Genetic Engineering Notes - Directory Listing for Auburn

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Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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Genetic Engineering

What is genetic engineering?


Genetic engineering

is the process of
manipulating genes for practical purposes.

Building of
recombinant DNA
: DNA made
from two or more different organisms.

http://www.washington.edu/alumni/columns/dec95/supermice.gif

http://edugreen.teri.res.in/explore/bio/graphics/genes.jpg

Many General Steps

All types of genetic engineering use
one or more of these steps:

1.
Specific gene (DNA) is cut with special
restriction enzymes

2.
Recombinant DNA is produced

3.
Gene is cloned (replicated in bacteria)

4.
Cells are screened to see if the
desired gene is present


Important Terms

Cutting DNA: done by
restriction
enzymes

that cut specific nucleotides

Vector

is used to carry the gene of
interest into another cell

Types of Vectors:

1.
Viruses

2.
Yeast (multiplies FAST)

3.
Bacteria
-

Plasmids (circular DNA
molecules that can replicate
immediately)

http://bio.kaist.ac.kr/~mbtlab/plasmids.gif

Gene Cloning

Is the process of making many copies of
one gene of interest when the host cell
reproduces (Vector)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

procedure is used for massive
replication (commonly used to solve
crimes)



http://biology.clc.uc.edu/fankhauser/Labs/Genetics/PCR/PCR_images/02_insert_tubes_into_PCR_machine_P2193042crp.JPG

Screening for Gene

One method to see if a gene is present is
called the
Southern Blot.

1.
DNA

fragments are separated by
gel
electrophoresis

(carry electricity)

2.
Wanted bands of genes are tagged
with
probes

(radioactive labeling) so
they can be identified

http://www.ideascientific.com/images/megabase.gif

Basic Genetic Engineering of
Bacteria

http://www.slic2.wsu.edu:82/hurlbert/micro101/images/mol20.gif

Steps for
Insulin

Those bacteria with
+ plasmid is used
to produce insulin
for diabetics.

Bacteria with Insulin
making gene is
isolated and
Insulin is used for
medicine

http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/bitesize/standard/img/biology/genetic
-
eng.gif

Genetic Engineering Topics


1.
Medical uses

2.
Agriculture uses

3.
Animal uses

4.
Identifying organisms

http://www2.austin.cc.tx.us/muzos/E%20coli%20colonies.jpg

http://www.moomilk.com/archive/images/feb
-
tech1.gif

http://www.arhp.org/files/diagram5.gif

Medical Uses

1.
Medicines

are made in order for the human body to
create proteins missing and causing illness or genetic
disorders.

2.
Vaccines

where you are injected with a DEAD disease
and your immune system develops an attack in the
future.

3.
Gene Therapy

is putting a healthy set of genes into
cells of a person that is lacking them so proteins that
are missing can be made.

http://www.conceptmed.com/images/vaccine2.jpg

http://www.pcc.com/newsletter/fall02/vaccines.gif

Agriculture Uses

1.
Help plants and crops survive



Chickpeas at WSU and India to reduce
disease and help with strong stems

2.
Create
new varieties

that taste better

3.
Sometimes more
healthy

varieties
(Olean)

http://www.e
-
rcps.com/pasta/rcp/p_abc/i/chickpeas.gif

http://www.beyondpesticides.org/gmos/images/genetic%20engineering.jpg





http://www.olean.com/products/images/lays_product.gif

Animal Uses

Transgenic animals

are those that have
foreign DNA (from another animal) in
their bodies.

1.
Making of proteins

that cannot be made
in bacteria

2.
Cloning of
specialized cells and organs

for future transplants

3.
Used to help
diagnose diseases
:
Rabies and others

Identification

1.
Not only to catch those criminals by
DNA
fingerprinting

2.
Can be used to identify
genetic
similarities

in organisms (find out where
who their ancestors are


NEXT topic)

3.
Human Genome Project :


Goals


Chromosomes

Eyes of Nye Cloning Video


Take a full page of notes in your lab
notebook.


Be detailed in your notes, they will be
your only source for a later assignment.

Genetically Engineered Food

Genetic Engineering: Food


Genetically Modified (GM) Foods

are
made from organisms that have been
given specific traits through genetic
engineering


Identify gene


Inserted in the plant through a vector






The Lingo…


GE:

Genetically Engineered,
talks about everything


GMO:

Genetically Modified
Organisms


GM:

Genetically Modified


followed by the general name of
the organism such as food

Examples

Rice

Modified to Contain high amounts
of Vitamin A

Sweet Corn

Modified to produce it’s own
insecticide

Rapeseed (Canola)

Resistance to herbicides

Tomatoes

Modified to resist softening after
harvest

Hawaiian Papaya

Resist ringspot virus

Corn

Resistant to herbicides, insects,
and enriched with vitamins

Strawberry

Gene from alpine plant to resist
cold

Pig (proposed)

Gene from spinach plant to reduce
fat

***How farming has changed
over time?***


Past:

Selective Breeding


Present:

Homogenous gene
modification


Present to the future:

Transferring
DNA to and from all different
living things.

Herbicide Resistant Crops:




CONS Vs
PROS

Less soil erosion with
the use of herbicide
resistant crops

If the gene escapes into
the environment, these
plants will have no
advantage over other
plants because there is
no herbicide sprayed
in the wild.

Danger of creating
super weeds

These are based on
gene escape via
pollen, pollinating
wild relatives that
then produce
offspring which
contain the
modified gene

Increased Food Production:

CONS Vs
PROS

Experts believe that
the increase in
food production
will lead to
intensive
agriculture, which
can be very
harmful to the
environment

Since GM products
deliver a 10% yield
increase, one can
view the 10%
increase in food
production as
using 10% less
land

This leads to a
decreased need for
intensive
agriculture


Effect on Biodiversity:


CONS Vs
PROS

Invasion of
genetically
modified
organisms

Especially with
herbicide resistant
plants. Once they
are harvested part
would remain in
the soil and grow
when unwanted

Invasion occurs even
when natural
organisms are
introduced to new
environments

Examples of these
natural instances
include bracken and
gorse

Gorse

Possible Harm to Humans:


CONS Vs
PROS

People may have severe
allergies to the
genetically modified
food but not be aware
of it

Also mixing genes of
highly allergenic
foods with other
foods cause the other
food to be allergenic,
and many may ingest
it without knowing

Most allergens have a
common feature and
their allergenic
properties can be
reliably predicted

With genetic engineering,
foods that many people
are allergic to may be
altered genetically to
not cause allergic
reactions

Ethical Problems


Many believe
scientists should not
play God or interfere
with the natural world


Inserting animal
genes into other
foods may cause
problems with
vegetarians and
religious groups that
do not eat certain
animals


Images

http://www.aboutmyplanet.com/wp
-
content/uploads/2007/01/food
-
genetically_modified_organisms_01.jpg

http://www.grinningplanet.com/
2003/notable
-
projects
-
federal
-
budget/ae_d17
-
wheat
-
pesticide
-
free
-
4.jpg

Resources

http://www.cspinet.org/nah/11_01/index.html

1.

The genetically engineered foods that are currently on the market are safe. By increasing yields and
reducing the use of pesticides, they benefit farmers and the environment.



2.

To ensure that new genetically engineered plants and animals are safe for humans and the
environment, Congress should institute a mandatory government approval process that is open to
public participation and review.



3.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should monitor the environmental impact of
genetically engineered crops. It should require more field testing, enforce insect refuges for Bt
crops, and adopt other environmental safeguards.



4.

The U.S. government should fund more research on genetic engineering, especially on fruits,
vegetables, and other crops that are not of great commercial interest to the biotechnology
companies.



5.

To enable developing nations to benefit from biotechnology, the U.S. government should:


fund research and the training of scientists,


help countries develop regulations to ensure the safe use of genetic engineering to produce food,
and


press biotech companies to donate technologies and allow free access to patents that are used to
produce genetically engineered seeds and animals

DNA as Destiny

Answer the questions individually
FIRST, then discuss

1.
How would you feel about
having your genes mapped?


2.
What do you think of cloning
genes? Take a side and
explain why.


DNA as Destiny

1.
In your lab book title page, DNA as Destiny

2.
Together as a group you can read the article
(divide into sections and summarize for each
other)

3.
As an individual you will answer the questions
without discussion

4.
After everyone is finished answering individually,
you will discuss with group

5.
Be prepared to have one person share with the
whole class what your view is as a group

DNA as Destiny Reflection:

Based on the article, group and class discussion,
answer the following individually

1.
Is genetic testing a good idea? Would you want to have
your DNA mapped? Why or why not?

2.
What do you think of cloning genes? Take a side and
explain why.

3.
What is the
connection

between this article and what
we’ve been learning in class?

4.
What is the
relevance

of this assignment to mastering
knowledge/skills related to genetics?

5.
What
new knowledge or understanding

have you
acquired as a result of reading/discussing this article?

6.
Have your
viewpoints

changed as a result of this
assignment?

Bioethics

Bioethics


How would you decide on what
research or Manipulation is right
or wrong?


It is Difficult…


It is the subject of BioEthics …


What are BioEthics?


Definition:

The branch of ethics
that studies moral values in the
biomedical sciences, implications
of new biological discoveries and
biomedical advances


Use to determine a personal opinion or
choice about controversial Biological
topics

But first, we need to understand the
decision making skills process

Bioethics Assignment


Bio Ethics Activity

For
ALL

3 topics you must have:

1.
A graphic organizer laying out
your
viewpoint


2.
Another viewpoint

listed on ONE of the
topic


also using the graphic organizer

Total of 5

decision making processes with
graphic organizer made on own sheet of
paper
(INDIVIDUALLY)
including your
first Decision

GATTACA


GATTACA Questions


On a separate piece of paper head
with name, period, GATTACA


Answer the questions that are
taped to your desk throughout the
movie. (DO not remove these
questions)

Recap what went on in
GATTACA…


What was different about Vincent
and Anton?


You should be to question 8 or 9

Benefits to Developing Countries


Plants resistant to
pests and natural
seasonal problems


Require less energy
input


Easier to Farm


Crops would have
higher nutritional
value than regular
crops

Plant with virus

“Golden Rice”

Opposition


Mostly from
developed countries
like Europe and the
US



Half of US corn and
soybean crops are
genetically modified

Soybeans