International Exchange Service:

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Transformation of the U.S.
International Exchange Service:
Project Report

Judy Mansfield

Beacher Wiggins

Library of Congress

Washington, DC USA


August 26, 2009

Purpose of International Exchange

“The central idea in
international exchange is
that each participating
country will obtain official
material from its exchange
partner in order to provide it
directly to its own domestic
users.”
Johannes Metz,
IFLA, 1999


Authorizing Legislation


United States Code Title 44, Section
1719


Enacted in 1968, amended in 1982 and
1986


Authorizes the Library of Congress (LC)
to exchange government publications
with foreign governments


Directs that up to 125 copies of all
government publications be supplied to
the Government Printing Office (GPO)
for the purpose of this exchange

Transforming the International
Exchange Service (IES)

Sustain the free flow of
official versions of
government publications
in the new publishing
environment

Transforming the IES


1)
Modernize to reflect
current publishing
environment

2)
Achieve flexibility
to meet individual
country needs

3)
Improve access to
U.S. digital content

Transforming the IES


4)
Identify tools to
ingest, archive,
preserve, and
provide access to
digital content

5)

Meet future
collection
development needs

Collaboration for Transformation


LC
-

administrator of IES


GPO
-

distributor for IES


Department of State
-

agent for treaties

Assess Current State of the IES


Confirm the IES process


Verify available information
on partners


Identify specific titles
exchanged


Review treaties and
agreements

U.S. IES Process


LC identifies its partners


LC identifies print/microform
publications to be distributed
to its partners


LC informs GPO of this
information


GPO distributes
print/microform publications

Publications Currently Distributed


Many titles listed in treaties
are no longer published


Distributions, based on
Federal Depository Library
Program lists, are of titles
currently available


Number of titles distributed
is based on concept of
approximately equal value

Publications Currently Received


Review what is received


Quantity


Appropriateness for LC collections


Determine what is available in
partner countries

Treaties and Agreements


Active agreements with
124 institutions,
including thirty active
treaties


Twenty inactive treaties


Regional political changes


Increased availability of
government information
on Web

Future Directions


Supply authenticated digital
documents for the
repositories of partners


Assure perpetual access to
digital national government
publications

New GPO System


Federal Digital System (FDsys)


In time, to manage government
information from


Submitted digital files


Harvested digital files


Scanned print publications


GPO Access



To run concurrently with
FDSys until migration is
completed

FDSys 1

Content Management System


Securely controls digital
content throughout its
lifecycle to ensure
content integrity and
authenticity


FDSys 2


Preservation Repository


Follows archival system
standards to ensure
long
-
term preservation
of and access to
authenticated digital
content

FDSys 3

Advanced Search Engine


Combines extensive
metadata creation with
modern search technology
to ensure the highest
quality search experience

FDSys Content


Congressional Bills (103
rd

Congress to
Present)


Congressional Documents (104th
Congress to Present)


Congressional Hearings (105th Congress
to Present)


Congressional Record

(1994 to Present)


Congressional Reports (104th Congress
to Present)


Federal Register

(1994 to Present)

FDSys Content (2)


Public and Private Laws (104th
Congress to Present)


Compilation of Presidential Documents

(1993 to Present)


Congressional Calendars (104th
Congress to Present)


Congressional Committee Prints
(105th Congress to Present)


List of Code of Federal Regulations
Sections (1997 to Present)


Etc.

Digital Content Costs


All content available at the
GPO Access and FDSys sites
is free to anyone and
downloadable.


Some U.S. Government
information is not free, so LC
will attempt to negotiate
access at no
-
charge to its
partners.

Intellectual Property Rights


LC will investigate
international copyright issues
for U.S. Government
publications that may affect
the partner’s reproduction
and distribution rights within
the partner’s country.

Metz on Perpetual Access

“It will not do to have Internet access
to foreign material if it remains
uncertain how long documents will
be retained…. Even if long
-
term
access is secured, it might still be
preferable to collect foreign public
documents in electronic formats in
order to have an independent …
collection for future historical
research.”

Perpetual Access


To ingest, archive, preserve, and
provide free perpetual access to
the content of other national
governments


To provide backup archival
copies in an additional location
for preservation, if agreements
can be negotiated

Models for Perpetual Access


LOCKSS (Lots of Copies
Keep Stuff Safe) IEX
(International Electronic
Exchange) Pilot Project


GLIN (Global Legal
Information Network)

Purposes of LOCKSS IEX


To test cost effectiveness and
feasibility of using LOCKSS
to crawl and harvest e
-
journals and documents from
German Government
publishers


To test a platform for long
-
term access and preservation

LOCKSS IEX Pilot Project Partners


Bavarian State Library


German Federal Statistics Office


German National Library


Humboldt University, Berlin


Library of Congress


Stanford University Library


State Library of Berlin


University of Regensburg Library

LOCKSS IEX Pilot Project


Crawls web sites of partner
institutions


Harvests e
-
journal content
for monitoring and
preservation by the partner
institutions


Links partner institutions in a
closed network

GLIN


Implemented by Law Library of
Congress


United Kingdom law statutes


Downloaded metadata and
PDF files back to 1988 to
GLIN


Continue to add new content

Next Steps

for LC

LC’s Plans for 2009


Cease distinction between full and
partial set partners on October 1


Verify available information on
partners and the agencies that
supply materials on their behalf


Issue list of titles distributed by
GPO on LC web site at
http://www.loc.gov/acq


Issue survey to partners

Survey Partners


In what format does partner
prefer to receive U.S.
Government publications?


Does partner download and
archive U.S. Government digital
publications?


Does partner want to receive
bibliographic data for U.S.
Government publications?

LC’s Plans for 2010


Complete review of treaties
and agreements


Begin negotiations for new
agreements with existing
partners


Continue experimenting with
LOCKSS IEX model

LC’s Long
-
Range Plans


Seek to re
-
establish
exchanges with
inactive partners


Identify new partners


Determine a viable
mechanism for
ingesting, archiving,
preserving, and
providing access to
digital content

Communications with Partners


This presentation


Survey of partners


Correspondence


LC web site at

http://www.loc.gov/acq


Conclusion


Current state of IES


Future directions for IES


Next steps for LC


Follow the progress of at
http://www.loc.gov/acq

Contact Information


Judy Mansfield, Chief, U.S./Anglo Division,
juma@loc.gov


Beacher Wiggins, Director for Acquisitions
and Bibliographic Access,
bwig@loc.gov


References


44 USC 1719
(
http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi
-
bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=browse_usc&
docid=Cite:+44USC1719
)


Global Legal Information Network
(GLIN)
(
http://www.glin.gov/search.action
)


GPO’s Federal Digital System (FDsys)
(
http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/
)

References (2)


LOCKSS
(
http://www.lockss.org/lockss/H
ome
)


Metz, Johannes.
International
Exchange of Official Publications
,
presented at the 65th IFLA
Council and General Conference,
Bangkok, 1999.