Genetic Engineering and genetic technology - Holdensclass.com

roachavocadoBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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Intro Activity


Pick up Worksheet “Should the Results of
the Human Genome Project Be Sold for
Profit?”


Read background information on front and
answer questions on back.

Genetic
Engineering


and


Genetic
Technology


Genetic Engineering
-

The process of making
changes in the DNA code
of living organisms.


Genetic Engineering


Selective breeding
-

method of improving
a species by allowing
only those individual
organisms with
desired
characteristics to
produce the next
generation

Selective Breeding

Genetic Technology Terms


Recombinant DNA
-

DNA produced by
combining DNA from
different sources.

Genetic Technology Terms


Vectors
-

In DNA
cloning, the plasmid
or chromosome used
to carry the cloned
DNA segment to a
desired location.
(Frequently a virus or a
liposome is used)


Genetic Technology Terms


Restriction enzymes
-

enzyme that cuts DNA
at a specific sequence of nucleotides


Genetic Technology Terms


Gel Electrophoresis
-

procedure used to
separate and analyze DNA fragments by
placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one
end of a porous gel and applying electrical
voltage to the gel


Genetic Technology Terms


PCR (polymerase
chain reaction)
-

a
technique that allows
molecular biologists
to make many copies
of a particular gene.


Genetic Technology Terms


Plasmids
-

circular DNA molecule found in
bacteria



Genetic Technology Terms


Bacterial Transformation
-

process in which
one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or
genes from another strain of bacteria.

Genetic Technology Terms


Cloning
-

Making a
genetically identical
organism


Genetic Technology Terms


Transgenic Organisms
-

an organism that
contains genes from another organism


Human Genome Project


In 2003, scientists in the Human Genome
Project obtained the DNA sequence of the 3
billion base pairs making up the human genome


Genetic Disease
-

caused by abnormalities in an
individual’s genetic material (genome).


Genetic (gene) therapy
-

When a gene is
inserted in a cell to replace a defective or
missing gene.


Human Genome Project


Genetic Fingerprinting
-

A
technique used to distinguish
between individuals of the
same species using only
samples of their DNA.



Two humans will have the vast
majority of their DNA
sequence in common. Genetic
fingerprinting exploits highly
variable repeating sequences.
Two unrelated humans will be
likely to have different numbers
of repeating segments at a
given locus.

Human Technologies


Sonogram


Amniocentesis


Karyotypes


Fetoscopy


Blood/Urine Tests



Sonograms or
ultrasound

an
image, as of an
unborn fetus or an
internal body organ,
produced by
ultrasonography.

Human Technologies


Amniocentesis

a
procedure in which a
small sample of
amniotic fluid is
drawn out of the
uterus through a
needle inserted in
the abdomen.

Human Technologies

Figure 14.17 Testing a fetus for genetic disorders


Karyotype

an arrangement of
chromosomes from largest to smallest.

Human Technologies


Fetoscopy
-
A flexible fiberoptic device used
to view a fetus in utero.

Human Technologies

Blood and Urine Test


Blood test may be done to gain an
appreciation of disease states and
the function of organs.



Urine test may be done to help
find the cause for many types of
symptoms.


Human Technologies

What Are Genetic Engineering
Organisms?


Genetic engineering
-

artificially changing
the genetic information in the cells of
organisms


Transgenic
-

an organism that has been
genetically modified


GMO
-

a genetically modified organism


GEO
-

a genetically enhanced organism

Application of Genetic Engineering


Medical


Agricultural


Industrial production


Environmental protection

Medical


Production of pharmaceuticals for
treatment of diseases e.g. human insulin,
interferons


Production of pharmaceuticals for disease
prevention e.g. vaccine (hepatitis B
vaccine)


Medical


Gene therapy:


Artificially replace the disease
-
causing
gene with a normal allele.


The normal allele can be carried by a virus
vector to the target tissues.


e.g. treatment of cystic fibrosis

Medical


Clonal propagation:


a source of tissue or organ for transplantation


avoid all problems of immunoincompatibility.

Agricultural


Transgenic plants and farm animals


pest
-
resistant (reduce use of pesticides)


increase yield



Increase storage time


e.g. green tomato


tomato with beef genes


Industrial:


Use of GM microorganisms to make stone
-
wash
jeans



Use of GM microorganisms to produce enzymes
e.g. detergents

Environmental protection


GM E. coli possesses gene to break down
cellulose, speeding up recycling of the
most abundant biomass on earth



GM microorganisms with enhanced ability
to break down environmental pollutants