Guidelines on
Building Low
-
Carbon
Transportation System
and
The Energy
Conservation and
Emission Reduction 12
th

Five
-
Year Plan for Road
and Waterway
Transport
:

Promotes the application
of natural gas vehicles.

The Management Method of
Special Funds for Energy
Conservation and Emission
Reduction in Transport
:

NGV (LNGV included) will
enjoy subsidies.

The Energy Conservation and
Emissions Reduction
Comprehensive Work Plan for
the 12
th

Five
-
Year Plan (2011
-
2015)
Period:

Encourages the use of natural gas
vehicles in transportation.

The Ministry of Transportation :

Promote LNGVs in Liaoning,
Ningxia, Jiangsu, Shandong,
Shanxi and Guangdong firstly and
fan out to the whole country.

New Ambient Air Quality
Standards PM2.5 Limits:

Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, cities
along Yangtze River Delta
and Pearl River Delta will
first implement the standard.


The Energy
-
Saving
and New Energy
Vehicle Development
Plan (2012
-
2020
)
:

Outlines the necessity of
developing and using
NGVs (LNGVs included).

Government Policy Support:

Acceleration of Policy Over Last Two Years

12

Note: Details see appendix 1

Table of Content

13

1.
China NGV Policy Development

2.
Natural Gas Vehicle Market


3.
Natural Gas Vehicle Competitors


4.
Natural Gas Station and Vehicular Natural Gas Price

5.
Appendix

13

China NGV Population

2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
NGV Population
127,100
270,000
400,000
450,000
650,000
1,000,000
-
200,000
400,000
600,000
800,000
1,000,000
1,200,000
NGV Population (2006
-
2011)

14

Source: NGV Global

52%

CAGR

China NGV Production and Types

15

Note: All new NG cars are bi
-
fuel: gasoline and NG.

Source
: China Auto Industry Technology Research
Center

2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Truck
176
862
3,595
1,074
5,337
6,216
Bus
9,344
32,102
16,477
18,478
22,252
29,863
Car
22,708
29,016
42,272
56,633
65,421
67,686
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
Truck 6%

Bus 29%

Car 65%

NGV Production (2006
-
2011)

Hubei

9,229

Guizhou

1,793

Xinjiang

48,060

Ningxia

31,462

Shandong

22,451

Shanghai
390

Yunnan

303

Chongqing

65,878

Sichuan

252,000

Shaanxi

19,850

Hei

Longjiang

1,344

Jilin

7,500

Hebei

4,250

Gansu

9,692

Qinghai

7,821

Guangdong

5,739

Anhui

8,425

Hunan

52

Hainan

9,100

Liaoning

284

Inner
Mongolia

431

Beijing

280

Tianjin
327

Fujian

518

Jiangsu

1,248

Zhejiang

878

Henan

72

Shanxi

240

Guangxi

72

China
NGV Distribution


NGVs are concentrated in
Sichuan, Shaanxi, Chongqing, Xinjiang and
Ningxia where
natural gas is resourceful


NGV population
in
blue marked
cities
exceeds

5,000


16

Source: National
Clean Automobile Promotion Center (incomplete statistics
),



www.iangv.org

(2010)


2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Aug. 2012
Truck
700
2,280
4,075
5,450
Bus
271
712
855
2,444
3,515
9,236
12,113
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
18,000
LNGV Population (2006
-
Aug. 2012
)

China LNGV Population

Truck 31%

Bus 69%

100%

CAGR

Source: Westport China Marketing Team (Aug 2012)

17

LNG buses and trucks 17,563 (Approximate) with CAGR 100% .

Guizhou
260
/1533

Hunan
52

Xinjiang
2980
/20

Zhejiang
114
/822

Hainan

455

Shenzhen
36
/880

Fujian
35
/636

Inner Mongolia
361
/70

Liaoning
10
/380

Tianjin
387

Shandong
666
/788

Jiangsu
211
/1068

Sichuan
50
/280

Guangdong
31
/
3412

Shanxi
315

Anhui
14

Henan

72

Guangxi
72

Yunnan
303

Hebei
231
/
409

Hubei
10
/
35

Beijing
30
/380

Note: 1
. LNGV
population marked after the cities’ names



2
. LNG bus population:
in blue




LNG truck population:
in red
;

LNG Truck mostly in
Xinjiang, Shandong, Inner
Mongolia and Shanxi; LNG
bus growth faster in
Guangdong,
Guizhou
,
Jiangsu and coastal cities.

China LNGV Distribution

Chongqing
95

Jilin
20
/22

Ningxia

20

Jiangxi

20

Shanghai
100

Shaanxi
120

Source: Westport China marketing team (August 2012)

LNG buses
concentrated
areas

LNG trucks


concentrated

areas

18

Obstacle to NGVs Growth

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Not enough gas
filling stations
Unstable
performance
After-sale
service
Price
Policy
Safety
19

Limiting Factors to NGV Application

According to China plan, by
the end of 2015, natural gas
stations will increase to
7,000 from 2,850 now.

Sample

Case Study: Xinjiang Fleets

Source: Westport China Investigation

OEMs and suppliers are
upgrading their
technologies to meet the
market demand.

EV vs. NGV in China

EV

NGV

Population (2011)

11,462

1,000,000

Production (2011)

6,114

103,765

Fuel Station (Jun
-
2012)

243

2,850

Adapter Vehicles

short
-
haul passenger cars, bus and special vehicles

All


Technology


Limited Battery technology, not mature fast charge


243 charging facilities


Very few component suppliers


Less than 10 types

of pure electric and plug
-
in hybrid


Batteries take back and waste batteries pollution
unsolved yet


NGV

technology stable


2,850 gas stations


Many component suppliers


333 types of NGVs


Cleaner, environmental protection

20

Source: China Association of Automotive Industry, China EVs net, the First EV monthly

In 12
th

Five
-
Year Plan, EVs production will reach 500,000 (including hybrid electric vehicles), which
will
be the main competitor to NG Cars in the future, but EVs still have many weaknesses need to be
improved now.

Table of Content

1.
China NGV Policy Development

2.
Natural Gas Vehicle Market


3.
Natural Gas Vehicle Competitors


4.
Natural
Gas
Station and Vehicular Natural Gas Price

5.
Appendix

21

China
NG Station Population

2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
LNG Station
3
4
7
15
20
123
350
CNG Station
293
355
410
480
537
1,329
1,477
1,604
2,500
China

Natural
Gas
Stations Population

China had 2,850 NG stations in 2011, including 350 LNG stations. Promotion of LNG stations
came later than CNG, but China’s major energy companies have made major plans on LNG
station construction during 12th Five
-
Year:


Xinjiang
Guanghui
: 300


Kunlun Energy: 1,000 to 2,000


CNOOC: 1,500

22

Note:
LNG station :
in
orange


CNG station:
in green


China NG Station Distribution

23

Guizhou

Hunan 52

Xinjiang

Zhejiang

Hainan

Shenzhen

Fujian

Inner Mongolia

Liaoning

Tianjin

Shandong

Jiangsu

Sichuan

Guangdong

Shanxi

Anhui

Henan

Guangxi 70/
2

Yunnan

Hebei

Hubei

Beijing

100

2

35

3

2

5

35

4

2

10

2

2

15

17

5

3

Qinghai

3

1

Chongqing

10

15

Shaanxi

1

2

6

1

2

Tibet

2

2

100

51

15

63

27

35

5

50

200

42

5

6

44

27

3

39

49

72

62

97

126

107

278

23

36

14


By June 2012

(Approximate):

CNG stations: 2,500 ( marked in the map: 1,576)

LNG stations:350 (marked in the map: 287)


Source: CNG station statistics from

www.chinaev.org


LNG station statistics from China Road Transport Association

CNG station
concentrated
areas

LNG station

concentrated

areas


2.1
Yuan/DEL*

0# Diesel price

(Yuan/L)

NG price

(Yuan/DEL*)

NG price


(Yuan/m³)

* DEL:

diesel equivalent liter

Note: NG price equivalent per liter diesel conversion factor is 1.2


90# Gasoline price

(Yuan/L)

China Vehicular NG Price is more Competitive than
Traditional Fuel

Average Vehicular Fuel Price of China Major Cities

According to “
Notice on Improving
Domestic Onshore Natural Gas Ex
-
Factory Benchmark Price
” issued by
NDRC in 2010, the price ratio
between vehicular natural gas and
90# gasoline has been adjusted to
0.6:1. Thus the Diesel equivalent
price of NG was 2.1 Yuan/DEL lower
than 0# diesel. In 2012, this ratio
should reach to 0.75:1 based on that
Notice
, the diesel equivalent price of
NG advantages over 0# diesel was
narrowed to 1 Yuan/DEL. China’s
Road Transportation Association is
negotiating with China’s NDRC and
other related departments to try to
keep the ratio at 0.6:1 to ensure end
customers’ initiatives in using NGVs.


24

SHANXI

TIANJIN

TIANJIN

JIANGXI

XINJIANG

TIBET

TAIWAN

FUJIAN

SHENZHEN

GUANGDONG

GUANGXI

YUNNAN

SICHUAN

QINGHAI

HEILONGJIANG

JILIN

LIAONING

BEIJING

HEBEI

SHANDONG

JIANGSU

SHANGHAI

ZHEJIANG

ANHUI

NINGXIA

SHAANXI

HUNAN

HUBEI

GUIZHOU

INNER MONGOLIA

HAINAN

HENAN

GANSU

CHONGQING

˂0


0

2


2

3


>3

(Unit:
Yuan/DEL*)

Price difference

1.9

1.82

2.38

0.21

1.12

1.68

1.64

1.99

2.17

-
1.06

2.38

1.67

2.43

3.91

2.73

2.82

2.66

2.36

2.82

2.87

2.76

2.77

2.43

Price Advantage of NG over Diesel

Note:1
*
DEL: diesel
equivalent

liter


2.NG
price equivalent per liter diesel conversion factor is
1.2


3. Details see appendix 2

Most of cities have NG price advantage
over diesel except Shenzhen

25

Table of Content

1.
China NGV Policy Development

2.
Natural Gas Vehicle Market


3.
Natural Gas Vehicle Competitors


4.
Natural Gas Station and Vehicular Natural Gas Price

5.
Appendix

26

Appendix1: Incentive Policy (2011
-
2012)



In
July 2012
,
“The Energy
-
Saving and New Energy Vehicle Development Plan (2012
-
2020)”
issued by the China State Council outlines the
necessity of developing and using alternative fuel vehicles in places where natural gas (LNG included) is resourceful.


On
July, 1
st
, 2012,
Fuel Consumption Limits for Heavy
-
duty Commercial Vehicles
releases by
the Ministry of Industry and Information
Technology

set fuel consumption limits for diesel or gasoline heavy duty commercial vehicles whose gross vehicle weight are greater than

3
,500kg.


In

May 2012,
China’s NDRC has submitted the blueprint of
12
th

Five
-
Year Plan of Natural Gas
to the State Council for approval. The Plan should
be made public once it is approved. The Ministry of Transportation will increase the pilot cities that promote natural gas ve
hic
les. Cash subsidy to
enterprises will be considered as well.


In
February 2012
,
New Ambient Air Quality Standards
issued by
the China State Council

prescribes the first
-
ever limits for PM2.5. Beijing,
Tianjin, Hebei, cities along Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, etc. will first implement the standard.


The
“Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction Comprehensive Work Plan for the 12th Five
-
Year Plan (2011
-
2015) Period”
issued by
the China State Council

in

September 2011
encourages the use of natural gas vehicles in transportation.


In
July 2011,
The Management Method of Special Funds for Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction in Transport
issued by
China’s
Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Transportation

has defined that subsidy will be given to companies and entities that use energy
-
saving and
emission
-
reduction vehicles, equipment and technology in Road and Waterway transport. NGV including LNGV is entitled to such ben
efits.
Companies that operate NGV/LNGV are entitled to up to 2,000 RMB as subsidy per one ton oil equivalent (linked to diesel saved
).

Ever since 2011 to the first half year of 2012, 60 NGV related projects have received subsidies. About 10,000 NGVs received s
ubs
idies of 147
million RMB.


The Ministry of Transportation decides to promote the application of NGVs, especially LNGVs in some pilot provinces such as L
iao
ning, Ningxia,
Jiangsu, Shandong, Shanxi and Guangdong and fan out to the whole country.


In
Mar. 2011,
The Guidelines on Building Low
-
carbon Transportation System and The Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction 12th
Five
-
Year Plan for Road and Waterway Transport
published by
the Ministry of Transportation
, promotes the application of natural gas
vehicles.

27

Appendix 2: Vehicular Fuel Price
Comparison



CNG

Yuan/m3

LNG

Yuan/L

LNG

Yuan/Kg

0
#

Diesel

Yuan/L

Price

Difference

90
#

Gasoline

Yuan/L

CNG / 90
#
Gasoline

Gansu

2.59

1.62

3.60

7.47

4.88

7.1

0.36

Xinjiang

3.40

2.13

4.72

7.51

4.11

7.07

0.48

Shaanxi

3.55

2.22

4.93

7.49

3.94

7.17

0.50

Inner Mongolia

3.56

2.23

4.94

7.55

3.99

7.13

0.50

Ningxia

3.58

2.24

4.97

7.52

3.94

7.18

0.50

Anhui

3.58

2.24

4.97

7.61

4.03

7.2

0.50

Henan

3.60

2.25

5.00

7.6

4.00

7.2

0.50

Hunan

3.75

2.34

5.21

7.62

3.87

7.21

0.52

Fujian

3.84

2.40

5.33

7.49

3.65

7.16

0.54

Tianjin

3.95

2.47

5.49

7.58

3.63

7.16

0.55

Sichuan

4.00

2.50

5.56

7.66

3.66

7.27

0.55

Jilin

4.09

2.56

5.68

7.73

3.64

7.33

0.56

Shanghai

4.20

2.63

5.83

7.92

3.72

-


-


Shandong

4.28

2.68

5.94

7.59

3.31

7.16

0.60

Jiangsu

4.30

2.69

5.97

7.54

3.24

7.22

0.60

Hubei

4.50

2.81

6.25

-


-
4.5

-


-


Liaoning

4.60

2.88

6.39

7.62

3.02

7.17

0.64

Chongqing

4.60

2.88

6.39

7.65

3.05

7.17

0.64

Beijing

4.73

2.96

6.57

8.04

3.31

-

-


Guangxi

4.95

3.09

6.88

7.52

2.57

7.14

0.69

Hainan

5.06

3.16

7.03

7.68

2.62

8.03

0.63

Guangdong

5.90

3.69

8.19

7.76

1.86

7.37

0.80

Shenzhen

6.97

4.36

9.68

7.78

0.81

-


-

Note:1m
3
NG=1.6L LNG 1L LNG=0.45Kg LNG


*
DEL: diesel equivalent liter


.NG price equivalent per liter diesel conversion factor is 1.2

Appendix3: China NG Resource

Diverse NG Source Ensure China Natural Gas Supply Volume

Pipelines

Terminals

From Central Asia

From West Siberia

From East Siberia

From

Sakhalin

From Myanmar

Gas basin

Source from: BP Statistical Review of World Energy Full Report 2012

Natural Gas Resource

Unit: Billion m
3


China exploits actively domestic gas fields, meanwhile,
imports natural gas by terminals and pipelines.


By the end of 2011, 30 provinces except Tibet have
natural gas supply.


NG pipeline is 35,000 km covering 30 provinces.


The imported pipeline natural gas will reach 40
-
50
billion m³.




29

Appendix3: China NG Resource

China LNG Supply Grows
Steadily

30

Operation

Under Construction

LNG Liquefaction Plant

LNG Terminal

Operation

Under Construction

Programming

HEBEI

SHANDONG

SHAANXI

HENAN

XINJIANG

TIBET

QINGHAI

HEILONGJIANG

JILIN

LIAONING

BEIJING

NINGXIA

INNER MONGOLIA

GANSU

SICHUAN

JIANGSU

SHANGHAI

ANHUI

HUBEI

JIANGXI

TAIWAN

GUANGXI

YUNNAN

HUNAN

HONG KONG

MACAU

FUJIAN

GUANGDONG

GUIZH
OU

HAINAN

CHONGQING

TIANJIN

SHANXI

ZHEJIANG

China LNG Terminals and Liquefaction Plants
Distribution

Source: China Natural Gas Industry Magazine and Guangdong Oil and Gas Association

CAGR=66.72%


China greatly promotes the development
of terminals and liquefaction plants, LNG
supply keeps continual raise with 66.72%
CAGR.

Appendix4: China LD/MD Vehicles Market

LD/MD Vehicles Population

Source: National Bureau of Statistics.

Note: The vehicles are classified to 2 kinds, Passenger Vehicles and Cargo Vehicles. Car is included in passenger vehicles.

LD cargo vehicles and small
passenger vehicles take
majority shares.

31

Source: Commercial Vehicles Magazine

Appendix4:

China LD/MD Vehicles Market

LD/MD
Vehicles Sales

32

Cars take the major sales
of LD/MD

LD Truck and Small
Coach & Bus is the major
type of truck and coach &
bus respectively

21%

12%

10%

9%

7%

7%

4%

3%

27%

Foton
DFM
JAC
Jinbei
JMC
Changcheng
Nanjing Auto
Shandong Kaima
Others
Truck LD OEMs Market Share (2011)

Truck MD OEMs Market Share (2011)

Truck Mini OEMs Market Share (2011)

Appendix4:

China LD/MD Vehicles Market

LD/MD Truck OEMs Market Share

33

Source: China Auto Technology &Research Center

28%

13%

12%

7%

5%

5%

5%

4%

21%

Yutong
Suzhou King Long
King Long
Golden Dragon
Huanghai
AnKai
Zhongtong
Jinhua Youngman
Others
Coach & Bus Large OEMs Market Share (2011)

25%

15%

10%

9%

6%

5%

4%

4%

22%

Yutong
Dongfeng
Suzhou King Long
FAW Toyota
King Long
Anhui JAC
Golden Dragon
AnKai
Others
Coach & Bus Medium OEMs Market Share (2011)

28%

18%

13%

9%

7%

7%

4%

3%

11%

Jinbei
JMC
Nanjing Auto
Dongfeng
Foton
Anhui JAC
Golden Dragon
King Long
Others
Coach & Bus Small OEMs Market Share (2011)

Appendix4:

China LD/MD Vehicles Market

LD/MD
Coach & Bus OEMs Market
Share

34

Source: China Auto Technology &Research Center

Car OEMs Market Share (2011)

Source: China Auto Technology &Research Center

In 2011,
total Car
sales
reached 14,148,218.

The top 5 motor groups
account for 76%
of Cars
market.

Appendix4:

China LD/MD Vehicles Market

Cars
OEMs Market
Share (Top
5 Motor Groups)

35

13%

56%

22%

7%

2%

Displacement≤1L

1L

Displacement≤1.6L

1.6L

Displacement≤2.0L

2.0L

Displacement≤2.5L

2.5L

Displacement≤3.0L

3.0L

Displacement≤4.0L

Above 4.0L

Cars Sales by Displacement (2011)

Source: China Auto Technology &Research Center

The 1~1.6L
displacement of cars
is the major type, take
56% market share.

Appendix4:

China LD/MD Vehicles Market

Cars Sales Segment by Displacement

36

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