Kolbitsch & Maurer - Instruct Uwo

roomagitatedInternet and Web Development

Dec 8, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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The Transformation of the
Web:


Reviewed by:

Adam Tuck, Jason Wang, & Zlat Djuric

How Communities Shape the Information we Consume

Blogs

Wikis

Wikipedia

Wikinews

Podcasts

File Sharing

Social Networking

by Josef Kolbitsch and Hermann Maurer

Web 2.0


explore the context of the publication


identify the formal and organizational
attributes of the paper


present the central argument of the paper
and supporting evidence


critically analyze and evaluate the presented
ideas and arguments


conclude the review and suggest
recommendations

Organization of
presentation

We are going to:



Journal of Universal Computer Science, vol. 12,
no. 2 (2006), pg. 187
-
213

Context of the
publication

Site of Publication


Authors

Significance


Josef Kolbitsch and Hermann Maurer


Graz University of Technology, Austria


A rare academic paper discussing Web 2.0
phenomenon


Breaks down the latest development in information
systems and technologies


Sponsored by one of computer science pioneers
in the field of knowledge management systems

Structure of
the paper

Formal attributes

Intended Audience

Organization


an academic paper indented to provide an
overview of the field and draw conclusions


heavily based on point and evidence method
to establish arguments


academia and general public


intended as a light introduction to a newly
-
formed field



Well
-
formed essay format with a clear
thesis and supporting evidence


smoothly flows between different
arguments supporting its thesis


heavily employs analogy, cause and
effect, and empirical methods to
reinforce the main idea



this paper serves as an overview of Web 2.0
technologies


self
-
organizing technologies facilitate user
generated content on the Web


the flow of content is now bottom
-
up rather
than top
-
down


changes made through


technology


“fundamental mind shift”


ant colony analogy used to describe
collective intelligence


critical mass required for these principles to
work

Central
Argument

Main themes

Blogs


A way of expressing the thoughts and
feelings of the author and their actions
and reactions to others


Types of blogs and applications: blog
as a diary, newsfeed, review site,
personal journals and filters.


Blogs can be used in a professional
manner


Advantage: If readers gain information
on things they would rather have
opinionated by other consumers.


Disadvantage: if filter
-
style blogs offer
biased comments to external
information


Blogs are usually used in conjunction
with several other technologies (e
-
email, instant messaging, wikis


Expression of self and collaborative
discussions

Wikis


facilitates rapid development and self
-
organization of websites


gathering of collective intelligence through
user participation


continuous user content improvements
through evolutionary cycles


in technical terms, a web
-
based content
management system with a simple rights
management system but with powerful
version tracking utility


Applied in various fields (online customer
support documentation, organizational
knowledge base, digital library, etc.)


Benefits:

flexible structure, easy to access,
use, and collaborate, blurs the line between
readers and authors


Shortcomings:

credibility of information,
vandalism, varying quality across the
system


Solution: hierarchical wiki ???


Examples: Wikipedia and Wikinews



Collaborative authoring online
environment

Wikipedia



free, multi
-
lingual, wiki
-
based repository
of knowledge where everyone is
reader, author, and editor at the same
time


build on free contributions of its
community members and their
collaboration


regulated by “neutral point of view”
policy to preserve objective and
unbiased information


Advantages:

instantly updatable,
incredibly broad and vast, direct cross
-
referencing and indexing


Drawbacks:
quality standards,
imbalance of emphasis, sensitive
information and privacy issues,
vandalism, volume of information, edit
wars





People’s Online Encyclopedia

Wikinews



unfiltered source of news by
community
-
based news providers


alternative to commercial news
agencies, like Reuters, Associated
Press, United Press, etc.


prevent deliberate omission or
suppression of news by mainstream
media


defend freedom of speech and
freedom of press worldwide


Wikinews articles are completed and
approved by community and are set
as read
-
only


Challenges:
reliability of information,
fast expiry date of articles, lack of
ability to express opinion and add
comments



So far, limited success






Unbiased News Feed

Podcasts



content producers “blog audio
content” on regular basis


applications discussed


amateur shows


educational applications


other types of podcasting include


“photocasting”, which is broadcast
of photographs through RSS


“vodcasting” or video podcasting



“also used for content that does not
come directly from users” (OCED, 38)


less accessible than other web 2.0
technologies

Audio/Video Blogs

File Sharing



peer
-
to
-
peer network, usually
associated with pirating, has evolved


discusses web
-
based file storage and
organizational tools


uses Flickr as prime example


allows free photo upload and
organization


tagging system classifies
photographs


“metadata” not conventionally
created by users, but
professionals


raises issues of ambiguity



Bit Torrent: a prime example of web
2.0 file sharing


“the service automatically gets better
the more people use it” (O’Reilly, 3)





Free exchange of digital content

Social Networks

Online User Communities



The small world hypothesis, “The six
degrees of separation”, people in our
society are related to each other
through friends and friends of friends


Social networking allows friends to
maintain their relationships, chat and
share information online


Examples: Friendster, MySpace,
Google’s Orkut as general
-
purpose
networks, and OpenBC as specialized
and professional networking service


Most of the time users add friends
manually. A social network that is
generated manually is often very
accurate in the connection made


An alternative, automatic creation of
social networks are not as precise


The concern with privacy of the
members of a social network. Detailed
personal information stored in user
profiles sold to third parties









Paper Review

Our thoughts on the paper


Overall well written and organized. Strongly
states argument on user participation in
Web 2.0, “bottom
-
up” approach, and
collective intelligence


Arguments are logical and backed up with
plenty of examples


Thorough explanation with alternative view
points along with advantages and
disadvantages in almost all subjects.


However, paper is unbalanced in proportion.
Wikis and Social networks were very
thorough, but Blogs, Podcasts, and File
sharing in contrast, were relatively short.


Sudden suggestion of future research in
conclusion create discomfort in the flow of
the paper

Domain under
observation

Real Web 2.0
domain

Real Web 2.0
domain

Thank you for
your attention

Any questions, comments, or suggestions?