Chapter I Overview of Immunology

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Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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Chapter 1



History of Immunology



Introduction





Experiential Immunology period


Experimental Immunology period


Modern Immunology period

Immunology act as an independent subject:


(In 1971, International Conference of


Immunology, in USA )



Chapter 1 History of
Immunology


I. Experiential Immunology period

(the 17th century
-

the middle of

19th century)


In ancient times,many serious
infection diseases,such as
smallpox,plague and cholera
etc,caused inumerable people dead.


Do you know ? Plague !!!


---

Black Death Disease






What disease does this man have?



In 1670,


Chinese medical
practitioners :
variolation





Edward Jennar
----
An English physician


He discovered that cowpox vaccination
protected against smallpox in 1796


Vaccine:

A preparation of microbial antigen,often
combined with adjuvants,that is administered to
individuals to induce protective immunity against
microbial infections.

Vaccination:
A general term for immunization
against infectious diseases,orginally derived
from immunization against smallpox which uses
the Vaccinia virus.


They should be vaccinated first

Why do they not want to play with my kids?

II. Experimental Immunology
period

(the middle of 19th century
-
the
middle of 20th century)


1.Active immunity


In the middle of 19th century


R. Koch



----
Isolated and cultured bacteria
successfully


Pasteur


----
Infectious diseases were caused


by pathogens





Robert

Koch


In 1880,

Pasteur



----
Anti
-
cholera
live
-
attenuated


vaccine


(old culture of Chicken
V.cholera
)

----
Artificial

active immunity







Louis Pasteur(1822
-
1895)

Active immunity:


The form of adaptive immunity that is
induced by exposure to a foreign
antigen and in which the immunized
individual plays an active role in
responding to the antigen.


2. Passive immunity


In the late eighties of 19th century


Roux and Yersin

----
Diphtheria was caused by exotoxin


produced by
C.diphtheriae



The discovery of
diphtheriae

antitoxin


and bactericindins


Antitoxin
----
Antibody (Ab)


Exotoxin
----
Antigen (Ag)


Study on reaction of Ag and Ab
in vitro


----
Serology


In 1890,Von Behring and Kitasato


----
diphtheriae

antitoxin was applied in
treatment of Diphtheria


----

Artificial

passive immunity



Von Behring

Passive immunity:


The form of immunity to an antigen
that is established in one individual by
transfer of antibody or lymphocytes
from another individual who is immune
to that antigen.

Active immunity and passive
immunity


3. Study on antigen


In the early of 20th century,Landsteiner

----
Study on antigenic determinant(epitope)

----
ABO blood type





4. Study on immunochemistry




In 1938,Tiselius and Kabat

----
Ab is


globulin


In the fifties of 20th
century,Porter and Edelmen

----
Molecular structure of Ab:


4 peptides



Total serum

The electrophoresis figure of immune serum

Total serum

glubulin

Albumin

5. Study on immune tolerance



No positive response to specific Ag


In 1945, Oven found natural immune
tolerance


In 1953,Medawar set up animal model of
acquired immune tolerance in newborn
period.


cattle of dizygotic twin

Calf of dizygotic twins

Commonly use one placenta

Their blood types are
different and form chimeras




6. Hypothesis for Ab formation



Templates postulate (1930,Breinl and Haurowitz)


Variable folding postulate (1940,Pauling)


Natural selection postulate (1955,Jerne)


Clonal selection theory (1959, Burnet)


Clone: a group cells that stem from identical cell


Various clones

Clone deletion

Clone selection

birth

Clonal selection theory


(
1
)There

are

various

lymphocyte

clones

in

our

body,

each

of

them

bears

a

unique

type

of

Ag

receptor

which

can

recognize

Ag

specifically
.




Clonal selection theory


(2)The clones of lymphocytes that
can recognize

self
-
Ags

will be
destroyed or learn to tolerance to
self Ags
(forbidden clones)

at the
early stage of their
develop
ment
.


----
clone deletion


Clonal selection theory


(
3
)The

clones

of

lymphocytes

that

can

be

interacted

with

corresponding

Ag

will

be

selected

and

lead

to

activation,

proliferation

,

produce

Ab

and

specific

memory

cells
.


----

clone

selection



Clonal
selection theory



(
4
)

Forbidden

clones

can

be

revival

and

cause

antoimmunity
.


Clonal selection theory


There

are

various

lymphocyte

clones,

each

clone

only

bears

a

unique

type

of

Ag

receptor



The

clones

of

lymphocyte

that

can

recognize

self
-
Ags

will

be

destroyed

or

learn

to

tolerance

to

self

Ags

(forbidden

clones)

at

the

early

stage

of

their

develop
ment
---
clone

deletion




The

clones

of

lymphocytes

that

can

be

interacted

with

corresponding

Ag

(by

Ag

receptors

)

can

be

selected

and

lead

to

activation,

proliferation

,

produce

Ab

and

specific

memory

cells
---
clone

selection



Forbidden

clones

can

be

revival

and

cause

antoimmunity
.

7
.

Mechanism

of

protective

immunity


Cell mediated immunity(CMI)
-----
1883
-
1884,Metchnikoff:


Microorganisms were engulfed and destroyed


by phagocytic cells



Humoral

immunity(HI)

----
1897
,Ehrlich
:


Ab

in

serum

played

important

roles

in

protective

immunity



Both HI and CMI were very important for protective immunity,


Ab in serum could promote the phagocytosis of phagocytic cells



----

1903, Wright & Dauglas

8. Study on immune
-
pathology & immune
disease

In 1902,Richet and Portier
----
Anaphylaxis


Pirquet and Shick
----
Hypersensitivity

In 1903,Arthus
----
Arthus phenomenon

In 1906,Pirquet
----

Allergy

In 1907,Donath and Landsteiner

----
Autoantibody cause autoimmune disease




III. Modern Immunology period


(the middle of 20th century
-
the 21th
century)



1. Study on immune system


In 1957,Glick Fabricius and Xianguang Zhang

----
Chicken without bursa can not produce Ab

----
B cell


In 1961,Good and Miller

----
cell mediated immune of new born mice whose
thymus were taken away are defective

----
T cell


2. Study on monoclonal antibody


----
In 1975,Kohler and milstein

3. Study on immune genetics


----
In 1978,genetic control of antibody diversity


----
Discovery of accurate mechanism of immune
response on gene level (MHC, TCR , BCR)

4. Study on molecular mechanism of T/B
lymphocyte activation and signal
transduction

5. Study on effective mechanism of immune
cells



MHC
-
I

MHC
-

II

a
2

a3

a1

b
1

b2

b
2
m

a
1

a2

肽结合单位

Ig
样单位

跨膜单位

MHC
分子

——

处理并展示抗原内在信息
的“播放系统”

Jean Dauset 1916
-
,

Nobel Prize 1980
for study on immunogenetics


TCR and BCR

6. Study on clinical immunology


Organ transplantation


Autoimmune disease


Tumor immunology


Infectious diseases

7. Study on applied immunology


Preparation of monoclonal antibody
and genetic engineering antibody


Preparation of recombinant cytokines


Study on DNA vaccine


Study on treatment with immune cells


8. New techniques of modern immunology
and application


Separation of immune cells


Protein analysis technique


Phage display technique


Preparation of new animal model










Reference

1.Roitt. Immunology

2.Abbas AK.Cellular and molecular
immunology

3.Lydyard PM. Instant Notes in Immunology

4.
陈慰峰
.
医学免疫学(人民卫生出版社)

5.
龚非力
.
医学免疫学(科学出版社)

6.
司传平
.
医学免疫学应试指南

7.
尹丙娇
.
医学免疫学应试指南