Advances in Genetics
How does genetics affect people in
the real world?
Selective breeding is the process of ________
a few organisms with desired _____ to serve
as parents of the next __________ . Selective
breeding programs usually focus on
increasing the value of the plant or animal
There are two types of selective breeding:
__________ involves crossing two individuals
with similar or identical ____________, and is
used to produce organisms that are very
similar to their _______. Inbreeding can
increase the probability of inheriting _______
disorders. Horses and _____ are two animals
that are produced by inbreeding.
sets of alleles
_____________ involves breeders crossing
two genetically _________ individuals, to try to
produce the best ______from both parents.
Today, most ______ are produced by
A ______ is an organism that is genetically
identical to the organism from which it was
__________. A clone has _______________
______ as the organism from which it was
_______ and animals can be cloned. Plants
are cloned by making a ______, which then
grows into an identical plant.
exactly the same
The first adult mammal to be cloned was a
_______ named ______.
Animals are cloned by replacing the nucleus of
an _____ cell with the nucleus of a cell from
the _______ to be cloned.
5. Cloned baby animals often resemble animals
born ___________. As they age, some clones
become ___________ and ________. Also,
many cloned animals die at an __________
_______ engineering happens when ______
from one organism are transferred into the
_____ of another organism.
Genetic engineering can used to produce
_________, improve __________, and to try
to cure human ______________.
Genetic engineering in plants can help plants
to survive in ______ temperatures, poor _____
conditions, and to ______ pests.
4. Genetic engineering in ________ can be
used to make the _______ protein needed by
people with hemophilia.
Gene therapy involves inserting ___________
of a gene directly into the ______ of a person
with a genetic disorder.
6. Gene therapy is still an _____________
method for treating genetic disorders.
DNA stands for _____________________,
and is the _______ material of a cell.
2. Name four places in the body that contains
3. DNA profiling was developed in ______ by
______________. It was first used by forensic
science to convict ______________ of murder
in 1988. A DNA profile cannot be _______ by
any known treatment.
blood, skin cells, bone, teeth, hair
Sir Alec Jeffreys
4. No two person’s DNA profile is the same
except for _____________. DNA can be used
to ____ a suspect to the evidence, or to
5. An electronic database called _______ can
compare evidence from _______________
with evidence from another.
6. DNA profiling works because there is a
difference in the order of the ___________
that make up DNA.
one crime scene
Human Genome Project
1. The Human Genome Project was began in
______ and completed in _____. The main
goal was to _______ all of the genes in human
There are approximately _____________
genes in human DNA.
A genome is all of the _____ in an organism,
including its ______.
Human Genome Project
4. DNA is made up of four chemicals called
_______ and abbreviated ____________.
The human genome has about __________
pairs of bases. Two other organisms that are
having their genomes studied are _________
5. Learning about DNA variations can lead to
new ways to ________, treat, and someday
_______ thousands of genetic disorders.
A, T, C, and G
1. A genetic disorder is ___________________
Genetic disorders are caused by __________
3. In some cases, mutations occur during
_________; in other cases the mutation is
_______________ in a parent’s cells and gets
passed to the offspring.
an abnormal condition
that a person inherits through genes or
or changes in a person’s DNA
4. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder in which
the body ____________________________
5. The mutation that leads to cystic fibrosis is
carried on a _________ allele. Currently
there is ________, but medical treatments can
help. Recent advances in scientist’s
understanding of the disease may lead to
better _________ and longer _________.
produces abnormally thick mucus
in the lungs and intestines
Sickle Cell Disease
cell disease is a genetic disorder that
affects the ______.
2. People with sickle
cell have _____________
with an unusual sickle shape (like a crescent).
Sickle cells cannot carry as much ________
as normal cells, and the cells can become
_____ in narrow blood vessels, ____________
About 9% of __________________ carry the
sickle cell allele.
red blood cells
Sickle Cell Disease
3. The allele for the sickle
cell trait is
_____________ with the normal allele. A
person with two sickle
cell alleles will have the
disease. A person with one sickle
and one normal allele will produce some
cells, but will not have _____________
of the disease.
4. Hemophilia is a genetic disorder in which a
person’s blood _________________________
because of a missing protein. Hemophilia is
caused by a _________ allele on the X
chromosome. Hemophilia occurs more
frequently in _______ than ________. People
with hemophilia must get regular doses of the
missing clotting protein (which is produced
through genetic engineering).
clots very slowly or not at all
In Down syndrome, a person’s cells have an
extra copy of chromosome ___. The extra
chromosome is the result of an error during
________. People with Down syndrome have
a distinctive ___________________, and have
some degree of _________________.
In diagnosing Genetic disorders, today doctors
use tools such as ______________ and
During amniocentesis, doctors use a very long
_______ to remove a small amount of ______
that surrounds the developing baby. The fluid
contains _____ from the baby.
Diagnosis of Genetic Disorders
To examine the chromosomes from the cells,
the doctor creates a _________, which is a
picture of all the chromosomes in a cell. The
chromosomes are arranged in _____. A
karyotype can reveal whether a baby has the
correct ________ of chromosomes, and
whether it is a ____ or a ____.
3. __________________ helps couples
understand their chances of having a child
with a particular disorder.