Advances in Genetics

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Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Advances in Genetics

How does genetics affect people in
the real world?

Selective Breeding

1.

Selective breeding is the process of ________
a few organisms with desired _____ to serve
as parents of the next __________ . Selective
breeding programs usually focus on
_____________________________________
__________

traits

selecting

increasing the value of the plant or animal
to people.

generation

Selective Breeding

2.

There are two types of selective breeding:



__________ involves crossing two individuals
with similar or identical ____________, and is
used to produce organisms that are very
similar to their _______. Inbreeding can
increase the probability of inheriting _______
disorders. Horses and _____ are two animals
that are produced by inbreeding.

Inbreeding

sets of alleles

dogs

genetic

parents

Selective Breeding


_____________ involves breeders crossing
two genetically _________ individuals, to try to
produce the best ______from both parents.
Today, most ______ are produced by
hybridization.

Hybridization

different

traits

crops

Cloning

1.

A ______ is an organism that is genetically
identical to the organism from which it was
__________. A clone has _______________
______ as the organism from which it was
produced.

2.

_______ and animals can be cloned. Plants
are cloned by making a ______, which then
grows into an identical plant.

clone

exactly the same

cutting

Plants

produced

genes

Cloning

3.

The first adult mammal to be cloned was a
_______ named ______.

4.

Animals are cloned by replacing the nucleus of
an _____ cell with the nucleus of a cell from
the _______ to be cloned.

5. Cloned baby animals often resemble animals
born ___________. As they age, some clones
become ___________ and ________. Also,
many cloned animals die at an __________
than normal.

Dolly

egg

animal

sheep

prematurely

overweight

bloated

earlier age

Genetic Engineering

1.

_______ engineering happens when ______
from one organism are transferred into the
_____ of another organism.

2.

Genetic engineering can used to produce
_________, improve __________, and to try
to cure human ______________.

3.

Genetic engineering in plants can help plants
to survive in ______ temperatures, poor _____
conditions, and to ______ pests.

Genetic

genes

DNA

colder

genetic disorders

food crops

medicines

soil

resist

Genetic Engineering

4. Genetic engineering in ________ can be
used to make the _______ protein needed by
people with hemophilia.

5.

Gene therapy involves inserting ___________
of a gene directly into the ______ of a person
with a genetic disorder.

6. Gene therapy is still an _____________
method for treating genetic disorders.


animals

human

experimental

working copies

cells

DNA Profiling

1.

DNA stands for _____________________,
and is the _______ material of a cell.

2. Name four places in the body that contains
DNA: _______________________________.

3. DNA profiling was developed in ______ by
______________. It was first used by forensic
science to convict ______________ of murder
in 1988. A DNA profile cannot be _______ by
any known treatment.


deoxyribonucleic acid

genetic

blood, skin cells, bone, teeth, hair

1984

Sir Alec Jeffreys

altered

Colin Pitchfork

DNA Profiling

4. No two person’s DNA profile is the same
except for _____________. DNA can be used
to ____ a suspect to the evidence, or to
_________ them.

5. An electronic database called _______ can
compare evidence from _______________
with evidence from another.

6. DNA profiling works because there is a
difference in the order of the ___________
that make up DNA.


identical twins

link

one crime scene

CODIS

eliminate

base pairs

Human Genome Project

1. The Human Genome Project was began in
______ and completed in _____. The main
goal was to _______ all of the genes in human
DNA.

2.

There are approximately _____________
genes in human DNA.

3.

A genome is all of the _____ in an organism,
including its ______.


1990

2003

genes

DNA

20,000
-
25,000

identify

Human Genome Project

4. DNA is made up of four chemicals called
_______ and abbreviated ____________.
The human genome has about __________
pairs of bases. Two other organisms that are
having their genomes studied are _________
and ________.

5. Learning about DNA variations can lead to
new ways to ________, treat, and someday
_______ thousands of genetic disorders.

bases

A, T, C, and G

3 billion

fruit fly

mouse

prevent

diagnose

Cystic Fibrosis


1. A genetic disorder is ___________________
_____________________________________
______________.

2.


Genetic disorders are caused by __________
___________________________.

3. In some cases, mutations occur during
_________; in other cases the mutation is
_______________ in a parent’s cells and gets
passed to the offspring.


an abnormal condition

that a person inherits through genes or
chromosomes

or changes in a person’s DNA

mutations

meiosis

already present

Cystic Fibrosis

4. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder in which
the body ____________________________
________________________.

5. The mutation that leads to cystic fibrosis is
carried on a _________ allele. Currently
there is ________, but medical treatments can
help. Recent advances in scientist’s
understanding of the disease may lead to
better _________ and longer _________.

produces abnormally thick mucus

in the lungs and intestines

recessive

no cure

life spans

treatment

Sickle Cell Disease


1.

Sickle
-
cell disease is a genetic disorder that
affects the ______.

2. People with sickle
-
cell have _____________
with an unusual sickle shape (like a crescent).
Sickle cells cannot carry as much ________
as normal cells, and the cells can become
_____ in narrow blood vessels, ____________
About 9% of __________________ carry the
sickle cell allele.


blood

red blood cells

oxygen

stuck

blocking them.

African Americans

Sickle Cell Disease

3. The allele for the sickle
-
cell trait is
_____________ with the normal allele. A
person with two sickle
-
cell alleles will have the
disease. A person with one sickle
-
cell allele
and one normal allele will produce some
sickle
-
cells, but will not have _____________
of the disease.


co
-
dominant

symptoms

Hemophilia

4. Hemophilia is a genetic disorder in which a
person’s blood _________________________
because of a missing protein. Hemophilia is
caused by a _________ allele on the X
chromosome. Hemophilia occurs more
frequently in _______ than ________. People
with hemophilia must get regular doses of the
missing clotting protein (which is produced
through genetic engineering).

clots very slowly or not at all

recessive

males

females

Down Syndrome


1.

In Down syndrome, a person’s cells have an
extra copy of chromosome ___. The extra
chromosome is the result of an error during
________. People with Down syndrome have
a distinctive ___________________, and have
some degree of _________________.

2

In diagnosing Genetic disorders, today doctors
use tools such as ______________ and
___________.


During amniocentesis, doctors use a very long
_______ to remove a small amount of ______
that surrounds the developing baby. The fluid
contains _____ from the baby.


21

meiosis

physical appearance

mental retardation

amniocentesis

karyotypes

needle

fluid

cells

Diagnosis of Genetic Disorders


To examine the chromosomes from the cells,
the doctor creates a _________, which is a
picture of all the chromosomes in a cell. The
chromosomes are arranged in _____. A
karyotype can reveal whether a baby has the
correct ________ of chromosomes, and
whether it is a ____ or a ____.

3. __________________ helps couples
understand their chances of having a child
with a particular disorder.

karyotype

pairs

number

girl

boy

Genetic counseling