GENETIC ENGINEERING - mrsoto - Wikispaces

roachavocadoBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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Biotechnology

Biotechnology is the combination of technology and biological sciences.

1. Selective breeding


Resources:


Inbreeding




Biology (Prentice Hall)


Hybridization




Chapter 13 Genetic Engineering







Pages 319 to 336



2. Genetic Engineering


Electrophoresis Gel



www.mrsoto2012.wikispaces.com


DNA fingerprint


Cloning


Genetically Modified Organisms


3. What do you have to know?

Name of the
technique

Brief description of what is
involved in the technique

One specific example of how
this technique has been used

How humans have benefited
from that technique?

What are the
concerns?

Selective


Breeding

choosy

discriminating

reproduction

procreation

crossing

mating

Definitions of breeding
:




Producing offspring by the selection of parents



Giving birth to young



Reproduce


In context



Rabbits breed quickly



Breeding dogs and raising puppies can be an extremely rewarding experience or
it may produce frustration and failure.

Goal:

Understand the meaning of “Selective Breeding”

New Word:
Select, choose, breeding, mating, crossing, reproducing, procreating

Selecting Breeding

1
. Examine apples of different varieties

2.
Record the color, shape, size, taste.

3. Circle the most desirable traits for an apple you would like to grow

4. How could you produce an apple that has the best traits of all 5 varieties?

5. Most apple trees do not produce fruit until they are about 15 years old. How could you use your knowledge of DNA to
produce a new variety of apple more quickly


Sweet




Tart


Juicy


Sour


Crunchy


Red delicious Machintosh


Granny Smith


Gala


Wild apple

Type

Color

Shape

Size

Taste

Red delicious

Macintosh

Granny Smith

Gala

Wild apple

red

green

yellow

green

Yellow

round

round

round

round

Flat

medium

big

small

big

Very small

sweet

tart

juicy

sour

crunchy

Goal:

Understand the Process of Selective Breeding

New Word:
Select, choose, breeding, mating, crossing, reproducing, procreating

http://www.westminsterkennelclub.org/

Selective Breeding


The breeding of animals or plants that have desirable characteristics



Breeding an organism that has a desirable trait with another so that
the desirable trait is passed to the next generation.

Goal:

Understand the Process of Selective Breeding

New Word:
Select, choose, breeding, mating, crossing, reproducing, procreating

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/harvest/engineer/select.html

Inbreeding

Inbreeding is the continued breeding of individuals with
similar characteristics.

Goal:

Understand the Process of Inbreeding

New Word:
Select, choose, breeding, mating, crossing, reproducing, procreating

Goal:

Understand the Process of Inbreeding

New Word:
Select, choose, breeding, mating, crossing, reproducing, procreating

Hybridization

Hybridization is the crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together

the best of both organisms.

Donkey

Horse

Mule

Zeedonk

Goal:

Understand the Process of Hybridization

New Word:
Select, choose, breeding, mating, crossing, reproducing, procreating


Mule
, a cross of female horse and a male
donkey.


Hinny
, a cross between a female donkey and
a male horse. Mule and hinny are examples of
reciprocal hybrids.


Zeedonk

or
Zonkey
, a zebra/donkey cross.


Zorse
, a zebra/horse cross


Beefalo
, a cross of an American bison and a
domestic cow. This is a fertile breed.


Zubron
, a hybrid between wisent (European
bison) and domestic cow.


Ligers

and
Tiglons

(crosses between a lion
and a tiger) and other Panthera hybrids such
as the
lijagulep
.

Example of Hybrids

Goal:

Understand the Process of Hybridization

New Word:
Select, choose, breeding, mating, crossing, reproducing, procreating

which crosses

consists of

Selective
Breeding

for
example

Inbreeding

Hybridization

Similar
organisms

Dissimilar
organisms

for
example

Organism
breed A

Organism
breed A

Organism
breed B

Retains desired
characteristics

Combines desired
characteristics

which

which crosses

which

Goal:

Understand the Process of Selective Breeding

New Word:
Select, choose, breeding, mating, crossing, reproducing, procreating

which crosses

consists of

Selective
Breeding

for
example

Inbreeding

Hybridization

Similar
organisms

Dissimilar
organisms

for
example

Organism
breed A

Organism
breed A

Organism
breed B

Retains desired
characteristics

Combines desired
characteristics

which

which crosses

which

Section 13
-
1

Concept Map

Goal:

Understand the Process of Selective Breeding

New Word:
Select, choose, breeding, mating, crossing, reproducing, procreating

DO NOW: Fill the blanks with the words:
hybridization or inbreeding


a)
Crossing individuals with different traits is called ________________________


b)
Breeding individuals with similar characteristics is called __________________


c)
Crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms



___________________________


a)
The continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics_____________

hybridization

inbreeding

hybridization

inbreeding

Goal:

Understand the Process of Selective Breeding

New Word:
Select, choose, breeding, mating, crossing, reproducing, procreating

4. To produce large tomatoes that are resistant to cracking and
splitting, some seed companies use the pollen from one variety of
tomato plant to fertilize a different variety of tomato plant. This
process is an example of
_________________________________


5. White short
-
horned cattle and Black Angus cattle have been
crossed to produce offspring with superior beef and rapid growth
qualities. This process of choosing organisms with the most
desirable traits for mating is known as _______________________



Selective breeding (Hybridization)

Selective breeding

(Hybridization)

Goal:

Understand the Process of Selective Breeding

New Word:
Select, choose, breeding, mating, crossing, reproducing, procreating

Goal:

Understand the Process of Selective Breeding

New Word:
Select, choose, breeding, mating, crossing, reproducing, procreating

Name of the
technique


Brief description of
what is involved in
the technique



One specific
example of how this
technique has been
used


The breeding of animals
or plants that have similar
characteristics

Crossing dissimilar organisms
to combine the best of both

Mule, a cross of female
horse and a male donkey

Breeding of dogs or
horses

Inbreeding

Hybridization

Goal:

Understand the Process of Selective Breeding

New Word:
Select, choose, breeding, mating, crossing, reproducing, procreating

Name of the
technique

Inbreeding

Hybridization


What are the
benefits?





What are the
concern?


To preserve traits that make each
breed unique

To obtain a new organism
with the best of both
parents

Offspring may not retain
unique features (those
features breeders are
interested in)


Lack of variation: Most of the
members of a breed are genetically
similar



Diseases spread easily in the cloned
population



Offspring may suffer from a number
of genetic defects and diseases:
blindness, joint deformities,…

For many years, humans have used a variety of techniques that have influenced the genetic
makeup of organisms. These techniques have led to the production of new varieties of
organisms that possess characteristics that are useful to humans.

Identify one technique presently being used to alter the genetic makeup of an organism, and
explain how humans can benefit from this change.


Your answer must include at least:

(1) the name of the technique used to alter the genetic makeup

(2) a brief description of what is involved in this technique

(3) one specific example of how this technique has been used

(4) a statement of how humans have benefited from the production of this new variety of
organism

Technique

Description

Example

How humans have benefit from these
technique

Inbreeding

Reproduction of
individuals with similar
traits

Breeding Dogs or horses

To obtain a desired line of
organisms


Hybridization

Crossing dissimilar
organisms to combine
the best of both

Cross disease resistance
of one plant with the food
-
producing capacity of
another.

To obtain plants and
animals farmers need to
increase food production

Goal:

Understand the Process of Selective Breeding

New Word:
Select, choose, breeding, mating, crossing, reproducing, procreating