Biotechnology - Hobbton FFA!

roachavocadoBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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Biotechnology

By: Johnny M. Jessup

Agriculture Teacher/FFA Advisor


What is Biotechnology?


Book Definition:


The use of microorganisms, animal cells, plant
cells, or components of cells to produce products
or carry out processes.


Bio:


Life or living


Biotechnology:


The application of living processes to
technology.

Historic Applications


Organisms have been altered for
centuries to alter and improve the
quality & types of food for humans
and animals.


Examples:


Yeast to make bread rise


Bacteria to ferment sauerkraut


Production of various types of cheese


Fermentation of alcohol

Background Information


There are over 300,000 kinds of plants
and 1 million kinds of animals in the
world.


What do they all have in common?


They are all different in some kind of way
due to their genes.


They all have coded information in their
cells called DNA.

Genetics


Gregor Mendel


Austrian monk


Father of genetics


Discovered the effect of
genetics on plant
characteristics with his
experimentation with
garden peas.


Published his work
in 1866.

Genetics


What is Genetics?


The biology of heredity.


What is heredity?


The transmission of characteristics from an
organism to its offspring through genes in
reproductive cells.


What are Genes?


Components of cells which determine the
individual characteristics of living things.

Principles of Genetics


Pair of genes in every cell.


Receive one gene from each parent.


Genes are passed from parent to offspring
unchanged.


Genes are separated in the making of
reproductive cells.


When there are different genes, usually,
only one shows itself.

Cells


Basis of all
genetic activity.


Cell Fast Facts


Basic unit of life.


Microscopic in size.


All life begins as a
single cell.

Cell Division


The way animal growth & reproduction
takes place.


DNA determines what the cell & its
successive cells will become.


2 types


Mitosis


Simple cell division for growth


Meiosis


Cell division that results in the formation of gametes.


Occurs only in reproductive organs

Genes


Units of genetic
material.


Comprised of DNA.


Responsible for
all traits, or
characteristics,
of all animals.


Occur at specific
locations on
chromosomes.

Chromosomes


Rod
-
like carriers for
genes.


Control certain enzyme
& protein production
that controls some
traits.


Composed of a protein
covering surrounding
two chains of DNA.

DNA


Genetic Code of Life


DNA stands for
Deoxyribonucleic
Acid.


Discovered by
Friedrich Miescher
in 1867.


The transmitter of
hereditary
information.

DNA


Genetic Code of Life


Found in the nucleus of
all living cells.


All DNA is similar in….


Structure


Function


Composition

DNA Structure


Occurs in pairs of strands.


Intertwined with one another.


Connected by chemicals called bases.


Like the rungs on a ladder.


The DNA strands are like the two
sides of a ladder.

DNA Structure


Bases


Adenine


Thymine


Cytosine


Guanine


Strands


Sugar phosphates


Twisted to form a
“double helix”.


Chromosomes, DNA & Genes

DNA Use in Biotechnology


Gene Splicing


Process of removing & inserting genes into DNA.


Also called recombinant DNA technology.


Used to alter a given characteristic in a
microorganism, plant, or animal.


Examples:


Alter a plant’s susceptibility to disease.


Make a plant resistant to insects.


Alter bacteria to increase meat production in swine.


Importance of Recombinant
DNA Technology


Improves plants’ and animals’ performance
through the manipulation of genes.


Alter characteristics or performance of
microorganisms.


Control disease, insects, weeds, and other
pests through genetic engineering.


Less use of chemical pesticides and more
genetic use of biological controls result in a
better environment.


Gene Mapping


The process of finding & recording the
location of genes.


Matching of genes to certain traits.


Used by a geneticist to determine which
genes are responsible for certain traits.


Examples:


Tendency of baldness in humans.


Height of plants at maturity.


Tendency of females to have twin offspring.

Gene Mapping

Cloning


Genetically
engineering
offspring (progeny)
from nonsexual
tissue.


Been successfully
done on mammals
such as Dolly in
1996.

Cloning

DNA Matching


One application is
identifying parents
or offspring.


“DNA Testing”

Genetic Engineering


Movement of genetic information in the
form of genes from one cell to another.


Discovered in the early 1980s and was a
breakthrough in modifying genetic makeup.


Made it possible to…..


Increase disease resistance


Improve production


Improve efficiency


Who does this kind of work?


Geneticist

Products of

Genetic Engineering


Insulin


Used by people with diabetes to
control blood sugar levels.


One of the 1
st

commercial
products made by genetic
engineering.


Bacterium called E. coli was
genetically engineered to produce
insulin like cows produce milk and
bees produce honey.


Before this….insulin only came
from pancreas tissue of animals.

Products of

Genetic Engineering


Ice
-
minus


Bacteria that was genetically altered.


Retards frost formations on plant leaves.


Chemicals available to protect fruit crops
when temps fall 4


6 degrees below
what would normally damage the fruiting
process.


Products of

Genetic Engineering


BST


Bovine
somatotropin


Increases milk
production.


Bacteria
genetically
engineered to
produce the
hormone.


Products of

Genetic Engineering


Herbicide resistant
crops such as:


Roundup Ready Corn

Waste Management


Environmental pollution & waste elimination
has become a major problem throughout
the world.


Unloading fees for landfills


1980
---
$3.00 a ton


1990’s
---
$146.00 a ton


Environmental Laws


Reduction in solid waste


10% by 1995


27% by 1997


40% by 2000

Waste Management


Biotechnology is being used to help
solve waste disposal problems.


Examples include:


Bacteria that feed on oil slicks.


Bacteria that deactivate or decompose:


Dioxin, PCB’s, insecticides, herbicides, and
other chemicals in out rivers, lakes, and
streams.

Waste Management


Other bacteria strains are under
development to convert solid waste
from humans & livestock into sugar &
fuel.

Safety in Biotechnology


Federal & state governments monitor
biotechnology research.


How come?


Possible dangers of genetically modified
organisms.


Therefore it is important to conduct
thorough research and to conduct
open discussions.

Safety in Biotechnology


Extensive testing is done to make certain
biotechnology products safe.


Testing proceeds from laboratory to the
greenhouse.


Final testing occurs outdoors on a small scale
prior to produce approval.


Final approval by the federal government
occurs only after all phases of testing have
been completed.

Safety in Biotechnology


Rapidly gaining the public’s
confidence.


Important part of our lives.


Many of its potential benefits have
already been realized…..


But the surface has only been scratched.


Designed By:


Johnny M. Jessup, FFA Advisor


Hobbton High School