Download Chapter 17 Vocabulary Sheet

richessewoozyBiotechnology

Oct 1, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

215 views

Chapter 17 Vocabulary Sheet: Organizing Life’s Diversity


SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single
-
celled and multi
-
celled
organisms and the increasing complexity of systems.

b. Compare how structures and functio
n vary between the six kingdoms
(archaebacteria,

eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals).

c. Examine the evolutionary basis of modern classification systems.


17
-
1: The History of Classification:

1.

Classification


grouping of organisms of objects
based on a set of criteria that helps
organize, communicate, and retain information.


2.

Taxonomy
-

branch of Biology the identifies, names, and classifies species based on
their natural relationships.


3.

Binomial nomenclature


Linnaeus’s system of naming organ
isms, which gives a
scientific two
-
word Latin name to each species
-

the first part is the genus name and the
second is the specific epithet or species.


4.

Taxon


named group of organisms, such as a phylum, genus, or species.


5.

Species


group of organisms th
at can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.


6.

Genus



taxonomic group of closely related species with a common ancestor.


7.

Family



taxonomic group that contains similar, related genera.


8.

Order



taxonomic group that contains related families.


9.

Class



taxonomic group that contains one or more related orders.


10.

Phylum



taxonomic group of related classes.


11.

Kingdom



taxonomic group of related phyla.


12.

Domain



taxonomic group of one or more kingdoms.





Turn Over


17
-
2: Modern Classification:

13.

Phylogeny



evolutionary history of a species.


14.

Character



inherited morphological or biochemical feature that varies among species
and can be used to determine patterns of descent.


15.

Molecular clock



model that uses comparisons of DNA sequences to estimate
phylog
eny and rate of evolutionary change.


16.

Cladistics



taxonomic method that models evolutionary relationships based on shared
derived characters and phylogenetic trees.


17.

Cladogram



diagram with branches that represents the hypothesized phylogeny of
evolution

of a species of group; uses bioinformatics, morphological studies, and
information from DNA studies.


17
-
3: Domains & Kingdoms:

18.

Eubacteria



prokaryotes with peptidoglycan
-
containing cell walls


19.

Archaea



prokaryotes whose cell walls do
not

contain peptidoglycan.


20.

P
roti
st



unicellular, multicellular, or colonial eukaryote whose cell walls may contain
cellulose; can be plantlike, animal
-
like, or funguslike.


21.

Fungus



unicellular or multicellular

eukaryote that is stationary, absorbs nutrients from
organic materials in the environment, and has cell walls that contain chitin.