Why form a CSTA Chapter CS4HS at McKendree University June 12 ...

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Why form a CSTA Chapter

CS4HS at McKendree University

June 12
-
13, 2012

Joe Kmoch

joe@jkmoch.com


Script:

Slide 1
-

Good
afternoon. Consider continuing the conversations begun here by
coming together and forming a local CSTA chapter.

Slide 2


a local
CSTA chapter is intended to be a subgroup of the national CSTA and
as such to focus discussions and work in this local area which I’m sure is different
from other local areas. Also this is an oportunity to continue these conversations
and also promote CST
A membership on the national level. This would be an ideal
way to promote the CS K
-
12 standards

Slide 3


Illinois and Missouri each has a regional chapter


Illinois is out of Chicago
and Missouri is out of St Louis, so you could create a Southern Illino
is regional.
Talking with the Missouri CSTA Chapter would be worthwhile to get help setting up
your chapter and also to occasionally do a joint meeting or symposium or whatever.
<
http://csta.acm.org/About/sub/CSTAChapters.html
>

Slide 4


Membership shoul
d be both teachers in K
-
12 and 2 and 4
-
year college
professors; professional development should be a key activity.

Slide 5


other activies could include computer contests designed to encourage
underrepresented groups; and PD workshop on programming lang
uages,
environments, established units in curricula (ECS and AP CS Principles), gaming,
mobile, robotics, etc

Slide 6


Activities for girls or other underrepresented groups; career day, CS Ed
Week, Dec 9
-
15, 2012. Go ahead, take the pledge to do somethin
g whether you have
a chapter or not

Slide 7


a whole host of chapter benefits


being associated and involved with CSTA
as a group, support, contact info of CSTA members in your locale, etc

Slide 8


there are some obligations


5 members from at least 2
institutions, hold
regular meetings, have a leadership structure, and so forth


check out the chapter
page on CSTA website near the bottom.

Slide 9


Resources available to the chapter


copies of various posters, Imagine
your Future brochure, Computing C
areers and Degrees brochure, copies of other
resources

Slide 10, 11


ten ways college faculty can help; could be a recruiting tool

Slide 12


what you can do


be worth
morning. Thanks for having me. My theme
today

and really my work over
the last 30 or
so years is to get more students involved with significant computing
where students are not just user or consumers of computing technology, but are
actually creators, adapters and modifiers of technology to solve small and large
problems relevant to their
world and in fact all of our world.

Slide 5
-

With that in mind, I’d like to get some
idea

of you and your background. I
know about an equal number of you are highschool teachers and middle school
teachers
,

and there are a few teachers at the elementary.

There’s also at least one
principal in our audience. Congratulations to all of you for wanting to spend a
couple of
days hearing

about and experiencing computer science.

Slide 2


teach CS? Use computing? ...other items?

Slide 3


overview of talk


so t
hat I don’t get too side
-
tracked

which I’m at times
prone to do and that I hit on each of these areas, I’d like to hold questions till the end
and I’ll really try to leave a few minutes


I’ll also be around all morning and into the
early afternoon, and I’
m happy to talk with further about this stuff.

------------------

Context and background

8:50
-
9:00

Slide 4


I think it’s important to have some context where this Computing for All
movement is coming from. George Polya’s 1945 book How to Solve It to m
e is a
seminal treatise describing these 4 steps to problem solving.

Understand the problem


what is this about? What solution is being sought?

Design and plan a solution


What are the facts and situation leading up to the
problem and what can we do t
o resolve this problem; if it’s a computer
-
based
solution, determine what we’re going to tell the computer to do, and what we expect
from those actions

Implement that solution


actually perform the plan of action


if it involves a
computer, do whatever i
s necessary on the computer to execute the plan of attach

Evaluate that solution


does the result actually solve the problem for all planned
inputs? How do we know?

Slide 5


another seminal work, Bloom’s Taxonomy of Education Objectives from
1956 is ano
ther watershed in understanding thinking strategies. As noted on the
slide, there are higher order and lower order.

Recall that the first two of Polya’s steps are understanding and designing


clearly
these are among the higher order thinking skills and

the implementation can
sometimes be either
; evaluating

is clearly a higher order; so these two are at least to
me inextricably tied

I used to say that when teaching programming (which is only a piece of computer
science), too often as teachers we present
some kind of “problem”, then pretty much
“understand” the problem for the students and often even go so far as to “design the
plan”, then let the students code the solution, sometimes even providing test data.
Clearly in that situation students are not do
ing much of the higher order thinking,
are they?

Slide 6


another “piece of the action” is the development of 21
st

Century Skills. The
4 C’s + employability + basic computing...this was based on a 1991 report called
SCANS (Secretary’s Commission on Achie
ving Necessary Skills) and since that time
has been trumpeted as extremely important to the success of the 21
st

Century
worker.

Notice in the Four C’s the importance of those Bloom’s Higher Order
Thinking

Skills
and the inclusion of what amounts to Polya’
s Problem Solving method.

It’s been widely said that we’re educating students now using pedagogy and an
environment that was created in the late 1800s in order to
train masses of people
moving to cities to do the work required in an industrial age. For
that time, it was
important to get people to have certain of those soft skills and to be able to do
repetitive actions. If anything the items in the 4C’s were not only ignored but were
actually undesirable.

Today is much different, yet we’re still into th
is old way of thinking in nearly all
schools and classrooms

Slide 7


even more recently around 2002 we have the development and release of a
career model called Career Clusters. There were 16 defined, two of which are IT and
STEM. Focusing here on IT, t
here are 4 pathways defined
. In fact when we the US
Dept of Labor talks about careers involving computers, these four pathways make
up all of those million and a half openings that will be coming available.

These pathways are opportunities that as many
kids as possible should experience
in
significant

ways (at the creator, not just the user level) well before they start
making decisions about post secondary education. We ought to consciously provide
as many kids with these opportunities not only because

of careers in these areas,
but also because most every other career involves one or many of these pathways,
so we’re opening up tremendous opportunities for kids to achieve family supporting
careers in their future.

The blog post reference from Deborah Se
ehorn who chairs the CSTA CS Standards
strongly suggests students ought to get opportunities to experience these pathways.

By the way, while you have this presentation on your thumb drive, I’ve also created
a wiki with a links like these. It’s cs4hsmc
k
end
ree.pbworks.com

Slide 8
-

Around that time, the National Academy foundation created the first
comprehensive curriculum for IT based on career cluster, 21 century skills and
context
-
based project
-
based curriculum. It has evolved very nicely in the last cou
ple
of years to do this even better.

Slide 9
-
In 2003 ACM created a committee to establish a K
-
12 CS Model
Curriculum,
which

CSTA took over once they were created. We’ll talk more about the
recently

published 3
rd

edition

Slide 10


Our last bit of
historical context is the Perkins 2006 Reauthorization
which now requires schools seeking funds to have a clear focus on one or more
Career Clusters. Of course what this does, is not only provide a clear focus for
schools, students and teachers, but also
support the previous efforts I noted at
defining appropriate approaches for students to learn for the 21
st

Century. Recall
the 4C’s: Collaboration, Communication, Creativity and Innovation, and Critical
Thinking and Problem Solving

---------------------

Workforce and Pipeline issues

9:00


9:10

Slide 11


This gets us into workforce and pipeline issues. We’re going to skip
through these quickly (I hope) but these slides and other information are available
on other wiki sites that I mention in the cs4h
sMcKendree wiki

Basically as we’ll see, around 2000 we had problems in these career fields but since
about 2004 these
opportunities

have increased with actually a decrease in courses
at the HS level. This was caused for a variety of reasons, not just the
dot com bubble
but also educational funding, NCLB and the continued reports that most computing
jobs were going overseas.

Slide 12


the latest workforce projections suggest that job growth is very high in
both CS/IT and Engineering over the next 8 or so y
ears


note the high numbers
in
IT
, yet only in engineering is there an established curriculum (PLTW and I think one
other)

Slide 13


As you can s
ee there are huge numbers of New

jobs coming online, and
the percentage increases in some of these areas is h
uge


actually several of these
are
over

30% by some estimates

Slide 14


Considering New and R
eplacement opportunities, the numbers are almost
staggering

Slide 15


Yet the pipeline isn’t there at least for computer science


the green line
indicates the

number of job openings each
year and

the other three lines together
don’t match it even come close
(most

of the job openings noted here require a
bachelor’s degree, not a masters or
PhD



some of these job openings only require a
2
-
year degree


but there

are other reasons to get involved with a 2
-
year program
(cheaper then as stepping stone, also requirements may change in some industries)

Slide 16


the mind boggles with
opportunities

like these that are not being seen by
younger folks; there are many st
ories of older CS/IT professionals not being able to
get jobs and the reasons are incredibly diverse, some unfair (age discrimination,
wage discrimination), some possibly fair (older skills, little new learning)

Slide 17


The high school pipeline is measu
red by the only national testing program
easily available


Advanced Placement; AP involvement is up in the sciences and
mathematics but stagnant at best in computer science

Slide 18


here we have another facet of the problem in CS/IT


the lack of
involv
ement

of females in this test (and indeed in the CS/IT career fields). In
computer science while involvement is up a little over the last 10 years, it’s still
below 20% of the APCS tests taken (this also happens to mirror the involvement of
females in the

CS/IT industry). Yet it’s clear females can handle high level thinking
based on the total AP tests taken and the much higher numbers (than in CS) in most
other areas noted here

Slide 19


this problem is even worse for minority participation in AP exams
in
general and tied with physics for the worst involvement at about 12%

Slide 20


The National Academy of Engineering identified 14 Grand Challenges for
Engineering in the coming years and a little more than half involved at least a
significant computer s
cience
; also

another statistic that has been floating around is
that 60
-
70% of all openings in STEM careers will involve significant or predominant
levels of computer science in the future.

Slide 21


a couple of somewhat unusual examples: Manufacturing
requiring CNC
(CS) and Model Railroading now predominantly using DCC for controlling layouts
and requiring you to program locomotives and accessories

Slide 22
-

Why is it important to figure out how to involve many more females and
ethnic minorities? As
n
oted by

an
Internet

startup
-
entrepreneur, when you’re
trying to broaden your customer base, you need to include females and ethnic
minorities in significant numbers in your company who will be
designing
,
implementing and testing products. To me it’s like
designing baby products without
involving either mothers or babies.

-----------------

CS K
-
12 Standards 2011

9:10
-
9:25

Slide 23


CS K
-
12 CS Standards 2011


notice the change to using Standards in the
title and not just curriculum


this is very
significant. In any case, the intent of these
standards is noted on the slides


incidentally the “computing skills” noted is not to
mean that we offer a keyboarding or wp course and we’ve met the standards


in
that case you’ve met only a small fraction
of the standards


“concepts” is the
operative and high order thinking word here.

Slide 24


CS Standards Committee philosophy


reading, writing and math and
science fundamentals are important but in 21
st

century understanding computing is
also fundamenta
l as well

Slide 25


Context for New Standards


writing these as standards will more likely
win more acceptance by state and national educational goal setting groups
; the

tools
and pedagogies include things like Scratch, Alice, robots and greater emphasis

on
relevant, contextual education at least in some arenas

The last bullet point deserves
comment


learning to use Word, Excel and
PowerPoint is not computer science


learning to use any tool without allowing and
emphasizing creativity, modifications and

connections to the real world is just not
CS

Slide 26


Here is the working definition of computer science as used in these
standards


notice words like algorithmic, principles, designs as well as application
and impact. The new course which we all hop
e meets AP standards is being
developed nationally identifies these 7 big ideas of CS


note again, that
programming itself is only one of the 7 and is not the most important part of this
course;

Creativity


computing is a creative activity

Abstraction


abstraction reduces information and detail to facilitate focus on
relevant concepts (a car has many levels of abstraction; for example, we know that
when we step on the accelerator, the car moves


at one level of
abstraction

this is
all you need to know



at the driving level; there’s another level of
abstraction

that
the service manager knows if the car is not “acting right”, but doesn’t need to know
exactly how a particular car gets gas from the tank to the pistons, etc etc

Data


data and information
facilitate the creation of knowledge


data collection,
data analysis
, data representation

Algorithms


used to develop and express solutions to computational problems

Programming


enables problem solving, human expression and creation of
knowledge

Intern
et


pervades and enhances modern computing

Impact


computing has global impacts

Slide 27


why these standards? Makes computer education more consistent and
more meaningful across states and communities; Trends in HS


reasons why CS
courses are low or
non
-
existent in many schools

Slide 28


Level 1: elementary; Level 2: middle school; Level 3: high school. Level 1
is really subdivided into two segments: K
-
3, 4
-
6; also Level 3 has 3 courses defined
the last of which could be the current APCS
-
A course,

but could be another high level
course

Some grade overlap was conscious due to different
definitions of

middle schools and
also that 9
th

graders in HS sometimes can benefit from Level 2 exposure to CS before
continuing

Slide 29


Level 1


CS and me


int
egrating basic skills with basic ideas about
computational thinking; focus on inspiring and engaging experiences; active
learning, creativity, exploration

Slide 30


Level 2


CT and problem solving tool; ubiquity of computing facilitates
communications an
d collaboration; community
-
relevant issues; again, active
learning, explorations, possibly in a specific course

Slide 31


Level 3


mastering more advanced CS concepts and their application;
creating virtual and real
-
world
artifacts
; more exploration of r
eal=
-
world problems
and application of CT concepts; collaborative learning, project management,
effective
communications

Slide 32



Level 3a


CS in modern world


Similar

to Exploring CS curriculum; Six
major ideas: HCI, Problem Solving, Web Design, Programming, Computing and Data
Analysis
, and Robotics

Slide 33



Level 3b


Computer Science Principles


more in
-
depth study of cs and
its relation to other disciplines


si
gnificant amounts of algorithmic problem solving
and related activities; sample instantiation would be AP Computer Science
principles

Slide 34



Strands


all learning outcomes are grouped by this set of 5 strands; as
you will note, programming which is us
ually how people think of cs is only a portion
of the entire body of knowledge involved in cs

Slide 35



Strand: Collaboration


for example social media, cloud computing

Slide 36



Strand: CT


note 6 items (Data Analysis and collection appear elsewhere)

Slide 3
7



Strand: Computing Practice and Programming (creation of artifacts,
programming, careers, etc)

Slide 38



Strand: Computers and Communications Devices (support and networks)

Slide 39



Community Global and Ethical Impacts (responsible use, ethics
, equity,
etc)

Slide
40



Strand: Computing
Practice



Levels in bands by color



Topics of strand as columns



Look across by grade band or look for concept development vertically

Slide 41
: looking across all strands at level 2 for computing practice and
programming

CS Standards (2011, 3rd ed) by Level and by Strand





Collab

Comp
Thinking

Comp
Practice &
Prog

Comm
Devices

Community,
Ethics


Lvl 1:K
-
3

2

5

6

1

2

16

Lvl 1:4
-
6

3

6

10

6

4

29

Lvl 2

4

15

9

8

6

42

Lvl 3a

4

11

12

10

11

48

Lvl 3b

3

11

8

5

8

35


16

48

45

30

31

170


----------------
-

Computational

Thinking segment

9:25
-
9:40

Slide 42


Computation Thinking


9 CS practices (or 7 or 6, depending on what’s
combined); Related to Common Core in Mathematics


very important for
implementation
; probably our best shot to get CS into K
-
12,
particularly

K
-
6

Slide 43


simple definition


critical thinking + computing power=making decisions
or innovating solutions (create, produce, manipulate


hots)

CT can magnify ps skills needed to
address

authe
ntic, real
-
world issues

Slide 44


CS principles in problem domains (almost anything)

Slide 45


video on why CT and what is it?

Slide 46


NSF


National Science Foundation
-

prioritized CT


notably innovation
and national security

Slide 47


CSTA and
ISTE


today’s tools to solve tomorrow’s problems; across all
disciplines

Slide 48


CT for all students: knowledge and skills students need to know

Slide 49


video on knowledge and skills

Slide 50


54: responsibility to teach CT, many already incorporat
e it (though not
identified), shared vocabulary to highlight in lessons

concepts, skills, dispositions;
cross
-
curricular
; shared vocabulary, many already
incorporating CT, doesn’t necessarily require computers

Slide 55: Operational Definition (page in han
dout)

Slides 56
-
59


Formulating, organizing, representing, automating,
identifying...solutions, generalizing (sound like Polya? Include Blooms? Maybe even
21
st

Century?) highlight dispositions


confidence, persistence, tolerance, open
-
ended, communica
te to others

Slide 60


so CT is the marriage of Big Ideas in CS and Big Ideas in most other
domains; bioinformatics, computation <you put in the term>, DNA mapping, all
branches of engineering,

Problems and big ideas are mostly not just from a single dom
ain but rather as we
understand a problem and develop a plan to solve it, we find we will be using tools
from a variety of disciplines

Slide 61


CT Building Blocks


9 core concepts (see handout); defined in the chart
and illustrated by grade band. If we

had time, we would now get you into smaller
group, maybe by subject matter, maybe cross curricular, and consider an example or
two which would involve one or more of the core CT concepts.

Slides 62


CT in the classroom: Elementary


toy car game or creat
ing set of
directions
; embed

or integrate into lessons; maybe already doing CT maybe without
the vocabulary, for example

Slide 63


CT in the
classroom:

Middle


planning publication of a newsletter core
concept


problem decomposition

Slide 64


CT in the

classroom: History


connect vocabulary to activity

1.

Case Studies in Teacher Toolkit include

2.

Language Arts PK
-
2: Sequencing

3.

Interdisciplinary

PK
-
2:

Growing Plants

4.

Science gr 4


Food Chain

5.

Language Arts Gr 5


Persuade Me Please

6.

Social Studies Gr 6
-
8


Budget Buddy

7.

Interdisciplinary gr 6
-
8: Research Skills

8.

Interdisciplinary gr 9
-
12
: Alternatives to the Civil War

9.

Interdisciplinary gr 9
-
12: Traffic Jam

10.

Computer Science Gr 9
-
12: Conway’s Game of Life

Middle School scenario and a High School scenario

Slide 6
5
-

CCSS

Common Core State Standards
This list of mathematical practice
standards echoes the knowledge, skills and dispositions noted in the development of
CT

Slide 66: C
CSS Standards for Math Content:

modeling

Slide 67: CT is a key interdisciplinary
component

Slide 68: CT helps connect and apply academic content to real
-
world situations

Slide 69: CT is already a learning strategy in many classrooms

Slide 70: CT gaining
traction

in CE21, CSTA CS standards, AP Principles of CS

Slide 71: promotes 21
st

C
entury Learning which is about creating and producing


higher order skills

Slide 72:
CT Features which promote new approaches to learning


project
-
based,
inquiry
-
based, reality based, multidisciplinary, deep analysis, using concepts from
CS preparing fo
r the use of automation to help solve problems (most major scientific
and even non
-
scientific research revolves around stating problems in such a way
that computers can then harvest and help evaluate data)

Means we will have to learn to teach and construct

courses differently


one cannot
teach project
-
based and inquiry based using old methods and paradigms. ECS is a
great example of a PD
approach, which focuses more on process,

rather than content,
with changes to the way we teach instead of merely grafti
ng new content onto our
old ways.

Slide 73: CT for larger problems, though not necessarily all problems; largest
problems involving sciences, environment, social studies


large data sets and
modeling and simulation techniques are useful

Slide 74: Techno
logy Review


most emerging technologies make heavy use of CT

Slide 75: How you as a teacher can take action


in particularly highlight and use CT
vocabulary

Slide 76: School Leaders Leadership Toolkit

Slide 77: Take a survey?

Slide 78:
CT Features which

promote new approaches to learning


project
-
based,
inquiry
-
based, reality based, multidisciplinary, deep analysis, using concepts from
CS preparing for the use of automation to help solve problems (most major scientific
and even non
-
scientific research r
evolves around stating problems in such a way
that computers can then harvest and help evaluate data)

Means we will have to learn to teach and construct courses differently


one cannot
teach project
-
based and inquiry based using old methods and paradigms.

ECS is a
great example of a PD
approach, which focuses more on process,

rather than content,
with changes to the way we teach instead of merely grafting new content onto our
old ways.

Slide 79: resources


thank you!