POWER ELECTRONICS TRAINER

rewardreminiscentElectronics - Devices

Nov 24, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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1








POWER ELECTRONICS
TRAINER



EXPERIMENTAL











2


Table of contents




1.

Single
-
phase half
-
wave rectifier circuit controller







3


2.

Single
-
phase full
-
wave rectifier circuit controller







1
0


3.

Single
-
phase Bridge
-
types rec
tifier

circuit controller






17


4.

Single
-
phase AC Boo
ster circuit controller








24


5.

Three
-
phase Bridge
-
types rec
tifier circuit controller






28


6.

Star
-
Delta rectifier circuit controller










35


7.

Cut
-
off circuit for DC components to
Step
-
down with the chopper mode

38


8.

Uses the MOSFET components to step
-
down with the chopper mode

45


9.

Uses the IGBT components for the fluctuation of selected the chopper



Mode

















49


10.

Passive circuit analysis inverter











5
3


11.

Adjusted the circuit with failure diagnosis








56












3


Experiments 1:
S
ingle
-
phase half
-
wave
rectifier
circuit

controller


1.

The
objective
s of
experiment


1


U
nderstandings

the structures
, characteristic
s

and computational metho
d

for
the

single
-
phase
half
-
wave

silicon
-
controlled rectifier circuit
.





2


Understandings different
type characteristic

loads
.



2.


The principles of experiment


1.

Silicon
-
controlled

rectifie
rs also can be named as the

thyr
istor
.

I
t

is different with
the
rectifi
er

diode. And

the
leads of
silicon
-
controlled rectifier
is past through the
controller. The function of

rectifier

circuit
controller
is
transformed from
the
alternating current

(AC)

t
o

the direct current

(DC),

which may

be used for

adjust
ed

the

value of

voltage.




The
figure

1
-
1 shows for the
experiments of
single
-
phase half
-
wave rectifi
er

circuit

controller
. The
characteristic of
silicon
-
controlled rectifier
is
used to
control from

low to high.

It is

just required

the

low
er power

signa
l (
The currents are from few

dozens to
few

hundred
of

mA and

the
voltages are from
2

to
3 volt
s
)
. It

may
be used
to control the flow
ing

of

the
heavy

power currents or the heavy power voltages
.





Thus
,

it is an electric
al

power semicon
ductor device
that
applied to the strong
est
electricity system.




a

M
ain

C
ircuit






4




b

C
ontrol

C
ircuit

Figure 1
-
1



2.

L
ike
the figure 1
-
1 is
the settings of
the transformer secondary
voltage

that

is

controlled by

u
2
=U
2
sin
ω
t then load voltage and electric current me
an value as well
as
effective values
:

When control
led

the
angle
of alpha
,
α
.





T
he
DC
load voltage mean value Ud is


U
dAV
=






)
(
sin
2
1
2
t
td
U
=
2
)
cos
1
(
.
2



U




The load of the direct current (DC) mean value is



I
dAV
=
d
d
R
U
=
d
R
U

2
2
cos
1







In the load the direct current

(DC)

r
m
s

value is



U
dRMS
=








2
2
sin
1
.
2
2




U





DC voltage
of the
rms

value


I
d

RMS
=








2
2
sin
1
.
2
2




d
R
U





5


3.

The components of

the e
xperiment


Name

Quantity

Models

1. Transformer 45V/90V 3N

1

MC0101

2. Threefold fuse

1

MC0401

3. Thyristo
r

10A/1000V

1

MC0309
D

4. Load resistors

1

MC0603

5. Control unit two pulses

1

MC0501

6. DC adju
ster

1

MC0202

7. Trigger point limiter

1

MC0505

8. DC power supply

1

MC0201C

9. Current meter

2

MC2004

10
.

I
solation amplifier

four

channel

1

MC2005

10. Oscilloscope

1


11. Wire and bridge connector

Some




4.


The procedure of the

resistances load

can be controlled in the

rectifi
er

experiment


1.

Like the figure 1
-
1

a

and

b
),
B
ase
d

on the circuit diagram for this experiment
,
it
connects

with
each
of
exp
eriment

module by

us
ing

the resistive load.

And applied
the
U
2
=45V
a
s the input voltage

of alternating current (AC)
,

and

the
load

as R=50Ω

(
Connected the
2

pieces of

10
0
Ω

resistances
in
to parallel

forms
).

2.

U
sed the current
meter

to measure the

actual
values of
input voltage
, the
rms

values of

U
2

=

__
____
__V.

3.

Used the current meter or oscilloscope to test / observe with the input voltage, the
load voltage, and the load cu
rrent (referred to the meter or oscillogram).


4.

Adjusted

the

trigger angle of

silicon
-
controlled rectifier with the

evalua
tion load
voltage of the

oscilloscope
. Respectively with the

angular

control as

0°, 30°
, 60°,
90°, 120°, 150° and 180°. The time

record

is in
different control angle

of

the

6


Average

of

Voltage
,
the
Average

of

current

,the
R
MS

of
Voltage

and the
R
MS

of
Current
,
which filled

in the table.






Cont r ol angl e


Obser ved
V
al ue

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180

Average

of

Voltage (V)








Averag
e

of

current (mA)








R
MS

of
Voltage (V)








R
MS

of
Current (mA)









5.

Please
refer
red to formulas and
computed result
s

are
record
ed

in
the
following
form.





C o n t r o l a n g l e


P r e d i c t e d
V
a l u e

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180

Average

of

Volta
ge
(V)








Average

of

current

(mA)








R
MS

of
Voltage
(V)








R
MS

of
C
urrent

(mA)










6
.

The DC voltages mean value is controlled the characteristics of curve analysis, and
recorded the result in followings form.

Control angle

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180

Different control angles




of DC voltage mean values


O v e r a l l o f D C v o l t a g e


m e a n v a l u e s = 0.5

1 + c o s α











T
h e
wa v e f o r m

o f i n p u t v o l t a g e












7


T
he
waveform

of load voltage












T
he
waveform

of load curren
t













5
.

The procedure of the resistances

and
inductance

load can be controlled in the
rectifier experiment

1.

Like the figure
1
-
2
and
1
-
1

b


Based on the circuit diagram for this experiment, it
connects with each of experiment module by using the r
esistive load. And applied the
U
2
=45V as the input voltage of alternating current (AC), and the load as R=
33
Ω
(Connected the
3

pieces of 100
Ω

resistances into parallel forms
)

L=50mH




Figure 1
-
2

2.


Used the current meter to measure the actual values of i
nput voltage, the
rms



values of U
2

=

________V.


3.

Used the current meter or oscilloscope to test / observe with the input voltage, the
load voltage, and the load current (referred to the meter or oscillogram).


8


4.

Adjusted the trigger angle of silicon
-
contro
lled rectifier with the evaluation load
voltage of the oscilloscope. Respectively with the angular control as 0°, 30°, 60°,
90°, 120°, 150° and 180°. The time record is in different control angle of

the
Average

of

Voltage
,
the
Average

of

current

,the
R
MS

of

Voltage

and the
R
MS

of
Current
, which filled in the table.




Co n t r o l a n g l e


Ob s e r v e d
V
a l u e

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180
°

Average

of

voltage (V)








Average
of
current (mA)








R
MS

of
Voltage (V)








R
MS

of
Current (mA)









5.

Ple
ase referred to formulas and computed results are recorded in the following
form.






Control angle


Predicted
V
alue

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180

Average

of

Voltage (V)








Average

of

current (mA)








R
MS

of
Voltage (V)








R
MS

of
Current
(mA)









6
.

The DC voltages mean value is controlled the characteristics of curve analysis, and
recorded the result in followings form.

Control angle

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180

Different control angles




of DC voltage mean values


O v e r a l l o f D C v o l t a g e


m e a n v a l u e s = 0.5

1 + c o s α










T
h e
wa v e f o r m

o f i n p u t v o l t a g e










9


T
he
waveform

of load voltage












T
he
waveform

of load current











6
.

Analyses

and discussion


1.

Based on the

record
ing, it
carries on the description and the analysi
s.


2.

A
ccording to the record
ing of

evaluated

value and predicted value

for voltage and
c
urrent.
It

carries on the analysis.


3.

Automatically
analyzes
the id of
direct current.


















10


Experiments 2: Single
-
phase full
-
wave rectifier circuit

controller


1.

The objectives of experiment


1


Understandings the structures, characteristics and computational method for the
single
-
phase full
-
wave silicon
-
controlled rectifier circuit.




2


Understandings different type characteristic loads.



2.

The principles of experiment


1.

The silicon
-
controlled rectifiers also can be named as the thyristor. It is different
with the rectifier diode. And the leads of silicon
-
controlled rectifier is past through
the controller. The function of rectifier circ
uit controller is transformed from the
direct current (DC) to the direct current (DC), which may be used for adjusted the
value of voltage.


The figure 2
-
1 shows for the experiments of single
-
phase half
-
wave rectifier circuit
controller. The characteri
stic of silicon
-
controlled rectifier is used to control from low
to high. It is just required the lower power signal (The currents are from few dozens
to few hundred of mA and the voltages are from 2 to 3 volts). It may be used to
control the flowing of th
e heavy power currents or the heavy power voltages. Thus,
it is an electrical power semiconductor device that applied to the strongest
electricity system.




a

M
ain

C
ircuit







11





b

C
ontrol

C
ircuit

Figure 2
-
1



2.

Like the figure
2
-
1 is the settings of the transformer secondary voltage that is
controlled by u=Usinωt then load voltage and electric current mean value as well as
r.m.s

values
:

When con
trolled the angle of alpha,

.



The DC load voltage mean value U
d

is


U
dAV
=






)
(
sin
1
t
td
U
=
)
cos
1
.(



U



The Direct current (DC) load current mean value is


I
dAV
=
d
d
R
U
=
d
R
U


)
cos
1
(





The Direct current (DC) mean value is


U
dRMS
=








2
2
sin
2
2




U



The DC current
value is


I
dRMS
=








2
2
sin
2
2




d
R
U








12


3. The components of the experiment










Name

Quantity

Models

1.
Transformer 45V/90V 3N

1

MC0101

2. Threefold fuse

1

MC0401

3. Thyristor 10A/1000V

1

MC0309
D

4. Load resistor

1

MC0603

5. Control unit two pulse

1

MC0501

6. Trigger point limiter

1

MC0505

7. DC power

supply

1

MC0201C

8. Current meters

2

MC2004

9. DC adjuster

1

MC0202

10
.

I
solation amplifier

four

channel

1

MC2005

1
1
.
Oscilloscope

1

1

1
2
.
Wire and bridge connector

Some

1


4.

The procedure of the resistances load can be controlled in the rectifi
er
experiment


1.

Like the figure
2
-
1

a

and

b
),
Based on the circuit diagram for this experiment,
it connects with each of experiment module by using the resistive load. And applied
the
U
1
=U
2
=45V

as the input voltage of alternating current (AC), and the lo
ad as
R=50Ω (Connected the 2 pieces of 100
Ω

resistances into parallel forms).


2.

Used the current meter to measure the actual values of input voltage, the rms
values of U
2

= _________V.


3.

Used the current meter or oscilloscope to test / observe with the input

voltage, the
load voltage, and the load current (referred to the meter or oscillogram).


4.

Adjusted the trigger angle of thyristor with the evaluation load voltage of the
oscilloscope. Respectively with the angular control as 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°,

13


15
0° and 180° by the trigger point limiter. The time is recorded under the different
control angle of
the
RMS

of

P
hase Voltage
,
the
Average

of

Voltage
,the
Average

of

Current
,
the
R
MS

of
Voltage

and the
R
MS

of
Current

,
which filled in the table.



5
.

Please referred to the formulas, compute
d result that recorded in following form.


6
.


The
DC voltages mean value
is used to
control

the

characteristic
s

curve analysis

and the

results record
ed

in following form.

Control angle

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180

Different control angles

of DC Voltage mean values

Overall of DC
voltage


mean values









T
he
waveform

of input voltage

U
1












Co n t r o l a n g l e


Ob s e r v e d
V
a l u e

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180
°

RMS

of

P
hase Voltage








Average

of

Voltage (V)








Average

of

Current (mA)








R
MS

of
Voltage (V)










R
MS

of
Current (mA)












Co n t r o l a n g l e


P r e d i c t e d
V
a l u e

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180
°

RMS

of
P
hase Voltage








Average
of
Voltage (V)








Average
of
Current (mA)








RMS
of
Voltage (V)









RMS
of
Current (mA)









14


T
he
waveform

of input voltage

U
2













T
he
waveform

of load voltage










T
he
waveform

of input current











5
.

The procedure of the resistances

and

inductance
load can be controlled in
the rectifier experiment


Figure 2
-
2


15


1.

Like t
he figure
2
-
2


a

and 2
-
1

b
),
Based on the circuit diagram for this
experiment,
it connects with each of experiment module by using the resistive load.
And applied the
U
1
=U
2
=45V

as the input voltage of alternating current (AC), and the
load as R=
33
Ω (Connect
ed the
3

pieces of 100
Ω

resistances into parallel forms)

L=50mH



2.

Used the current meter to measure the actual values of input voltage, the rms
values of U
2

= _________V.


3.

Used the current meter or oscilloscope to test / observe with the input voltage, the

load voltage, and the load current (referred to the meter or oscillogram).


4.

Adjusted the trigger angle of thyristor with the evaluation load voltage of the
oscilloscope. Respectively with the angular control as 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°,
150° and 180° b
y the trigger point limiter. The time is recorded under the different
control angle of
he
RMS

of

P
hase Voltage
,
the
Average

of

Voltage
,the
Average

of

Current
,
the
R
MS

of
Voltage

and the
R
MS

of
Current

,
which filled in the table.



5
.


The
DC voltages mean value
is used to
control

the

chara
cteristic
s

curve analysis

and the

results record
ed

in following form.

Control angle

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180

Different control angles

of DC Voltage mean values

Overall of DC voltage


mean values

= 0.5

1+cosα










T
he
waveform

of input voltage

U
1











Co n t r o l a n g l e


Ob s e r v e d
V
a l u e

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180
°

R
MS

of
P
hase Voltage








Average

of

Voltage (V)








Average

of

Current (mA)








R
MS

of
Voltage (V)








R
MS

of

Current (mA)









16



T
he
waveform

of input voltage

U
2










T
he
waveform

of load voltage














T
he
waveform

of load current












6
.

Analys
i
s and discussion


1.

Based on the recording, it carries o
n the description and the analysis.


2.

According to the recording of evaluated value and predicted value for voltage and



c
urrent. It carries on the analysis.


3.

Automatically analyzes the
silicon
-
controlled rectifier electric current,
i
T1

and i
T2

as
well as
direct current.




17



Experiments 3: Single
-
phase Bridge
-
types rectifier circuit controller


1.

The objectives of
experiment


1


Understandings the structures, characteristics and computational method for the
silicon
-
controlled rectifier circu
it.



2


Understandings

different
type characteristic

of

loads
.



2
.

The principles of experiment


1.

Silicon
-
controlled rectifiers also can be named as the thyristor. It

is different with the
rectifi
er diode. And

the
leads of
silicon
-
controlled rectifie
r
is past through the
controller. The function of

rectifier

circuit
controller
is
transformed from
the
alternating current

(AC)

t
o

the direct current

(DC),

which may

be used for

adjust
ed

the

value of

voltage.


The
figure

3
-
1 shows for the
experiments of
s
ingle
-
phase half
-
wave rectifi
er

circuit

controller
. The
characteristic of
silicon
-
controlled rectifier
is used to control from low
to high.

It is just required the lower power

signal (
The currents are from few
dozens
to
few

hundred of mA and

the
voltag
es are from
2

to
3 volt
s
)
. It

may
be used to
control the flowing of the heavy

power currents or the heavy power voltages
.




Thus
,

it is an electric
al

power semicon
ductor device that
applied to the strong
est
electricity system.



a

Single
-
phase Bridge
-
types half control

rectifier circuit controller


M
ain

C
ircuit


18





b

Single
-
phase Bridge
-
types half control

rectifier circuit controller

C
ontrol

C
ircuit




c

Single
-
phase Bridge
-
types
full

control

rectifier circuit control
ler


M
ain

C
ircuit





d

Single
-
phase Bridge
-
types
full

control

rectifier circuit controller

C
ontrol

C
ircuit

Figure 3
-
1




19


2.

Like the figure
3
-
1
,

the settings of the transformer secondary voltage that is
controlled by u
2
=U
2
sin ωt
,

then load voltag
e and electric current mean value as

well as
effective values
.

When controlled the angle of alpha,
α
.



T
he load DC voltage mean value
,

U
dAV

is


U
dAV
=






)
(
sin
1
2
t
td
U
=
)
cos
1
.(
2



U




The load DC current mean value,
I
dAV

is

I
dAV
=
d
d
R
U
=
d
R
U

2

)
cos
1
(





The
Direct current mean value
,
U
dRMS

is

U
dRMS
=








2
2
sin
2
.
2
2




U



The
DC voltage
value is

I
dRMS
=








2
2
sin
2
.
2
2




d
R
U


3.

Th
e components of the exper
iment









Name

Q
uantity

M
odel
s

1.
Transformer 45V/90V 3N

1

MC0101

2.
Threefold fuse

1

MC0401

3. Thyristor 10A/1000V

1

MC0309
D

4. Load resistor

1

MC0603

5.

Control unit two pulse


1

MC0501

6.
Trigger point limiter

1

MC0505

7.
DC power supply

1

MC0201C

8.
Current meters

2

MC2004


20


9.
DC adjuster

1

MC0202

10
.

I
solation amplifier

four

channel

1

MC2005

1
1
.
Oscilloscope

1


1
2
.
Wire and bridge connector

Some




4.

The procedure of the

s
ingle
-
phase Bridge
-
types half control

rect
ifier circuit
experiment


1.

Like the figure
3
-
1


a

and

b
),
Based on the circuit diagram for this experiment,
it connects with each of experiment module by using the resistive load. And applied
the

U
2
=45V

as the input voltage of alternating current (AC), and the load as R=
50
Ω
(Connected the
2

pieces of 10
0
Ω

resistances into parallel forms)
.


2.

Used the current meter to measure the actual values of input voltage, the rms
values of U
2

= _________V.


3.

Used the current meter or oscilloscope to test / observe with the input voltage, the
load voltage, and the load
current (referred to the meter or oscillogram).


4.

Adjusted the trigger angle of thyristor with the evaluation load voltage of the
oscilloscope. Respectively with the angular control as 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°,
150° and 180° by the trigger point limiter.

The time is recorded under the different
control angle of
the
R
MS

of
AC

V
oltage
,
the
R
MS

of
AC

C
urrent

for

secondary
circuit

,
the

Average

of
DC

V
oltage
,

the
R
MS

of

DC

V
oltage
,

the
A
verage
of
DC

C
urrent

,

the
R
MS

of

DC

C
urrent

,
which filled in the ta
ble.






Co n t ro l a n gle


O b s e rve d
V
a lu e

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180

R
MS

of
AC

V
oltage
(V)









R
MS

of
AC

C
urrent

for

secondary circuit


(mA)








Average

of
DC

V
oltage

(V)








R
MS

of

DC

V
oltage

(V)








A
verage
of
DC

C
urrent

(mA)








R
MS

of

DC

C
urrent

(mA)









21


5.

The characteristics of
DC voltage mean value
is used to
control

the

curve analysis,
result record
ed

in following form.


Control angle

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180

Different control angles

of DC Voltage mean values

O
verall of DC voltage

mean values

1.0

0.93

0.75

0.5

0.25

0.067

0


T
he
waveform

of input voltage














T
he
waveform

of load voltage













T
he
waveform

of load current













22


5
.

The procedure of the

s
ingle
-
phase Bridge
-
types
full

control

r
ectifier circuit
experiment


1.

Like the figure
3
-
1


c

and

d
),
Based on the circuit diagram for this experiment,
it connects with each of experiment module by using the resistive load. And applied
the

U
2
=45V

as the input voltage of alternating current (AC), an
d the load as R=
50
Ω
(Connected the
2

pieces of 100
Ω

resistances into parallel forms)
.


2.

Used the current meter to measure the actual values of input voltage, the rms
values of U
2

= _________V.


3.

Used the current meter or oscilloscope to test / observe with t
he input voltage, the
load voltage, and the load current (referred to the meter or oscillogram).


4.

Adjusted the trigger angle of thyristor with the evaluation load voltage of the
oscilloscope. Respectively with the angular control as 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°
,
150° and 180° by the trigger point limiter. The time is recorded under the different
control angle of
t
he
R
MS

of
AC

V
oltage
,
the
R
MS

of
AC

C
urrent

for

secondary
circuit

,
the

Average

DC

V
oltage
,

the
R
MS

of

DC

V
oltage
,

the
A
verage DC

C
urrent

,

th
e
R
MS

of

DC

C
urrent

, which filled in the table.



5.

The characteristics of
DC voltage mean value
is used to
control

the

curve analysis,
result record
ed

in following form.


Control angle

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180

Differen
t control angles

of DC Voltage mean values

Overall of DC voltage

mean values

1.0

0.93

0.75

0.5

0.25

0.067

0







C o n t r o l a n g l e


Ob s e r v e d
V
a l u e

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180

R
MS

of
AC

V
oltage
(V)









R
MS

of
AC

C
urrent

for

secondary circuit


(mA)








Average

of

DC

V
oltage
(V)








R
MS

of

DC

V
oltage

(V)








A
verage
of
DC

C
urrent

(mA)








R
MS

of

DC

C
urrent

(mA)









23


T
he
waveform

of input voltage










T
he
waveform

of load voltage









T
he
waveform

of load current











6
.

Analyses and discussion


1.

Based on the

record
ing, it
carries on the description and the analysis.


2.

A
ccording to the record
ing of

evaluated

value and predicted value

for voltage and



c
urrent
. It

carries on

to

the analysis.


3.

Automatically to the voluntarily
analyzes
o
f the
s
ilicon
-
controlled rectifier electric
current
,
i
T1

and
i
T2

as well as
direct current.



4.

The changes of the load resistances and the inductances are occurred to the
changing status. It is based on the observation with proceeding of the analysis.








24


Experiments 4: Single
-
phase AC Booster circuit controller


1.

The objectives of
experiment


1


Understandings the structures, characteristics and computational method for the
AC Booster

circuit.




2


Understandings different type characteris
tic

of

loads.


2.

The principles of experiment


1.

AC Booster is used to convert a standard of AC voltages to be adjustable of AC
voltages. The simple of the AC Booster circuit as shown as the figure 4
-
1


2.

Bidirectional of silicon
-
controlled
also can be named

as the

bidirectional

thyristor. It
has the bidirectional of PN junctions that can control characteristics of conductor.
So, the outputs voltage unlikeness to the unidirectional of silicon
-
controlled in
directly flowing. But it is flowed in alternating way
. Such as the characteristics can
be probed by abroad of applied in multi
-
types of AC Booster and AC timing circuit.
Moreover, it is due to the bidirectional conductor is controlled by a single controller.
Hence, the structure of circuit control also can b
e simplified. The touching signal of
the bidirectional is
impulse

to voltages frequently. It also can be applied at the AC
voltages.




a

M
ain

C
ircuit









25





b

C
ontrol

C
ircuit


Figure
4
-
1


3.

It can control the current flows of silicon instant
aneous values by the expression
below:

i
T1
=U/Rsinωt;ωt=α…π


The average values of current, I
TAV
=




cos
2
1
*

R
U


The Root mean square values of current, I
TRMS
=








2
2
sin
4
1




R
U

The average value of load current, I
AV
=0

The constant values of
current, I=








2
2
sin
2
1




R
U



3.

Th
e components of the experiment


Name

Quantity

Model
s

1.
Transformer 45V/90V 3N

1

MC0101

2.
Threefold fuse

1

MC0401

3.
Thyristor 10A/1000V

1

MC0309
D

4.
Load resistor

1

MC0603


26


5.
Control unit two pulse

1

MC0501

6.
Trigger point limiter

1

MC0505

7.
DC power supply

1

MC0201C

8.
Current meters

2

MC2004

9.
DC adjuster

1

MC0202

10
.
I
solation amplifier

four

channel

1

MC2005

1
1
.
Oscilloscope

1


1
2
.

Wire and bridge connector

Some



4.

The procedure of the experi
ment
.


1.

Like the figure
4
-
1


a

and

b
),
Based on the circuit diagram for this experiment,
it connects with each of experiment module by using the resistive load. And applied
the U
2
=45V as the AC input voltage of alternating current (AC), and the load as
R=50Ω

(Connected the 2 pieces of 100
Ω

resistances into parallel forms).


2.

Used the
current meter or
oscilloscope to
test /
observe

the waveform of AC
voltage

recorded. And also used it to determine the input of AC Root Mean Square
Voltage (AC
RMS
) and recorded do
wn the
U
2 RMS
= __
_____
_V.


3.

Adjusted the trigger angle of thyristor
and tested the oscillogram of load voltage by
oscilloscope. Respectively the control angles are
0˚, 30˚, 60˚, 90˚, 120˚, 150˚ and
180˚ by the trigger point limiter. All of them are recorded

under the different control
angles of the
R
MS

of
load

voltage
,
the
R
MS

of
load

current
,
the
R
MS

of
thyristor

current

and
the
Average of

thyristor

current
and filled in the forms as shown at the
below. And recorded down the waveforms of any two angles.






Co n t r o l a n g l e


Ob s e r v e d
V
a l u e

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180
°

R
MS

of
load

voltage

(V)








R
MS

of
load

current

(mA)








R
MS

of
thyristor
current (mA)








Average of
thyristor
current (mA)










27


4.

The value of l
oad
current is used to
con
trol

the

characteristic
s of

curve analysis
. It

shall be

record
ed the results

at

the following form

and plot out the

waveforms
.


Control angle

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180

Different of control angles of
load current values








Overall of load current v
alues


T
he
waveform

of input voltage










T
he
waveform

of load voltage









T
he
waveform

of load current










5.

Analyses and discussion


1.

Based on the recording,
the oscillogram

carries on the description and the analysis.


2.

According to the recording of evaluated value

and predicted value for voltage and



c
urrent

for

the analysis

progress
.


3.


Shall be changed the load to resistance and inductance for observed and

analysis the different of the oscillogram.


28


Experiments 5: Three
-
phase Bridge
-
types rectifier
circuit controller


1.

The objectives of
experiment


1


Understandings the structures, characteristics and computational method for the
silicon
-
controlled rectifier circuit.



2


Understandings

the

different type characteristic

of

loads

type
.



2.

The principles of experiment


1.

Silicon
-
controlled rectifiers also can be named as the thyristor. It is different with the
rectifier diode.
The silicon
-
controlled rectifier is

used to trigger.

It can be used to
trigger the function of commutate circuit as
the AC supply that converted the
adjustment from AC voltage to DC voltage. The figure 5
-
1 is shown as the
three
-
phase bridge
-
types of rectifier experimental controllers. The characteristics
of silicon
-
controlled rectifier are started from high to low. It j
ust needs to the small
signal of power.
(The currents are from few dozens to few hundred of mA and the
voltages are from 2 to 3 volts).

It can be used to control the failure of heavy current
and heavy voltage. Thus, it is an electrical power semiconductor
device that
applied to the strongest electricity system.


2.

The three
-
phase silicon
-
controlled rectifier is used to the widen application, like the



three
-
phase bridge
-
types full
-
controlled rectifier and three
-
phase bridge
-
types


half
-
controlled rectifie
r.


The three
-
phase bridge
-
type half
-
controlled rectifier is connected by the common


cathode of three
-
phase half
-
wave controlled rectifier circuit. And the connection is


designed by common anode of three
-
phase half
-
wave uncontrolled r
ectifier circuit.



They are connected in series as followed the figure 5
-
1(a). Therefore, this kinds of


circuit design have been consisted by the characteristics of controlled and



uncontrolled.

In essence
,
t
he three
-
phase bridge
-
types of full
-
controlled rectifier circuit is


consisted with the common anode and the common cathode. It is connected in

series for the three
-
phase half
-
wave controlled rectifier circuit, like the figure 5
-
1(c)


The three
-
phase bridge
-
types full
-
contro
lled rectifier circuit must be ensured the

two thyristors are leaded pass in simultaneously. So, it can be constituted the


feedback circuit.


29




a

Three
-
phase Bridge
-
types half control

rectifier circuit controller

M
ain

C
ircuit




b

Three
-
phase Bridge
-
types half control

rectifier circuit controller

C
ontrol

C
ircuit





c

Three
-
phase Bridge
-
types
full

control

rectifier circuit controller

M
ain

C
ircuit



30





d

Three
-
phase Bridge
-
types
full

control

rectifier circuit controller

C
ontrol

C
ircuit

Figure 5
-
1



3.

Th
e components of the experiment


Name

Quantity

Model

1.
Transformer 45V/90V 3N

1

MC0101

2.
Threefold fuse

1

MC0401

3.
Thyristor

1

MC0309
D

4.
Load resistor

1

MC0603

5.
Control unit six pulse

1

MC0502

6.
Trigger point limiter

1

MC0505

7.
DC power supply

1

MC0201C

8.
Current meters

2

MC2004

9.

DC adjuster

1

MC0202

10
.

I
solation amplifier

four

channel

1

MC2005

1
1
.
Oscilloscope

1


1
2
.
W
ire and bridge connector

Some



31


4



周攠 灲潣e摵de 潦
周牥e
-
灨慳e 䉲楤来
-
ty灥s 桡汦l c潮o牯r

牥c瑩t楥爠 c楲iu楴i
ex灥物re湴


1.

The module of MC0502 is consisting with 6 pulses of control unit. Attention to
foreword of the L1, L2, L3, N of kneading board as the inputs of synchronized
signal. Th
e V1, V4, V3, V6, V5, V2 are according to the connection of circuit
diagram for attention to positive terminal and negative terminal. When the control
angles,
α is setting as the zero of the experiment. If it is applied the width pulse
control methods, the

width pulse
is setting as the switch. The single pulse double
pulse is switched on as the MAIN PULSE. It is controlled by double narrow pulse

control.

2.

The width pulse is used as switch. The single pulse double pulse is switched on as
the MAIN+SECONDARY P
ULSE.

3.

Like the figure
5
-
1

a

and

b
),
Based on the circuit diagram for this experiment,
it connects with each of the

experiment module.
It is used the load resistances.


And applied the U
2
=45V as the input voltage of alternating current (AC), and the
load, R=200Ω (Connected the 2 pi
eces of 100
Ω

resistors into series forms).


3.

Used the current meter or oscilloscope to
determine the AC inputs voltage signals
of the oscillograms for three
-
phase voltage and recorded in the tables. And also
used it to determine the input of AC Root Mean Sq
uare Voltage and recorded the

U
2 RMS
= ____________V.


4.

Adjusted the trigger angle of thyristor
and tested the load voltage as shown on the
oscillogram by oscilloscope or trigger point limiter. Respectively with the control
angles are
0˚, 30˚, 60˚, 90˚, 120
˚, 150˚ and 180˚ by trigger point limiter. All of the
results are recorded under the different control angles for
the RMS of
phase
voltage, the
RMS

of
phase current
,
the average and
RMS

of
load

voltage

and
current

are filled in the forms as shown at below.
Thus, it is recorded the
oscillogram of any two angles.




Co n t r o l a n g l e


Ob s e r v e d
V
a l u e

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180
°

RMS of
phase voltage

(V)








RMS

of
phase current

(mA)








A
verage of
load

voltage

(
V
)








A
verage of
load

curre
nt

(mA)








RMS

of

load

voltage

(mA)








RMS

of

load

current

(mA)









32


5
.

Direct current average voltage is controlled the characteristic curve analysis and

the result is recorded in following table.


Control angle

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

18
0
°

Different of control angles of
load current values

Overall of load current values














T
he
waveform

of input voltage












T
he
waveform

of load voltage













T
he
waveform

of load current











33


5



周攠灲潣e摵牥映
周牥e
-
灨慳e⁂
物摧r
-
ty灥s
晵汬

c潮o牯r

rec瑩t楥r c楲i畩琠

e
x灥物re湴


1.

Like the figure
5
-
1

c

and

d

,
Based on the circuit diagram for this experiment, it
connects with each of the

experiment module.
It is used the load resistances.
And
applied the U
2
=45V as the input volt
age of alternating current (AC), and the load,
R=200Ω (Connected the 2 pieces of 100
Ω

resistors into series forms).


2.

Used the current meter or oscilloscope to
determine the AC inputs voltage signals
of the oscillograms for three
-
phase voltage and recorded
in the tables. And also
used it to determine the input of AC Root Mean Square Voltage and recorded the

U
2 RMS
= ____________V.

3.

Adjusted the trigger angle of thyristor
and tested the load voltage as shown on the
oscillogram by oscilloscope or trigger point
limiter. Respectively with the control
angles are
0˚, 30˚, 60˚, 90˚, 120˚, 150˚ and 180˚ by trigger point limiter. All of the
results are recorded under the different control angles for
the RMS of
phase
voltage, the
RMS

of
phase current
,
the average and
RMS

of
load

voltage
and
current

are filled in the for
ms as shown at below. Thus, it is recorded the
oscillogram of any two angles.




Co n t r o l a n g l e


Ob s e r v e d
V
a l u e

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

180
°

the RMS of
phase voltage

(V)








the
RMS

of
phase current

(mA)








the average of
load

voltage

(
V
)








the average of
load

current

(mA)








the
RMS

of

load

voltage

(mA)








the
RMS

of

load

current

(mA)









5
.

Direct current average voltage is controlled the characteristic curve analysis and

the result is recorded in following ta
ble.


Control angle

0
°

30
°

60
°

90
°

120
°

150
°

18
0
°

Different of control angles of
load current values

Overall of load current values












34


T
he
waveform

of input voltage











T
he
waveform

of load voltage











T
he
waveform

of load current










6
.


Analyses and discussion


1. Based on the recording,
the oscillogram

carries on the description and the analysis.


2.

According to the recording of evaluated values and predicted values for voltage
and
c
urrent

for

the analysis

of progress
.



3. The average values and overall of the DC current at
α=0, the average values

voltage and current are eliminated. It is obtained the control of characteristics curve
with the I
dAV
=f

α

. Plot out the curve with the descriptions and analysis.


4.
Auto
-
analysis the current of
thyristor
, i
T1

and

i
T2

and the
oscillogram of

the DC

currents.


5
.
Shall be changed the load to resistance for observed and analysis the effects of

the oscillogram.


35


Experiments 6:
Star
-
Delta rectifier circuit controller


1.

The objectives of
experiment


1


Understandings the str
uctures, characteristics and computational method for the
Star
-
Delta rectifier

circuit.



2


Understandings

different
type characteristic

of

loads
.



2
.

The principles of
experiment


1.

Silicon
-
controlled rectifiers also can be named as the thyrist
or. It is different with the
rectifier diode. The silicon
-
controlled rectifier is used to trigger the conductor. The
rectifier controller circuit is used for converted the AC currents to the DC voltage
adjustment. The figure 6
-
1 is shown as the single
-
phas
e half
-
wave rectifier controller
circuits. The characteristic of silicon
-
controlled is controlled from low to high. It is just
required the lower power

signal (
The currents are from few d
ozens to
few

hundred of

mA and

the
voltages are from
2

to
3 volt
s
)
. I
t

may
be used to control the flowing of the
heavy

power currents or the heavy power voltages
. Thus
,

it is an electric
al

power
semicon
ductor device that
applied to the strong
est
electricity system
.




a

M
ain

C
ircuit







36




b

C
ontrol

C
ircuit

Figure 6
-
1


3.


Th
e components of the experiment



Name

Q
uantity

M
odel
s

1.
Transformer 45V/90V 3N

1

MC0101

2.
Three

fold fuse

1

MC0401

3.
Thyristor
10A/1000V

1

MC0309
D

4. Load resistor

1

MC0603

5.
Control unit six pulse

1

MC050
2

6.
DC adjuster

1

MC0202

7.
Trigg
er point limiter

1

MC0505

8.
DC power supply

1

MC0201C

9.
Current meters

2

MC2004

10
.

I
solation amplifier

four

channel

1

MC2005

1
1
.

Loads of R, L, C

1

MC0604

1
2
.
Oscilloscope

1


1
3
.
Wire and bridge connector

Some



37


4.

The procedure of the experiment
.


1.

Like the figure
6
-
1

a

and

b

,
Based on the circuit diagram for this experiment, it
connects with each of experiment module by using the resistive load, R=100Ω.


2.

Used the
current meter or
oscilloscope to
determine the AC inputs voltage signals

of the osc
illogram for three
-
phase voltage that
recorded

in the tables
.
And tested
the AC input voltage and recorded in the tables.


U
2 RMS
= _____________V.


3.

Adjusted

the

trigger angle of

thyristor with tested the oscillograms of load voltage by

oscilloscope
. Respec
tively with the

angular

control as



and

15
°

by the trigger
point limiter. Recorded the different control angles of the
RMS of
Phase voltage
,

the a
verage of
load
v
oltage

and current,the
RMS

of
load
v
oltage

and current,the
RMS

of thyristor current

and the

a
verage of thyristor current
,
shall be recorded
under
these

two angles of voltages and currents
in the table.





Co n t r o l a n g l e

Ob s e r v e d
V
a l u e

0
°

15
°

RMS of
Phase voltage (V)



A
verage of
load
v
oltage (V)



Average
of
load
current (mA)



RM
S

of
load
v
oltage (V)



RMS

of
load
current

(V)



RMS

of thyristor current

(V)



Average of thyristor current

(mA)




4.

The analysis of characteristic curve for Direct current average voltage value control
is recorded the results in following form.


Cont
rol angle

0
°

15
°

Different control angles



o f DC a v e r a g e v o l t a g e


Ov e r a l l o f DC a v e r a g e

v o l t a g e







38


T
he
waveform

of input voltage

















T
he
waveform

of input current

I
T1



















T
he
waveform

of load voltage













39


T
he
w
aveform

of load current


















5.

Analyses and discussion


1.

Based on the

record
ing, it
carries on t
he description and the analysis

and

points out
the
auto
-
changing image of
spot
.


2.

A
ccording to the record
ing of

evaluated

value
for voltage
and c
urrent

as the
summary
.


3.

Shall be changed the load to resistance and inductance for observed and analysis
the different of the oscillogram.




















40


Experiments
7
:
Cut
-
off circuit for DC components to Step
-
down with the
chopper mode


1.

The objectives of
experiment


1


Familiar with the PWM/PFM control boards had been used.



2


Understanding the PWM control mode for reducing the characteristics of DC


chopper mode.


3


Understanding the cut
-
off circuits for the structure and characteri
stics of



components of silicon
-
controlled rectifier.



2
.

The principles of
experiment


1


The DC
-
to
-
DC converter is transformed

by

a
kind

of DC power supply to the others

different
types of
input level of DC power supply. It is
transform
ed from

t
he
DC

electrical energy to

the

load. That needs the voltage and current for controlling the

DC electrical energy with the installation of the electric power.
It is quickly bypass

and released the control to the power electronic devices but cut
-
off to th
e

continuously DC voltage with a series of pulses voltage. It is occupied the spatial

ratio for controlling the changes of the pulse sequence. From this sequential of the

width of pulse can realizes that output mean voltage adjustment and also filtered
out

by the filter. The voltage and current is triggered by the DC
electrical

energy from

the loads.


2


Due to the s
ilicon
-
controlled rectifiers also can be named as the

normal

thyristor

that



without auto
-
cut
-
off

ability. It needs the cut
-
off circuit to c
ut
-
off by manually. The


schematic diagrams for the main routine of experimental as shown in figure 7
-
1. It



is shown out the connections diagram for the circuit of main routine and the



feedback routine also listed in the figure
7
-
1.



41





a

M
ain

C
ircuit





b

C
ontrol

C
ircuit

Figure
7
-
1



3.

Th
e components of the experiment



Name

Q
uantity

M
odel
s

1.
Transformer 45V/90V 3N

1

MC0101

2.
Rectifier 3x400V/10A

1

MC0308

3.
MOSFET 10A/500V

1

MC0302

4.
Three

fold f
use

1

MC0401

5.
Loads o
f R, L, C

1

MC0604

6
.
Control unit PWM/PFM

1

MC0503

7
.
DC adjuster

1

MC0202


42


8
.
Trigger point limiter

1

MC0505

9
.
Capacitor, 2x1000μF

1

MC0601

1
0
.
DC power supply

1

MC0201C

11.

T
hyristor

with

quenching circuit

1

MC
0306

1
2
.
Current meter

2

MC2004

1
3
.

I
solation amplifier

four

channel

1

MC2005

1
4
.
Oscilloscope

1


1
5
.
Wire and bridge connector

Some




4.

The procedure of PWM control units’ board that operated for experimental
tested


1


Based on the figure 7
-
1

a

: The top parts as the partially control
loop circuit. The
inputs unit is connected with the trigger angle of phase inverter. This inverter also
connected with control units’ board. The INHIBIT of the control units board having
the sockets of
INH

that without any connection.


2
.

The top parts of the control board as the frequency control: The hard adjusted “x1”

and the soft adjusted “50f/Hz”. It is observed the output triggers pulse, S
1

for
adjusted the details of PWM control board by the oscilloscope. It can be reads out
th
e cycle of the oscillogram directly from the oscilloscope. Based on the readings of
oscilloscope are accurate. In processing of the experiments, it is included with the
cut
-
off circuit for the silicon
-
controlled rectifiers experimental to reduce the wave
w
ithout changing the frequency, f = 50Hz.


3
.

The pulse controlled variable is adjusted

The minimum limit/left corner as the (0V) and the maximum limits/right corner as the

(10V) are in between changing the values input unit voltage. Namely it changes th
e
control voltage of the PWM board. The changes of control voltage also be changed
passes time, ton. Adjustment input unit to the limits of left corner and adjusted the
trigger angle of phase inverter with the “W” buttons.

Meanwhile, we can observed the p
ulse width of the trigger that more than zero by
oscilloscope. Namely the position of left corner: T
on
=2ms, namely 10% cyclical of T.

Adjustment input unit to the limits of left corner and adjusted the trigger angle of
phase inverter with the “G” buttons.

Meanwhile, we can observed the pulse width of
the trigger that smaller than overall conduction by oscilloscope. Namely the position
of left corner: T
on
=16ms, namely 80% cyclical of T.


4
.

When the frequency, f = 50Hz, the value of voltage, Uset is assign
ed which

43


according to the

constant table that listed as the tested conduction voltage, ton.
Computed the pulse controlled variable with the formula of t
on
/T, and plot out the
curve of the ton against the T~f (Uset).


Observed
V
alue

Predicted
V
alue

)
V
Uset
V


ms
ton

T
ton

0.5



1.0



2.5



5.0



7.5



10.0
















0


5
.

Outputs pulses and the

functions of

INHIBIT

The
observ
ation of

the oscilloscope.


Channel 1:
Output voltage of
P
WM
,

U
g
.

Channel 2: Output pulse

of

S
1
.

When
the U
g

is

the
output pulse
, of

S
1
, it w
ill

be used the bridge
-
types connector for
control the
INHIBIT

of the units board,
INH

terminals to the ground.
Then________.



6
.

By using the
doubl
e
-
channel
signal

to produce the
oscillogram
.

Channel 1:

O
utput voltage
of
PWM
,

U
g
.

Channel 2: Output pulse
of
R
1
.

When
the
U
g
has output pulse

of

R
1
,

it w
ill

be used the bridge
-
types connector for


control

the
INHIBIT
of the units board,
INH

terminals to the ground. Then the
pulses
of R
1
________.



5
.

The
procedure
is applied

the
cut
-
off circuits for the components of
silicon
-
controlled rectifiers by the DC chopper

s experiment.

t
on
/T

U
set/
V


44


1


Based on the figure 7
-
1

a

and

b

schematic diagram. The connection of control


units board and the silicon
-
controlled rectifier: The output pulse of S
1

is applied at
the host of silicon
-
controlled with trigger pulse as S
1
+connected of G
H
,
S
1
-
connected of K
H
, the output pulse
of R
1

is applied for shut
-
off circuit that is in
silicon
-
controlled rectifier of the trigger pulse of S
1
+connected of G
H
, S
1
-
connected
of K
H
. The output pulse of R
1

are applied to the shut
-
off circuit with the
silicon
-
controlled rectifier of trigger pulse
from the R
1
+connected of G
L
,
R
1
-
connected K
L
. The adjusted of the input units will be
caused the trigger pulse to
occupy by the spatial ratio is 1: 1. It is used the bridge
-
types connector

to control
the units board of INHIBIT with the connected of
INH

terminal.


2


Switched on the power sources of mainboard, attention to observe the voltage


meter. When the load voltage sets as zero, it is drawed out the INHIBIT jack of the


bridge
-
types connector

for started the operation. When the loa
d voltage sets as


non
-
zero, it is pluged into INHIBIT jack of the bridge
-
types connector for started the


operation. The discharged of the capacitance and the cut
-
off waveform are


connected.


The inductance and the electrostatic discharged had
be
en

finished

u
ntil

the

load





voltage
as
nulling operation
. The connection of the capacitance board and the
cut
-
off waveform are used to observe the load voltage that under the nulling status.
Unplug the INHIBIT jack of the bridge
-
types connector fo
r started the operation. If it
is defeated that is redundant according to the step 2 of
operational

orders.


3


The observation of trigger pulse and the output voltage of the load by oscilloscope.



The

adjustment of input unit voltage will causes the trigge
r pulse to divide for the
spatial ratio as the 1: 2 and 2: 1. The observed waveform and the corresponding
input voltage, output voltage are recorded.












6
.

Analyses and discussion


1


The process of experimental is ensured why must power up to t
he mainboard, after
that will be unplugged the INHIBIT jack of bridge
-
types connector. If it is without
followed the step for proceeded the experimental. Then, what will be happened?

t

U

O


45


Experiments 8: Uses the MOSFET components to step
-
down

with the
chopper
mode


1.

The objectives of experiment


1


Understandings the field effect tube of the MOSFET for step
-
down with the chopper
mode of structures, characteristics and computational method.


2


Understandings the basic functional, relevant of the control chara
cteristic and the
load characteristic for DC chopper mode.



2.

The principles of experiment


1


The merits of the field effect tube of MOSFET have the better of the switching
characteristic
s
. So, it can operate in a dozens of kilo hertz of frequencies.
The
refore, it is specially applied for the description that under the lower power
situation. The each kinds of DC chopper mode are controlled in process with the
basic concepts.




a

M
ain

C
ircuit


46




b

C
ontrol

C
ircuit

Figure 8
-
1


3.

The com
ponents of the experiment


Name

Quantity

Models

1.
Transformer 45V/90V 3N

1

MC0101

2.
Rectifier 3x400V/10A

1

MC0308

3.
MOSFET 10A/500V

1

MC0302

4.
Threefold f
use

1

MC0401

5.
Loads of R, L, C

1

MC0604

6.
Diode 10A/1000V

1

MC0301

7.

Load resistor

1

MC
0603

8.
Control unit PWM/PFM

1

MC0503

9.
DC adjuster

1

MC0202

10.
Trigger point limiter

1

MC0505

11.
Capacitor, 2x1000μF

1

MC0601

12.
DC power supply

1

MC0201C

13.
Current meter

2

MC2004

1
4
.

I
solation amplifier

four

channel

1

MC2005

1
5
.
Oscilloscope

1


1
6
.
Wire and bridge connector

Some



47



4.

The procedure of the experiment


1.

Added up the electrical
to switch on the control boards for tested the output
voltage of the pulse width modulator.


2


According to the figure 8
-
1

a

and

b

connected (The MOSFET is just used the
pulse of S1 to control). It is matched up the current of main circuit and observed
the
output voltage,
U
out

and input current,
i
out
at oscilloscope. The load current is
increased to I
out
≈1A. The waveforms of U
out

a
nd
i
out

are shown in graph below
.














3.

Measured the curve of characteristics with the U
out
,I
in

and U
in
=f

t
on

. A
djusted the
values
o
f frequency given, f = 500Hz. The load current can be adjusted the I
out
=1A
by adjusted the control board. From selected the maximum value until the
decreasing to the

minimum value and recorded the following test: U
out
,I
out

=f

t
on

. B
y the inputs unit

adjustment, it can be changed the t
on

from the voltage,

U
out

of the first regions by the

oscilloscope. It is the

measurement of t
on
.


Observed
V
alue

t
on
/μs
=
r
out
/V

I
out
/A

1800



1500



1000



500



250



100




By used the f
ollowing results to plot the shapes of curve at the graph below.

U
out
=f(t
on
)


I
out
= f(t
on
)






O

U
out

i
out