Genetic Technology

roachavocadoBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Genetic Technology


DNA Technology


Genetic Engineering


ALL THE SAME

Genetic Engineering: DNA
Technology


process of making changes in the
DNA code of living organisms


uses DNA technology to cure
diseases, treat genetic disorders,



improve food crops, etc
.

How do we make changes
to DNA of an organism???


USING….Restriction Enzymes:


bacterial enzymes


act like scissors

that


cut DNA molecules


at specific sites


create
sticky ends

that can easily bind to
complementary DNA and form new
sequences of nucleotides

Plasmids are:


ring of DNA found in a bacterium (bacteria)
in addition to its main chromosome


these plasmids can be cut with
restriction
enzymes
, allowing other genes (donor
genes) to be spliced into the plasmid


once gene has been spliced into plasmid,
the plasmid is returned to the bacteria


insulin production

Plasmids are:


the bacteria then divides, giving copies
of the new

gene


recombinant DNA
-

combination of DNA
from two or more sources


Ex.:
inserting human gene for insulin
into bacteria

in order to produce large
amounts of insulin for people whose
bodies do not produce enough


MORE DNA Technology
Techniques:

1.
DNA Fingerprinting:
pattern of bands
made up of

specific fragments from an
organism's
DNA




Uses:




-
determining relationships between
individuals



-
determining how closely species are
related



-
helping solve crimes



DNA Fingerprinting

How it works:

use RFLP analysis to (omit)

extract DNA
and cut it using restriction enzymes


gel electrophoresis
: DNA placed into
wells made on a gel; fragments or
segments of DNA are then
separated
based on size and charge


Gel
-
Electrophoresis
-
Animation
-


Polymerase Chain
Reaction (PCR)


used to quickly make many


copies of selected segments of
DNA, only requires tiny
amounts of DNA

Conceiving a Clone: Media Center

Human Genome Project

(began in 1990)

Purposes:


to determine the nucleotide sequence of the
entire human genome (approx. 3 billion
nucleotide pairs)


to map the location of every gene on each
chromosome


improve diagnoses, treatments, and cures for
genetic diseases

Human Genome Proj.


J. Craig Venter: Designing Life
-

60
Minutes
-

CBS News

Cloning:


A group of genetically


Identical cells


May be produces
asexually… (Mitosis)


Growing Body Parts

Gene Therapy



treating a genetic disorder by
introducing a gene into a cell or by
correcting a gene defect in a cell's
genome


involves ethical decisions
-

Ex
.
insurance companies


To Rw. Practical Uses of DNA
Technology:


produce pharmaceutical products
inexpensively


Ex. insulin

Practical Uses of DNA
Technology:


produce effective vaccines


interesting research
--
scientists
are creating a banana vaccine to
vaccinate children against viral
diseases like Hepatitis B

Practical Uses of DNA
Technology:

Increase agricultural yields by:


protecting plants by transferring
genes that are harmful to pests into
the plants


producing plants that are resistant to
weed
-
controlling chemicals
(
herbicides)


developing plants that do not require
fertilizers to grow



NOVA | scienceNOW | Personal DNA
Testing | PBS




NOVA Online | Cracking the Code of
Life | Watch the Program Here


Safety and Environmental
Issues


genetically engineered foods
may contain toxins, making
people allergic to the foods


genetically engineered crops
may take over the native plant
species



Example of Genetic Engineering:


producing
tomatoes that
ripen without
becoming soft
and are
supposed to
taste better
than
commercially
grown
tomatoes