ISCIS_07 - Stanford University

righteousgaggleData Management

Jan 31, 2013 (4 years and 4 months ago)

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Configuring Web Based
SCM Systems for
Construction Projects

Prof. Hans Bjornsson

Prof. Kincho Law

Jack Cheng

CIFE

Center for Integrated Facility Engineering

Agenda


Supply Chain Management


Construction Supply Chain


Lean Construction


Information Sharing



SC Collaborator


Web
-
based platform for
construction supply chain


Web Services


Interfaces and System Architecture



System Demonstration and Discussion


GC
-
Subcontractor
-
Supplier Collaboration


Module Functionalities



Summary

Construction Supply Chain

Expediting
Report
Expediting
Report
Expediting
Report
PM
Purchasing
Subcontractor
Account
Payable
Delivery
Ticket
Delivery
Ticket
Invoice
Invoice
Invoice
D
Bid
Package
Bid
Package
Bid
Bid
Schedule
Spec
Cost
Distribution
Job
Ledger
Estimating
Control
General
Accounting
Work
item
costs
Work
item
costs
Work
item
costs
Job
ledger
Job
ledger
Job
estimate
Job
estimate
General
ledger
A
Document
Comparison for control
Permanent file of doc.
Suppliers
Carrier
Material
Purchase
Order
Material
Purchase
Order
Subcontract
Purchase
Order
Subcontract
Purchase
Order
Material
Purchase
Order
Material
Purchase
Order
B/L
(Bill of Lading)
B/L
(Bill of Lading)
B/L
(Bill of Lading)
Expediting
Report
Expediting
Report
Expediting
Log
D
Purchase
Order
Invoice
Receiving
Report
Receving
Log
D
Shipping
Notice
Shipping
Notice
Modified from Min, J.U. (2004)
Supply Chain Visualization through Web Services Integration
, PhD Thesis, Stanford University, USA

Information Flow



Procurement Process

Information and
Material Flow



Expediting Process

Information and

Financial Flow



Transaction Process

Challenges of Construction SC


Construction is a
multi
-
disciplinary
,
multi
-
participant

industry


Highly
fragmented

supply chain


Large number of stakeholders


Conflicting goals and objectives


Different locations


Short
-
term,
project
-
based

relationship


Room for Improvement in Construction

Current
Manufacturing

Value
Added

62%

Support

Activity


12%

Waste

26%

Current
Construction

Value
Added

10%

Support

Activity

33%

Waste

57%

Source: FIATECH, 2004

Lean Construction


Based on concepts of
lean manufacturing



GOAL:

Maximize

the
value

delivered to the customer
while
Minimizing

waste

(not value
-
adding)



Basic Principles


Identify
values

in customer’s terms


Eliminate
inefficient

practices

(waste)


Make the work
flow


Decentralize

decision making


Increase communication


Let the customers
pull



Results: improved quality and profit margins

Information Sharing is not Easy…

Civil

Engineer

Construction

Manager

Structural

Engineer

Building

Owner

Architect

Cost

Estimator

MEP

Engineer

HVAC

Engineer

We Need Information Standards

Civil

Engineer

Construction

Manager

Structural

Engineer

Building

Owner

Architect

Cost

Estimator

MEP

Engineer

HVAC

Engineer

Shared

Project Data

Model

Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)


Most commonly used data model in AEC
industry


Developed by
International Alliance for
Interoperability (IAI)


Mission: To enable
software interoperability

in
AEC/FM industry


In
STEP

format

IAI


Versions:

IFC 1.0 [1997]


IFC 1.5


IFC 1.5.1


IFC 2.0


IFC 2x


IFC 2x2


IFC 2x3 [June 2007]

From 2D Model to BIM


2D Drafting


Individual paper
-
based 2D
drawings


No consistency check


No project info



3D Modeling


Computer
-
based 2D/3D
models


Consistency check


geometry


No project info



Building Information Model
(BIM)


Computer
-
based 3D models


Consistency check


geometry


Project info, e.g. cost, schedule,
lighting and thermal analysis,
structural analysis

Alternative Approaches in SCM

Approach

Principle

Applicability in
construction

Long
-
term relationships

(Buzzell et al. 1995)

Develop strong and long
-
term
relationships with supply chain
members to improve products,
reduce costs, and develop more
efficient processes and procedures.

It can be applied to
negotiated jobs. Difficult in
case of competitive bid jobs.



Working with fewer
suppliers

(Davis 1994)

Dealing with fewer suppliers and
carriers to encourage closer
working relationships and allow
greater use of supplier and carrier
expertise.

Construction by itself requires
supplier’s expertise



Inv. and cycle time
management with suppliers


(Inger et al. 1995)

Working with supply chain
members to reduce channel
-
wide
inventory levels and cycle times, so
as to reduce overall costs.

It requires interactive
communication and
collaboration


Strong commitment

(Christopher 1994)


Building commitment at all levels of
the organization to encourage
implementation and continued use
of SCM techniques.

It depends on managerial
decision



Internet
-
based
Information sharing

(Lee 2000, Rosenbaum 2001)

Regularly sharing information
with supply chain members,
allowing quicker response to
changes and better short
-
term
and long
-
term planning.

Technology driven
approach.

It fits well into the
requirements of
construction SCM.

Commercial SCM Applications

Features

IB
S

i2

Manhattan

EX
E

SA
P

Mchugh

IMI

Descarte
s

NxTrend

HK

Decision support

/
Event
management

o

o

o

o

o

o

Inventory
management

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

Order
management

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

Production
scheduling

o

o

Demand planning
/ forecasting

o

o

o

o

Supply planning

o

o

o

Distribution
planning

o

o

o

o

o

o

Transportation
management

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

Warehouse
management

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

Commercial SCM Applications

Features

IB
S

i2

Manhattan

EX
E

SA
P

Mchugh

IMI

Descarte
s

NxTrend

HK

Decision support

/
Event
management

o

o

o

o

o

o

Inventory
management

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

Order
management

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

Production
scheduling

o

o

Demand planning
/ forecasting

o

o

o

o

Supply planning

o

o

o

Distribution
planning

o

o

o

o

o

o

Transportation
management

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

Warehouse
management

o

o

o

o

o

o

o








Manufacturing SCM
applications

Characteristics of
AEC Industry

Targeted at large
trading partners

Medium to small firms

Configuration takes
long

Quick configuration is
critical in a project

Stable supply chains

Project
-
based
temporary supply
chains

Web Services


Web services are
encapsulated,

loosely coupled

contracted

functions offered via standard

protocols.


(Source: Webservices.org)



Web services are a new breed of Web application. They
are
self
-
contained, self
-
describing, modular

applications that can be
published, located, and
invoked

across the Web. Once a Web service is
deployed, other applications (and other Web services)
can discover and invoke the deployed service.”

(Source: IBM)


Web Service Standards

Internet

SOAP

WSDL

UDDI

BPEL

Ubiquitous Communications

Service Messaging

Formal Service Descriptions

Publish, Discover Services

Service Aggregation

XML, DTD, Schema

Universal Data Format

Why Web Services?

Benefits:


Process automation


Agility / Modularity


Increased functionality


7
-
day, 24
-
hour


Plug
-
and
-
play


Dynamic

Challenges


Loosely coupled,
distributed web services


Trusted and transparent
environment is needed


Interoperability issue

Service
-
Oriented Architecture

3 Types of Web applications:


Static Web Site

(HTTP/HTML)

Dynamic Web Site

(Java/J2EE)

Connected Applications

(SOA)

SOA:

Interconnected web of Web services

(business,
engineering, etc.)

Integration by Web Portal (iGoogle)

Tools

News

Entertainment

Information

Personal

Portlets

Guest Home Page

Single

Authentication

Project
Information

Local
Weather

22 Languages
Supported

Timeout Capability (after 1 min…)

Warning! Due to inactivity, your session has expired

Liferay Platform


SC Collaborator

is built on top of an open source
software,
Liferay Portal



Compatible to various


Servlet containers

(e.g. Apache Tomcat, Jetty)


Application servers



commercial (e.g. OracleAS, IBM
Websphere, Weblogic) and open source (e.g. JBoss, JFox)


Databases



commercial (e.g. Oracle, IBM DB2) and open
source (e.g. MySQL, PostgreSQL, InterBase)



Two installation options:


Liferay Portal,
Professional Edition


Bundled with servlet container


Liferay Portal,
Enterprise Edition


Bundled with app. server and servlet container



N
-
tier deployment: separate
web server
,
business
implementation server
, and
database server

Used because of lightweight
deployment and effciency

System Architecture


SC Collaborator

WML

Web

Services

HTML

Struts Servlet

Axis Servlet

Clients

Servers

Web Server

(HTTP and HTTPS)
and Servlet Container

(e.g.
Apache Tomcat
,
Jetty, Resin)

Business Tier

(connectivity, life
-
cycle mgt,
data access, transaction
mgt, remote mgt, etc.)

Relational
Database

(e.g.
MySQL
,
Oracle)

HTTP

WAP

SOAP,

WSDL

POJO: Plain Old Java Object

WML: Wireless Markup Lang.

WAP: Wirelsss Application
Protocol

Session EJB

Container





Session EJB

Container





Spring

Framework





POJO
Implementation

(contains all
business logic)

Java

classes

JDBC

Liferay Built
-
in

Hibernate

Other apps or WS

Why Open Source?


SC Collaborator
is built on top of
Liferay Portal,
Apache Tomcat

and
MySQL
, all of which are
open source

software




Open Source Success Stories:


Apache Web Server



runs approx. 60% of websites


Mozilla Web Browser



approx. 11% worldwide web
browser market share


MySQL



used by Google, Orbitz, Department of
Homeland Security


SC Collaborator


Service
-
Oriented Architecture (
SOA
)


Integration by
web portal

platform


Open Source



no license cost, low
maintenance cost


Plug
-
and
-
use


Extensible and scalable


User
-
friendly

Agenda


Supply Chain Management


Construction Supply Chain


Lean Construction


Information Sharing



SC Collaborator


Web
-
based platform for
construction supply chain


Web Services


Interfaces and System Architecture



System Demonstration and Discussion


GC
-
Subcontractor
-
Supplier Collaboration


Module Functionalities



Summary

Project Floor Plan

Project Schedule

Project Organization Chart

Jack Cheng

[GC]

Scott. Co.

[Foundation]

Suma Concrete

[Concrete Walls]

Carmel MEP

[Mechanical, Electrical,

Plumbing]

Minton Door

[Mechanical]

Sasco Electrics

[Electrical]

Subcontractors

General

Contractor

Initial Procurement

Web Service Gateway

Deployed Suppliers Web Services

Further Process

Order &

Invoice

Suppliers

Architectural
Design

Online catalog

Procurement

Office

Managers

Inventory
Management

Material
Summary

Delay in Material Delivery

Send notification

Reviewing the
details of
Purchase Order

GC and Subcontractor Notified

Subcontractor Reviewing Schedule

Availability Check for Alternatives

SC Collaborator for Expediting

Getting Quotes from
other suppliers

New column with choices of suppliers

Request for Schedule Delay

Message Notification to Subcontractors

Project Transparency

Dates changed

Separated into Modules

Current module

Alternative modules

Selected module

Project Module


Content Management

Project Module


Supporting Tools

Support Module


Module Configuration

Build page hierarchy

Manage page order

Manage
child page

Support Module


Portal Properties

Support Module


User Management

Agenda


Supply Chain Management


Construction Supply Chain


Lean Construction


Information Sharing



SC Collaborator


Web
-
based platform for
construction supply chain


Web Services


Interfaces and System Architecture



System Demonstration and Discussion


GC
-
Subcontractor
-
Supplier Collaboration


Module Functionalities



Summary

Summary


Construction SC is
multi
-
participant, multi
-
disciplinary



Coordination

and
Transparency



Lean construction



max.
value

and min.
waste



Information sharing



IFC

and
BIM



Integration

of web contents by
web services
,
SOA

and
web portal



Open source

software for
construction management

Summary (cont’d)


SC Collaborator

(
web portal

system)



Features:


SOA, open source, integration of web applications by web portal,
plug
-
and
-
use, extensible and scalable, user
-
friendly



Functionalities:


Module and portlet configuration, system mgt, user mgt, content
mgt, project mgt



GC
-
Subcontractor
-
Supplier

scenario