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Jan 31, 2013 (4 years and 9 months ago)

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Spatial Data Infrastructure

Concepts and Components

Douglas Nebert

U.S. Federal Geographic

Data Committee Secretariat


August 2009

2

What is a Spatial Data
Infrastructure (SDI)?




“The SDI provides a basis for spatial
data
discovery, evaluation, and
application

for users and providers within
all levels of government, the commercial
sector, the non
-
profit sector, academia and
by citizens in general.”






--
The SDI Cookbook





http://www.gsdi.org

3

Components of a Spatial Data
Infrastructure (SDI)

Policies & Institutional Arrangements

(governance, data privacy & security, data
sharing, cost recovery)

People

(training, professional development,
cooperation, outreach)

Data

(digital base map, thematic, statistical,
place names)

Technology

(hardware, software, networks,
databases, technical implementation plans)

Here’s an overview of the
elements and status of SDI…

Metadata

GEOdata

Clearinghouse (catalog)

Framework

Standards

Partnerships

Metadata

Standards

Partnerships

Discovery

Access

Services

Processing

Framework

GEOdata



The first task is to inventory who has what data of what
type and quality



A standardized form of metadata was published in June
1994 by the US FGDC. An international standard (ISO
19115/19139) now exists and is being adopted by most
countries

Metadata

Metadata can apply to data, services,
and other resource types

Provides documentation of existing internal
geospatial resources within an organisation
(inventory)

Permits structured search and comparison of
held geospatial resources by others
(catalog)

Provides end
-
users with adequate information
to take the resource and apply it in an
appropriate context
(documentation)

ISO 19115/TS19139 provide an international
standard for metadata and its encoding




Metadata describes data and service resources
for order, access, or local use



Metadata is used to describe all types of data,
emphasis on ‘truth in labeling’

Metadata

Geospatial Data

Services



Special
-
use thematic layers are built and
described as available geospatial data


Common data layers are being defined in
the
Framework

activity

Metadata

Framework

GEOdata

11

Framework Data Standards


Eleven abstract data content standards
are being promulgated through the
ANSI process as American National
Standards


Each theme (layer) is also described as
XML/GML Application Schemas that can
be served over the Web (OGC Web
Feature Services)

12

Scope: Framework Layers

Elevation

Orthoimagery

Hydrographic Data

Governmental Unit Boundaries

Cadastral

Geodetic Control

Transportation


Roads




Air


Rail




Marine


Transit


13

Interoperability with common
Framework data encoding

System 1

System 3

System 2

API

export

import

API

export

import

WFS

Core

Framework

Encoding

Services

The NSDI includes the services to help
discover and interact with data

Metadata

Framework

GEOdata

This Discovery Service is provided by a
national catalog of geospatial information
which can be accessed by a national portal

Services

An important common service in SDI is
that of discovering resources through
metadata

Discovery

Access

Processing

Metadata

Framework

GEOdata

16

National Geo
-
Portal capabilities

Help locate data and services

Support download of data, link to related
websites, and applications for others to access

Support self
-
organizing communities post and
manage selected content

Share data collection plans and requirements to
support partnerships and collaboration

17

Functional Areas in the Portal

Search



enables
users to find
geospatial data


Communities


highlight
authoritative data
sources


Featured
Resources



highlight maps,
applications and
websites of
current interest



18

Metadata Publication Options


Users may contribute metadata one of
three ways:


Enter metadata into a form on the catalog
and they are stored and indexed there


Upload metadata as XML to the catalog
from a GIS or metadata program


Register their existing metadata collection
or service to be harvested into the national
catalog

19

metadata

catalog

Portal

map viewer

metadata

metadata

metadata

metadata

data

data

data

data

form

entry

XML

upload

search

map services

Services

Discovery

Access

Processing


This may be made via static files on ftp or
via web services. These services deliver
‘raw’ geospatial data, not maps.



A second category of services provides
standardised access to geospatial
information

Metadata

Framework

GEOdata

21

Interoperable data access

Web

Server

form

postgreSQL

ArcSDE

Minnesota

mapserver

ArcIMS

Access

Deegree

OGC WMS Request

OGC WMS

Services

Native

Services

AutoCAD

GeoMedia

Oracle

MapExtreme

Distributed provider organizations

Services

Discovery

Access

Processing

A third class of services provides
additional processing on geospatial
information

Metadata

Framework

GEOdata



Standardization makes SDI work



Standards touch every SDI activity

Discovery

Standards

Access

Services

Processing

Standards include specifications, formal

standards, and documented practices

Metadata

Framework

GEOdata

26

SDI Suite 1.0 Candidate


OGC Web Map Service 1.1.1


OGC Web Feature Service 1.0


OGC Filter Encoding 1.0


OGC Web Coverage Service 1.0


OGC Geography Markup Language 2.1.2


OGC Catalog Services 2.0 Z39.50 Protocol Binding


FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM, 1998)


SDI Suite 1.0 Supplemental


ISO Metadata Standard 19115 and ISO TS 19139


OGC Geography Markup Language 3.1.1


OGC Styled Layer Descriptor 1.0


OGC Web Map Context 1.1


OGC Catalog Services 2.0 HTTP Protocol Binding, CS
-
W


Candidate “SDI 1.0” Standards

Partnerships extend our capabilities

Standards

Partnerships

Discovery

Access

Services

Processing

Metadata

Framework

GEOdata

Partnerships are the glue...

Proper governance of the community is
essential through a variety of roles and
responsibilities

National government or NGOs should partner
with other levels of government and sectors
to promote 2
-
way coordination

The government or a foundation may be able
to fund agencies with “seed” funding to
further existing efforts toward common goals

Partnerships extend local capabilities in
technology, skills, logistics, and data

29

Thank you!

Doug Nebert

US Federal Geographic Data Committee

ddnebert@usgs.gov

+1 703 648 4151