Power Electronics lab German Jordanian University

rewardreminiscentElectronics - Devices

Nov 24, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Power Electronics lab

German Jordanian University


Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

1

Electronic Power Switch
3X400v, 4A


6


[1]
The electronic switch is a microcontroller operated
thyristor switch which can be operate
d on AC or three
phase voltage.

In particular it can be used to investigate starting
processes in transformers (inrush effect), lines or
electrical machines.

The power switch can be operated either

with single
-
phase AC voltage or
with

3
-
phase AC
voltage.


[2] Mains connection voltage:

-

230 V or 3x230 V/400 V can be refitted form 115 V
or 3x115 V/200V.


[3] Mains frequency:

-

50 Hz (48 Hz...52 Hz)

-

60 Hz (58 Hz.,,62 Hz)


[4] Current consumption:

-

max. (4
-
6)

A.



[5] Measurement outputs
:
-

-

voltage 3x(0…..10) V.

-

cur
rent 3x(0……10) A.

-

Trigger 0:
off, 5: on.



2

Panel Frame, Three
Level



6


[1]
3
-
Level frame for training panels in DIN


A4 equivalent height, for high load.


[2]
Aluminium profile rails with 2 brush


strips and rein
forced with rectangular


steel tubing on the rear side.

[3] 2 T
-
bases of rectangular steel tubing.



3

Double Voltmeter

6


Two independent meter movements measurement of
voltage equivalence.

-

Measurement range:
2 x 0...500 V

-

Instrument:
moving iron met
er.


4

Double Frequency
Meter


6


Two independent meter movements for frequency

comparison of two voltages.

-

Measurement range:
2 x 47.„50...53 Hz

-

Rated voltage:
400 V

-

Instrument:

vibration meter with tuned steel
reeds.

Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec


5

Synchronoscope


2


With rotation
al indicator for phase comparison in
synchronizing circuits with three phase or single
-
phase
AC.

-

Rated voltage:

400 V

-

Instrument:

air
-
core, electro
-
dynamic
quotient movement.


6

Synchronization
Indicator


2


With six indicator lamps, white, for qualitativ
e
indication of the phase relationship between mains
and generator voltage (bright
-
dark circuit)


7

Inductive Load 0.3/1.0


6


[1]
Three inductances with taps at:

-

0.2/0.4/0.6 H (0.65 A),

-

0.8/1.0/1.2 H (0.5 A) and

-

2.4/4.8/6.0 H (0.25 A)

[2]
Suitable for pa
rallel, series, star and delta


circuits


8

Coupling 1.0

8


Rubber coupling sleeve for mechanical connection of
two electrical machines of the 1,0 kW
,0.3kW

series


9

Shaft End Guard 1.0


8


Attachable guard for protection against

contact with
electr
ical machine rotating

parts of the 1.0 kW
,0.3kW

series
.


10

Coupling Guard 1.0


8


Attachable guard for protection against contact with
electrical machi
ne rotating parts of the 1.0 kW, 0.3 kW
series
.


11

Tacho Generator 1.0


6


For registering the speed
of electrical machines of the
1.0 kW series Output voltage:

-

±1V/1000 min
-
1
.


12

Resistive Load 1.0


6


Three synchronously adjustable circular rheostats (step
winding) with scale 100
-

0%, each with a series
resistor and fuse in the sliding
-
contact conn
ection,

suitable for parallel, series, star and delta circuits.


-

Resistance:
3 x 1000 Ohm

-

Series Resistance:

3 x 22 Ohm

-

Current:
3 x (2.5
-
5)
A


13

Capacitive Load 1.0


12


Three groups of MP capacitors, each consisting of four
capacitors, suitable for paral
lel, series, star and delta
circuits.

Capacitance:

-

3 x 2/4 uF, 450 V.

-

3 x 8/16 uF, 400 V


Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

14

Synchronous Machine
SC 1.0


2


Three
-
phase synchronous machine with smooth
-
core
rotor and damper cage for motor and generator
operation. Ratings for motor operat
ion:


-

Power:

0.8
kW

-

Voltage:

230/400 V fi/Y

-

Current:

2.7/1.5 A

-

Excitation voltage:

max. 220 V

-

Excitation current:

max. 1.5
-
2.0

A

-

Frequency:

50 Hz

-

Power factor:

1

-

Speed:

1500 rpm


15

Pendulum Machine
1.0/2.0


2


[1]
DC shunt wound machine with integrated to
rque
recording. This machine can be used in generator
operation as a pendulum machine for loading electrical
machines of the 1
.
0 kW class as well as for the
determination of the efficiency by means of
measurement of the torques being transferred
between th
e driving machine and the working
machine.

[2]

In motor operation this machine can be used as a
drive machine with torque measurement. In
conjunction with the control unit operation in 4
-
quadrants with energy feedback to the three
-
phase
mains is possible
The pendulum machine is protected
from overloading by a thermo
-
switch and external
ventilation. The recorded torque is output as a
proportional voltage by means of built
-
in electronics.

[3]Specifications

-

Torque output:

1 V/3 Nm

-

Mains connection:

230 V, 50
/60 Hz

[4]Ratings for generator operation:

-

Power:

1.0...2.0kW

-

Voltage:

150...300 V

-

Current:

8
-
10

A

-

Excitation voltage:

200 V

-

Excitation current:

max. 0.7
-
1.0

A

-

Speed:

1500
-
3000 min
-
1

-

Braking torque:

max.
25
Nm
.


16

Control Unit for
Pendulum Machine
1.0/2.0


2


[1]

Microprocessor
-
controlled device for the supply


of power to the pendulum machine.

[2]

The following operating modes are possible:

-

Automatic digital torque control
.

-

Automatic digital speed control
.

-

Non
-
controlled operation
.

-

Automatic recordin
g of load characteristics
.

-

Automatic recording of run
-
up

characteristics
.

-

External operation
.

Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec


[3]Equipment:

-

4
-
digit 7
-
segment display for indicating speed,
torque and the fault codes

-

Temperature monitoring of pendulum
machine and the object under test.

-

4
-
quadrant display with LEDs for the
operating mode indication of the object under
test

-

Adjustable limiting of max. torque and min.
speed of the object under test (overload
protection]
.

-

Internal fault monitoring of the thyristor
bridges and the feeding mains
.

[4]Technical data:

-

Armature voltage:

-
300 V...+300 V

-

Armature current:
-
20 A. .+20 A, digitally
controlled

-

Exciter voltage:

200V

-

Exciter current:

1 A.

[5]Inputs for:

-

Analog tachogenerator

1 V/1000 min
-
1

-

Digital tachogenerator

1024 pulse/3600

-

Torque

1 V/3
Nm

-

External control

0...
±
10 V DC

[6]Outputs for:

-

Speed

0... ± 10 V DC, adjustable

-

Torque

0...

±

10 V DC, adjustable

-

Pen
-
lift

(AUTO, OFF, DOWN)

-

Serial interface

(output of speed, torque and
current)


[7]Supply voltage:

-

Power section:

3 x 400 V, 47...62 H
z

-

Control section:

115/230 V, 47 ..62 Hz

[8]
With mains connection cable and Schuko plug.


17

Excitation Voltage
Controller


2


[1]
Adjustable power supply with smoothed current


and voltage for supplying power to a synchronous


machine in the
power class

-

0.1kW,0.3 kW, 1.0kW.

[2]
Adjustment of the output voltage can be carried out


internally using the UP/DOWN pushbutton or


externally via 4
-
mm sockets using switching


contacts, TTL
-
level or 24 V DC.

[3]
The setting direction is indic
ated by two yellow


LED's,

[4]
When the synchronous machine is run up


asynchronously, it is not necessary to short circuit


the excitation winding.

-

Output voltage U:
0...200 V

Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

-

Output current I:

max. 1.0 A

[5]
The output is overload
-
proof and sh
ort
-
circuit
-


proof.

-

Supply voltage:

230 V, 50 Hz


18

Control Voltage
Controller

2


[1]
Adjustable voltage source for setting the output


voltage of power supply units with external control


input.

-

Output voltage

V: 0...10 V

[2
]
The output is s
hort
-
circuit
-
proof.

-

Supply voltage:
230 V, 50/60 Hz


19

Automatic Synchronizer

Module


2


[1]
Microcontroller
-
operated device designed to


synchronize a three
-
phase synchronous generator


to the mains or to a second generator.

[2]
The device actuate
s the synchronization switch


under the correct synchronization conditions (for


voltage, frequency, phase angle).

[3]
The generator voltage is automatically set via the


excitation voltage controller (745021). The


frequency and thus th
e phase angle as well are


automatically adjusted via the control voltage


controller.

[4]
A three
-
digit seven
-
segment display serves to


indicate the voltage and frequency.

[5]Technical data:

-

Supply voltage:

115/230V. via 4
-
mm safety
sockets.

-

Frequency:
47
-
62

Hz.

-

Power consumption: 30VA

[6]
Setting range of the synchronization conditions:

-

Voltage:

1 V...20 V

-

Frequency:

0.1 Hz...2.0 Hz

-

Angle:

1°...15°

-

Switch dead time:

1 ms...40 ms

[7]
Indication accuracy of the measured values:

-

Voltage:

±
1 D
igit (1 V)

-

Frequency:

±
1 Digit (0.1 Hz)

[8]
Control inputs and outputs:

-

TTL compatible safety extra
-
low voltage.


20

Generator cos φ
Controller


2


[1]
Suitable for cos φ control of a three
-
phase


synchronous generator which is feeding into the


mains.

[2]
The unit determines the cos φ
[p.f]value of the


output power and compares this value with the



setpoint value.


[3]
Potentiometers can be used to set:

-

Setpoint value cos φ: 1 …. 0.3 ind.

Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec


1 .... 0.7 cap.


switch
-
over using a rocker switch.

-

Sensitivity of the three
-
position contro
ller

-

Switch
-
on time of the UP and DOWN relays

[4]
Contact load capacity: 250 V AC, 4A 50V DC, 2 A


Supply voltage: 3 x 400 V, 50 Hz.


21

Active Power Controller

2


[1]
Suitable for active power control of a three phase


synchronous generator which i
s feeding into the


mains.

[2]
The unit determines the active power delivered by


the generator and compares this value with the


setpoint value. In accordance with the system


deviation, the internal three
-
position controller



either pulses an UP relay or a DOWN relay. The


pulsing of a relay is indicated by an LED in each


case.

[3]
The generator drive unit can be adjusted via the


control voltage controller and the DC stabilizer using


these pulses.


[4]
Potentiometers can be used to set:

-

Setpoint value PN:0. 1200 W

-

Sensitivity of the three
-
position controller

-

Switch
-
on time of the UP relay

-

Switch
-
on time of the DOWN relay

-

Contact load capacity: 250 V AC, 4 A



50 V DC, 2 A.

-

Supply voltage: 3 x 400 V, 50 Hz


22

Three
-
phase Voltage
Transformer


3


[1]
3 single
-
phase transformers,

-

primary 380/√3V (380V),

-

secondary 100/√3, 15VA, (100 V).


and 100/√3V, 5 VA (100/3 V)

[2]
Class 1 for protective purposes sui
table for use with


transmission model line 380 kV.



23

3
-
phase Transformer

TL 380 kV


3


[1]
Transformer for feeding the transmission line model


380 kV. Scale factor 1:1000 for secondary current


and voltage.

-

Nominal power:
800VA

-

Primary:

3 x 380 V

winding with tapping at


220 V,

can be switched to star or


delta connection.

[2]
Delta stabilizing winding can be connected.

-

Secondary:
3 x 380 V winding with tappings



at +5%,
-
5%,
-
10%,
-
15%, in star


connection, various star point


connections possible


24

Transmission Line
3


Three
-
phase model of a

380 kV
overhead transmission
Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

Model 380 kV

line for measuring steady state operating conditions
(no
-
load, matching, short
-
circuit} with the following

specifications:

-

Quad bundle

4 x 240/40.

-

surge impedance

240
Ω.

-

Natural load

600 MW.

-

length

360 km.

During symmetrical operation tappings enable the

carrying out of investigations at lengths of 144 km
resp. 216 km. Earth return line RE=11Ohm,LE=250mH
for unsymmetrical load at 360 km line length.

-

Scale factor:
1/1000

for current and voltage.

-

Resistance:
5
-
13 ohm

-

Inductance:
100
-
300mH.


-

Open capacity:
2
-
5 uF.




25

Earth Fault
Compensation


3


Inductance w
ith 20 tappings for earth fault
compensation in the 380 kV transmission line model
(Petersen coil).

-

Inductan
ce L:

0.005.
0
.2 H

-

Rated voltage:
220 V, 50 Hz

-

Rated current:

0.5 A


26

Transmission Line
Capacitor TL 380 kV


3


3
-
phase in star connec
tion, 2
-
5

uF each, corresponds to
50 % of the operating capacitance of transmission line
model 380 kV. (2 each required
)


27

Power Circuit Breaker
Module


3


[1]
3
-
phase ON/OFF switch with auxiliary contact (NC)


for transmission line model 380 kV.

[2]
Can be controlled manually using ON/OFF


pushbutton or externally via switching contact
.


[3]
The switching state
is indicated by LED's
.

[4]

Control input (switching contact, TTL level, 24 V DC)


for external switch
-
off command (tripping on


faults).

-

Contact load capacity:

400 V AC, 3 A

-

Mains connection:
115/230 V, 50 Hz with
mains connecting cable and ea
rthing
-
pin plug.


28

Set of 10 Safety Bridging
Plugs, black


6


Ten 4
-
mm safety bridging plugs with 19 mm spacing,

-

color:

black,

-

max. current rating:

32 A


29

Set of 10 Safety Conn.
Leads, green/yellow


6


Ten 4
-
mm safety bridging plugs with 19 mm spaci
ng,

-

color:

Green, Yellow.

-

max. current rating:

32 A


30

Set of 32 Safety Conn.
Leads


6


4
-
mm safety connecting leads with 2.5 mm
2

cable,
max. current rating 32 A, consisting of:

-

2 each safety connecting lead, red, 100 cm

Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

-

2 each safety connecting lead, b
lue, 100 cm

-

2 each safety connecting lead, red, 50 cm

-

2 each safety connecting lead, blue, 50 cm

-

2 each safety connecting lead, red, 25 cm

-

2 each safety connecting lead, blue, 25 cm

-

4 each safety connecting lead, black, 100 cm

-

6 each safety connecting lead
, black, 50 cm

-

6 each safety connecting lead, black, 25 cm

-

4 each safety connecting lead, black, 15 cm


31

Set of 10 Safety Conn.
Leads, green/yellow


6


4
-
mm safety connecting leads with 2.5 mm
2

cable,
max. current rating 32 A, consisting of:


-

4 each saf
ety conn, lead, green/yellow,100 cm

-

4 each safety conn, lead, green/yellow, 50 cm

-

2 each safety conn, lead, green/yellow, 25 cm


32

Double Busbar Feeder

Connector


2


Two three
-
phase lines for connecting a

load to the
double busbar via the busbar

infeed/o
utfeed.


33

Double Busbar Feeder,

Connector and Tap


2


Three
-
phase line and three
-
phase tap for

connecting
two infeeds to the double busbar

system.


34

Power Meter, Digital

6


-

Simultaneous, measurement of voltage and
current independent of the curve sha
pe (max.
600 V, 20 A).

-

Calculation of active, apparent and reactive
power as well as the power factor

-

Measurement of the total rms (RMS
-
AC+DC) ;
AC rms (RMS
-
AC) and arithmetic mean (AV
-
AC+DC)

-

Impervious to electrical damage up to 20
A/600 V.


35

Double Bu
sbar

Extension


2


Two three
-
phase busbars, each with one

branch
containing disconnector, can be

controlled manually
using the ON/OFF

pushbutton or externally via a
switching

contact, TTL
-
level or 24 V DC.The switching

state is indicated by LED's. Acoustic

warning

tone when
switching is carried out

under load. Supply voltage: 24
V DC
.


36

Moving Iron Meter 1 A

2


Class 1.5, front frame 144 x 144 mm


37

Moving Iron Meter 6 A

2


Class 1.5, front frame 144 x 144 mm


38

Moving Iron Meter
100/400V

2


Class 1.
5, front frame 144 x 144 mm



Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

39

Virtual Instrument
Platform


6


[1] Virtual Instrument Platform

-

This must com
prise a compact, self
-
contained
electricity/electronics teaching conso
le for use
alongside a multimedia
-
equipped PC workstation, and
incorpo
rate a range of built
-
in virtual instruments. The
unit shall allow the insertion of a wide range of
analogue and digital circuit boards covering topics
ranging from simple electrical circuits to
microcontrollers, and provide them with all the
necessary pow
er supplies and signal monitoring
facilities. These circuit boards shall be presented at a
comfortable working angle and be retained by a latch
mechanism designed for single
-
handed operation.
Correct board insertion shall be verified by an integral
optical

bar
-
code reader.


-

The unit shall communicate via the serial or USB port
with a multimedia
-
equipped PC workstation running a
WindowsTM 32
-
bit operating system. The student shall
interact with the unit via a range of attractive and
realistic on
-
screen vir
tual instruments. Students shall
be able to store data captured by the virtual
instruments for inclusion in their paper
-
based or
electronic workbooks or portfolios. The instructor shall
be able to monitor and control the virtual instruments
remotely, and b
e able to switch faults into the unit via
a password
-
protected utility to allow the student to
carry out troubleshooting activities.

-

The unit must be fully compatible with a computer
management system in order to provide a managed
learning environment. T
he system must allow
automatic student tracking, assessment and
competency
-
based reporting.


-

The virtual instruments must include the following:

[2] Multimeters

-

Two built
-
in Virtual Multimeters, each providing:


-

Optically
-
isolated floating inputs


-

2mm socket connections


-

Digital or Analogue meter display


-

Auto or Manual range selection


-

DC Voltage ranges 60V, 20V, 2V, 200mV


-

AC Voltage ranges 30V, 20V, 2V, 200mV


-

DC and AC current ranges 2A, 200mA, 20mA, 2mA,



200

A

-

True RMS AC measurements


-

AC frequency range 40Hz to 400Hz


-

Overvoltage and overcurrent protection


-

Resistance ranges 20MOhm, 2MOhm, 200kOhm,


20kOhm, 2kOhm, 200 Ohm

Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec


-

Continuity test with audible indication


-

Diod
e junction test


-

Built
-
in calibration corrections

[3] Oscilloscope

-

One built
-
in Virtual Oscilloscope, providing:


-

Two channels at up to 20MHz sampling rate


1MHz
-
3db input bandwidth


-

1MOhm // 30pF input impedance


-

BNC socke
ts for standard x1/x10 probes


-

2mm sockets for direct connection to circuit


boards


-

DC, AC or GND coupling


-

Provision for floating measurements


-

Voltage ranges 5mV/div to 20V/div


-

DC voltage accuracy +/
-

5%


-

An
alogue and Logic noise filters


-

Time base ranges 0.5

s/div to 1s/div


-

Time base Off and X
-
Y display modes


-

Time base accuracy +/
-

1%


-

Invert and 1+2 display modes


-

Trigger on Auto, Channel 1, Channel 2 or External


-

Edge

or level triggering


-

Storage and comparison of waveforms and settings


-

Built
-
in calibration corrections

[4] Signal Generator

-

One built
-
in Virtual Signal Generator, providing:


-

Frequency range 0.2Hz to 2MHz approximately


-

Sine, sq
uare or triangle waveforms


-

Sine wave distortion 0.2Hz to 2MHz <2.5%


-

Frequency accuracy < +/
-

5% of range


-

50 Ohm output impedance


-

Maximum output voltage 6VAC RMS 18V p
-
p
approximately


-

-
20dB and
-
40dB attenuators


-

Lev
el flatness +/
-

3dB


-

BNC and 2mm socket connections


-

Variable DC offset +/
-

2.2V (0dB), +/
-

220mV (
-
20dB), +/
-

22mV (
-
40dB)

-

Logic output mode (+0.2V to +4V p
-
p approximately)


-

Built
-
in calibration corrections

[5] Power Supply Control

-

One built
-
in Virtual Power Supply control panel,
providing:


-

On
-
off switching of all power rails


-

Variable DC supply control from 0V to +12.7V


-

Built
-
in calibration corrections

[6] Additional Features

-

The unit shall include the follow
ing features:


-

Correct training board verification by barcode strip


-

Password
-
protected switched
-
fault selection, up to
Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

15 faults per training board


-

Four digital inputs


-

Two digital outputs


-

100kHz I2C interface


-

Built
-
in power supply providing the following rails:


+12V, 1A DC


+0V to +12.7V, 1A variable DC


+5V, 1.5A DC for external use


+5V, 1.5A DC for internal use


-
5V, 50mA DC


-
12V, 1A DC



12V
-
COM
-
12V, 0.5A AC RMS


-

Signals and power supplies available on 25
-
way
expansion connector


-

Cable for connection to PC


-

User
-
upgradeable firmware held in FLASH ROM

[7] Operating Conditions

-

The unit must operate under the following
c
onditions:


-

Indoor use only


-

Temperature between 5 *C and 40 *C


-

Relative humidity up to 80% to 31 *C, 50% at 40 *C


-

No hoar
-
frost, percolating water, rain, solar
radiation etc.


40

AC Power
-
1 Training
Module


2


[1] AC Power
-
1 T
raining Module

-

The AC Power
-
1 Module shall be one of a family of
Study Modules from a comprehensive Technical Library
supporting a Computer
-
Based Training System. The
course of study must provide instruction on trainer
familiarization as well as covering

the following topics.

-

Recognition of the correct phase relationships
of a three
-
phase supply

-

Circulating currents in three
-
phase AC
generators

-

Voltage waveforms and amplitudes of
Wye/Star and Delta generator connections

-

Three
-
wire and four
-
wire three
-
phas
e supplies

-

Voltages and currents in Wye/ Star connected
loads

-

Voltages and currents in Delta
-
connected loads

-

Voltages and currents in balanced and
unbalanced loads

-

Three
-
phase s
ynchronous AC motor operation
Wye/Star and Delta winding connections

-

Single
-
pha
se s
ynchronous AC motor operation
direction control using a phase
-
steering
capacitor

-

Power factor correction of an AC motor using
additional parallel capacitance

Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

-

Discussion of single
-
phase and three
-
phase
squirrel
-
cage capacitor
-
start and shaded
-
pole
motor
s

-

Single and three
-
phase half
-
wave and full
-
wave rectification, with special reference to
automotive alternator applications
.

-

Three
-
phase inverter applications using a
microcontroller, opto
-
isolators, power
MOSFETs and isolating transformers for pulse
-
widt
h modulation (PWM) generation of AC
supplies

-

The module must also enable students to
perform troubleshooting exercises on AC
Power circuits.

[2] Circuit Board

-

The circuit board must offer pre
-
built
electronic circuits to provide reliable, easy to
manage ex
periments.

-

The circuit board must be housed in a
hardwearing storage case. The circuit board
must be designed to connect easily into a
Virtual Instrument Platform.

[3] Curriculum Material

-

The circuit board must be supplied complete
with competency
-
based cu
rriculum material
that must deliver both underpinning theory
and related practical activities.

-

A laboratory manual shall be included. The
manual shall provide essential theory together
with practical exercises, troubleshooting
worksheets and student assess
ment tests.

-

Incorporated throughout the laboratory
manual must be questions that must be fully
compatible with a computer managed learning
system, allowing automatic competency
tracking and reporting of student progress. A
solutions book must also be avail
able for each
laboratory manual.


41

Power Electronic
Devices Training Module


1


[1] Power Electronic Devices Training Module

-

The Power Electronic Devices Module shall be one of
a family of Study Modules from a comprehensive
Technical Library suppo
rting the Computer
-
Based
Training System. The course of study must provide
instruction on trainer familiarization as well as covering
the following topics:


-

Variation of resistance with current


-

Lamp driver circuits


-

BJT Current gain, inp
ut impedance


-

BJT Power dissipation

Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec


-

Power
MOSFET Transfer characteristic,


transconductance


-

Comparison with BJT; high input impedance


-

Silicon Controlled Rectifier (Thyristor) internal


construction and operating p
rinciples


-

DC operation; gate drive requirements


-

Capacitor commutator circuit


-

Half
-
wave and full
-
wave AC operation


-

Triac and Diac Internal construction and operating


principles


-

Triac firing requirements


-

Dia
c operation; lamp dimmer circuit


-

Voltage amplification with an op
-
amp


-

Current gain with a complementary
-
pair powe
r


driver


-

Power amplifie
r circuit; crossover distortion


reduction


-

Audio amplifiers


-

Discussio
n of duty cycle


-

Comparison of PWM versus linear power control


-

Unijunction transistor (UJT) construction and
operation


-

Pulse generating circuit


-

AC phase angle control using SCR and UJT


-

Optoisolator


-

Pulse transforme
r


-

Burst fire controller

-

The module must also enable students to perform
troubleshooting exercises on Power Electronic circuits.

[2] Circuit Board

-

The cir
cuit board must offer pre
-
built
electronic circuits to provide reliable, easy to
manage experi
ments.

-

The circuit board must be housed in a
hardwearing storage case. The circuit board
must be designed to connect easily into a
Virtual Instrument Platform.

[3] Curriculum Material

-

The circuit board must be supplied complete
with competency
-
based curri
culum material
that must deliver both underpinning theory
and related practical activities.


-

A laboratory manual shall be included. The
manual shall provide essential theory together
with practical exercises, troubleshooting
worksheets and student assessme
nt tests.



-

Incorporated throughout the laboratory
Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

manual must be questions that must be fully
compatible with a computer managed learning
system, allowing automatic competency
tracking and reporting of student progress. A
solutions book must also be avail
able for each
laboratory manual.



42

Power Electronics
-
2
Training Module

1


[1] Power Electronics
-
2 Training Module

-

The Power Electronics Module shall be one of a family
of Study Modules from a comprehensive Technical
Library supporting a Computer
-
Based Training System.
The course of study must provide instruction on trainer
familiarization as well as covering the following topics:


-

The four layer switching and triggering device


-

How the thyristor evolves from a 4
-
layer device


-

Sin
gle half controlled rectification using thyristors


-

Triggering circuits


-

Waveforms for the half controlled rectifier


-

Full Controlled rectification using thyristors


-

Waveforms for the fully controlled rectifier


-

Inverter defin
ition


-

Use of thyristors in a static inverter


-

Parallel thyristors inverter


-

Inverter waveforms


-

Filtering and loading considerations

-

The module must also enable students to perform
troubleshooting exercises on power electronic ci
rcuits.

[2] Circuit Board

-

The circuit board must offer pre
-
built electronic
circuits to provide reliable, easy to manage
experiments.

-

The circuit board must be housed in a hardwearing
storage case. The circuit board must be designed to
connect easily i
nto a Virtual Instrument Platform.

[3] Curriculum Material

-

The circuit board must be supplied complete with
competency
-
based curriculum material that must
deliver both underpinning theory and related practical
activities.

-

A laboratory manual shall be
included. The manual
shall provide essential theory together with practical
exercises, troubleshooting worksheets and student
assessment tests.

-

Incorporated throughout the laboratory manual must
be questions that must be fully compatible with a
computer
managed learning system, allowing
automatic competency tracking and reporting of
student progress. A solutions book must also be
available for each laboratory manual.

Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec



43

Static Converter Valves,
Uncontrolled and Line
commulated Static
Converter Circuits

6


[1]
Line
-
commutated converter


consisting of:

-

8 thyristors

-

6 diodes

-

1 triac

with optional RC circuitry

Compact universal converter
for all conventional converter circuits (uncontrolled
and controlled
rectifier, inverter, 4 quadrant
operation).

Co
ntrol from the T12.1 controller is affected via a 25
conductor cable with floating
-
potential signal


Features:

-

Overload protection via fast
-
blow fuses

-

Snubber circuit

-

Input voltage: max. 230 V

-

Output current: max. 4 A

-

Trigger output

-

Gate control signals ac
cessible as

floating
potential signals

-

Set of 13 "Line
-
commutated converter"

overlay
masks:


Detection of the applied mask is automatic, thus
establishing a preset base state in the T12.1 controller
to prevent the destruction of components through
incorrec
t control commands,

thereby simplifying
operation of the controller unit.


The delivered overlay masks reduce the number of
potential circuit configurations that can be realized
with the converter to a scope that is practical for the
teaching environment.
Overlay masks do not



[2]

Fuse Threshold Super
-
fast

Neozed fuses, super
-
fast for protection of

semiconductor valves. The following are

contained in
the scope of delivery: 3

fuses10A, as well as 3 fuses 6A
(2 each

required)


[3]
Load, Power Electronics


Re
sistive,

inductive and capacitive load for all single
-
phase

and three
-
phase circuits in power

electronics.

-

3 resistors 100 O
hm, 1A with fuseT1.25A

-

1 resistor 1000Ohm, 220mA

-

2 inductors 50 mH, 2.5 A with tap a
t (10
-
15)
mH

-

3 capacitors 4/8/16 μF, 450VAC


Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec




4
4

Converter controller
unit


6


-

Micro
-
controller unit for line commutated

DC
converters.

-

Operational modes and operations for the


network controlled converter:

-

Phase angle control for circuits
.

-

Pulse group control

-

Control angle limitation

-

2 four
-
digit, 7
-
segment displays for control


angle and three
-
phase indicator or duty

factor
.


4
5

Phase Control Noise
Filter
,
3X4,5A


6


Single
-
stage, three
-
phase interference

suppresion filter
with higher common
-
mode

and normal
-
mode
dampin
g, particularly

suitable for experiments in
power

electronics in the area of self
-
commutated

and line
-
commutated converter circuits.

The filter consists of:

-

3 each toroidal core chokes 1.3 mH

(approximately)

-

3 each X2
-
class capacitors 0.47 μF

(approximate
ly)

-

1 each Y2
-
class capacitor 30 nF

(approximately)

The filter is connected between the three

phase power
supply and the experiment

set
-
up and reduces the
output of line
-
bound

interference signals into the low
-
voltage

network in accordance with EN 5008
-
1.

U = 3 x
230/400 V, 47...63 Hz

IN = 3 x 4.5 A


46

Fault Simulator Phase
Control


6


Standard dimmer
circuit
for resistive load (max.
power= 1.2 kW) with preset minimum value, consisting
of triac, diac, 2 potentiometers, resistors and
capacitors. Various me
asurement points permit
systematic troubleshooting. A
total
of 20 faults
from
the following

categories can be switched on:

-

interruption

-

Short
-
circuit

-

Faulty assembly

-

Faulty components


The faults are switched an wing slide switches, which
are located b
ehind a lockable
cover.

-

110V ... 230V.

47 Hz
...63
Hz



47

Switch Mode power
6


Power electronics is increasingly being used to
Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

supply


assemble power supply units, characterized by their
excellent efficiency and compact size. This is achieved
with switchi
ng components, which have the highest
possible operating frequencies. The following standard
switched
-
mode power circuits can

be assembled and investigated in terms of their
properties and efficiency:
-




-


Single
-
pulse forward converter

-

Two
-
pul
se (push
-
pull) forward converter

-


Asymmetrical half
-
bridge forward converter

-

Symmetrical half
-
bridge forward converter

-

Full
-
bridge forward converter
-

Flyback
converter


48

Inverters

6


Self
-
commutated inverters are used in frequency
converters, no
-
brea
k power sup plies, mains coupling
devices for photovoltaic systems etc. This equipment
set permits the assembly of a single
-
phase inverter for
the generation of an AC voltage with variable
frequency and amplitude. And consist of:


[1] IGBT 1000V/10A:

The
IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor)

demonstrates
the behaviour of a self

blocking

field
-
effect transistor
(MOSFET) at

the input and the behaviour of a bipolar

power transistor at the output. With a fast

acting

inverse
diode and an RCD suppressor

circu
it which can be switched
off. For use

in rapid switching applications with high voltages

such as:

DC controllers, switched

mode

power supplies and inverters.

-

Collector
-
emitter blocking voltage

(UCES): max.
1000 V

-

Collector current (lCAV):
max. 10 A

-

Collec
tor
-
emitter saturation voltage

(UCESAT):
~4
V

-

Gate
-
emitter input capacitance

:
~2
nF


[2] Capacitor2x1000uF; 400
V

Two electrolytic capacitors which are short
-
circuit

proof and
switch
-
proof. For high performance

in all application areas,
especially

for switched
-
mode and conventional power

supplies or used to form DC voltage link.

Built
-
in reverse
voltage protection.

-

Nominal capacitance:

2 x 1000 uF

-

Nominal voltage:

400

V

(approximately)


[3] Rectifier B6, 3 x 400 V/10 A

Uncontrolled mains rectifier in three
-
phas
e

bridge circuit for
the generation of a DC voltage

from a three
-
phase mains.
For the

generation of link voltages with converters,

switched
-
mode power supplies and in drive

technology,

-

Nominal voltage (UNHMS):

3 x 400 V

-

Nominal current (lNAV):

10 A

Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

-

Surge f
orward current (lFSM):

300 A

-

I
2
t
-
value:
~
450 A
2
s

-

Conducting state voltage (UF):

1
V (per diode)


[4] Function Generator 200 kHz, 230 V.

Microprocessor
-
controlled signal

generator.

-

Functions:

sine/triangular/squarewave/
DC Square
-
wave signal.

-

duty cycle

10%...
90%, adjustable in steps of 5 %

-

Frequency range:

1 Hz...200 kHz

-

Resolution:
1 mHz...100 Hz, frequencydependent

-

Output voltage:

0...20 Vpp continuous

-

DC offset:

10 V

-

Display:

4
-
digit LC display for signal

parameters and
functions
.

-

Attenuator:

0 dB,
-
20 dB,
-
40 dB

-

Output:
Impedance 50 Ohm

-

Trigger output:

TTL level
.

-

Output:
via 4
-
mm safety sockets

-

Supply voltage:
230 V, 50

Hz with

mains connection
cable and earthing
-
pin

plug



[5] MOSFET 500 V/10 A

Self
-
blocking n
-
channel field effect transistor

with fast
-
acti
ng
inverse diode (FREDFET)

and with RCD suppressor circuit
which can

be switched off. For the assembly of DC

controllers, switched
-
mode power supplies

and inverters of
higher pulse frequency.

-

Drain
-
source voltage (UDS):

500 V

-

Drain DC current (lc):

10 A

-

Dr
ain
-
source closing resistor (RDS(ON>):

0
-
6 Ohm
.


[6] Thyristor with Turn
-
Off Circuit 230 V/8 A

Thyristor which can be turned off with capacitor

turn
-
off and
free
-
wheeling arm. The

tu
rn
-
off circuit consists of ring
around coil

with blocking diode, a turn
-
of
f thyristor and

turn
-
off capacitor. A DC controller can be

realized directly
using the control unit PWM;

PFM. Four integrated shunts
enable problem
-
free measurement of the main current,

turn
-
off current, ring
-
around current and the

free
-
wheeling
current. A
ll the thyristors and

diodes have a RCD suppressor
circuit.

Main thyristor and turn
-
off thyristor:

-

Repetitive peak forward off
-
state voltage (UDRU):

max. 800 V
.

-

On
-
state current, mean value (lTAV):

max. 13 A

-

Circuit
-
com mutated recovery time

(tQ):
35us

-

Free
-
wheeling diode:

Periodic repetitive peak
reverse voltage

(URRM):max. 1000 V

-

On
-
state current, mean value

(lTAV):

max. 8 A

-

Shunts
; 4x0.1 Ohm, 1 %

-

Turn
-
off capacitor:

4
u
.F,
450 V

-

Ring
-
around reactor:

1 mH



[7]

R eference variable Generator

Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

For the reprodu
ction of a setpoint value, with

linear division
of the reference variable

potentiometer.

-

Output:

0 ... + 10 V can be reconnected to



-
1
0 . . . + 10 V using bridging plug

Output can be switched over to an external

reference
voltage U
R
er

with the toggle switch

or to 0 V using a bridging
plug.

-

Supply voltage:
±
15 V DC
.


49

Three
-
Phase Drives


2


Three
-
Phase Drivers consist of:

Static Converter
-
fed




-

Rectifier, 3X l00V/10A


-

Thyristor Branch Pair 1000
/12
A



-

3 resistors

100 Ohm, 1 A with fuse T 1.25A


-

1 resistor 1000 Ohm, 220 mA


-

2 inductors
50
mH, 2.5 A with tap at 12.5 mH


-

3
capacitors
4/8/16 pF, 450 V AC.


-

Control Unit SIX Pulse, Digital.


-

Run
-
Up Control Unit


-

Fuse Threshold Supe
r
-
Fast.


-

Trigger point limiter.


-

Control
Unit PWM; PFM
.


-

Digital controller


-

Gain and Offset Adjust


-

Phase control Noise filter.


Industrial Frequency Converter Drive 300W

-

Display of all important operating states.

-

LED 7 segm
ent display

-

Integratable speed controller



Technical specifications:

-

Output current continuous: max. 3 x 2.2 A (3 x
3.5 A max. 60 s)

-

Output power continuous: 0.9 kVA

-

Output voltage: 3 x 0...133/230 V

-

Output frequency: 0.2...132 Hz/1...1000 Hz

-

Mains connec
tion: 220...240 V, 50/60 Hz

-

Input current: max. 5.9 A

-

Including mains connection cable and Schuko
plug

-

Including technical documentation.


Frequency Converter Technology, Fundamentals


Technical specifications:

Universal Converter 3 x 230 V


-

Single
-
phase m
ains connection.

-

Variable link voltage through fully controlled

-

B2C rectifier bridge circuit.

Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

-

Three
-
phase inverter built with IGBT.

-

Maximum operating frequency 20
kHz.

-

Output
short
-
circuit
proof,
earth
-
fault proof
and
switch
-
proof.

-

Interface for connection

of the control unit.

-

Output voltage (UJ: 3 x 0.. .230 V

-

Output current (Id: rnax. 3 x 8 A

-

Supply voltage. 200 . . .240 V, 50160 Hz, via 4
-
mrn safety sockets, Contained within the
scope of supply, 25
-
pin connection cable.


50

Servo Drives


2


Servo Drives

consists of:

-

AC Servo with Block Commutation

-

AC Servo with Sine Commutation

-

Position Servo Control



AC Servo with Block Commutation


[1]

Servo Setpoint Generator

Position pick
-
up with rotating angular disk

for application in
servo systems. With input

sum
ming point for forward
feeding of disturbance

variables or for setpoint variable

change and with connectable rate
-
of

change

limiter with rise
times of 1 V/s up to

1000 V/s.

Signal voltage range:

-

1 0 V... + 10 V

Rotating angle:

-

Mechanical 360° without lim
it stop

-

Electrical 3
50
±

10.

Fine setting of zero
-
point and scale factor.

Coarse setting
with rotary switch,

fine setting with potentiometer.

Supply voltage:

±

15 V DC
.


[2] Control Unit Block Commutation

Control unit with microcontroller for the assembly o
f a
highly
-
dynamic AC servo drive with block signal
-
shape
commutation in operation together with the permanently
excited brushless DC machine (AC servo),

the universal converter and the commutation pick
-
up.
Alternatively, a synchronous or a multifunction m
achine
0.1/0.3 kW can be used.

The pulse width modulation is selected so that block
-
shaped
currents are generated in the motor windings. The digital
controllers for current, speed and positioning are arranged
in cascade configuration. The

actual speed valu
e is
generated internally out of the commutation signals or
measured with an analog or incremental tacho generator,
Commutation signals can also be used for positioning with
low resolution (30

degrees). Higher resolution servo
positioning is possible by co
nnecting an external servo
controller via the parallel interface and an external position
pick
-
up.

Adjustable limiting data:

-

Current

0... 9.9 A

Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

-

Speed
0...9990 min
-
1

Indication of the mark
-
space ratio or the reference/

actual value of the current, speed, or

position is carried out
via four digit LED display. Reference variable setting either
via
external analog interface
-

10V... + 10
V, internal manual
input via up/down pushbutton or

parallel interface. Serial
interface (RS232) for the communication with a P
C for the
input of desired values and the output of measured values.
Power supply from the universal converter via 25
-
pin sub
-
D
socket.


[3] Incremental Tacho

0.1/0.3

For registering the speed of electrical
machines in the 0.1
and 0.3 kW power class

as we
ll as for the incremental
positioning of

a servo machine.

The TTL
-
compatible signals A, B and REF

are accessible via 4
-
mm sockets. 1024

pulses

at A or B correspond to a
mechanical

angle of rotation of 360 degrees. The signals

-

A and B are phase
-
shifted by 9
0

degrees for the
determination of the shafts

rotation direction. The
REF
-
pulse is generated

1
x per shaft revolution. The
universal

speed indicator or the control unit block

commutation is needed for the power supply

and
display.

Connection via 6
-
pole DIN


-

socket Speed:
max. 10,000 min
-
1

-

Increments:

1024 pulses/360 degrees

-

Contained in scope of delivery:

Connection cable,
6
-
pole, L = 1.5 m
.


[4] AC Servo Motor 0.3

4
-
pole permanently
-
excited brushless DC

motor for use as
direct drive and for the
realization

of highly dynamic
positioning and

automatic drives in 4
-
quadrant operation

mode.

Nominal data:

-

Power:

(0.4
-
0.7) kW

-

Voltage constant:

27.85 V/1000 min1'

-

Voltage:

max. 180 V A

-

Current:

4.5 A

-

Torque:

0.65 Nm



AC Servo with Sine Commutation


[1]Control Unit
Sine Commutation

Control unit with microcontroller for the

assembly of highly
-
dynamic AC servo drives

with sinusoidal signal
-
shape
commutation in

operation together with the permanently

excited

brushless DC machine (AC servo),

the universal
converter and t
he resolver.

Alternatively, a synchronous or a
multifunction

machine 0.1/0,3 kW can be used.

The pulse
width modulation is designed so

that sinusoidally
-
shaped
currents are generated

in the motor windings. The digital
controllers

for current, speed and pos
itioning

are arranged
Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

in cascade configuration. The

actual speed value is
generated internally

tram the resolver signals. The resolver
permits

positioning with high resolution

(10 bit/360 degrees,
corresponding to 0.35

degrees).

Adjustable limiting data:

-

C
urrent 0...10

A

-

Speed 0...10000

min_1

Indication of the amplitude factor or the reference/

actual
value of the current, speed, or

position is carried out via four
digit LED display.

Reference variable setting via external

analog interface
-
10 V... + 10 V or

internal

manual input via
up/down pushbutton,

Serial interface (RS232) for the
communication

with a PC for the input of desired values

and the output of measured values.

Power supply from the
universal converter

via 25
-
pin sub
-
D socket.


Position Servo Co
ntrol

[1]
Position Controller, Digital

The microprocessor
-
controlled digital position

controller, in
conjunction with the AC

servo drive with block
commutation, is used

to set up a high
-
precision single
-
axis
positioning

drive. Actual positions can be recor
ded

either
with the incremental tacho 0,1 /0.3

(which supplies 1024
pulses per rotation) or

the linear unit with a position
encoder

0.1/0.3 (which supplies 5 pulses per 1 mm

of
travel). The digital position controller has

a six
-
digit, seven
-
segment display

which

can indicate positions in increments,
rounds

or mm. An incremental rotary switch integrated

in the device is used to set the position

reference variable,
controller parameters

(KP) and acceleration ramp. For
convenient

evaluation of the drive's oper
ational

data, the
device can be connected via the

serial interface (RS 232) to a
PC. The reference

variables and parameters can then be

set via the PC interface too.

Contained in the scope of
delivery:

One 20
-
pin cable for connection with the

control
unit
block commutation (voltage

supply and communication)
and one 6
-
pin

connection lead.




51

Measuring Instruments


6


Specification:

1
-

storage oscilloscope

-

bandwidth 0
-
50 MHz.

-

input impedance 1Mohm, 20
pF, max
400volt.

-

Resolution
(point/cm):
2
5
(X)
x 25
(Y);
XY
25 x 25 (minimum requirments)


2
-

PROBE 100 MHz,

-

bandwidth : 10
MHz
I 100 MHz;

-

connection: BNC plug;

-

cable length: 1

m


3
-

BNC Cable, L
=
1
.

Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec


52

Isolation Amplifier, Four
Channel


2


[1]
Four highly linear, cross
-
talk insensitive and

low
-
disturbance isolatio
n amplifiers for

potential
-
free
measurements in static converter,

drive and frequency
converter technology

used in conjunction with an
oscilloscope

or via CASSY
-
interface. Current

measurements are possible using built
-
in

shunts.


[2]
A multiplexer permits t
he four input signals

to be
displayed with one channel of a (storage)

oscilloscope.
All of the channels can be

switched on or off
individually and the corresponding

zero line can be
superimposed.


[3]
The position and amplitude for each channel

can be
set s
eparately on the screen. A

space vector indicator
with LED display and

oscilloscope output makes it
possible to

represent, measure and evaluate three

phase

systems, particularly in connection

with
frequency converters and electrical

machines. A
mathematica
l module permits

the addition,
subtraction and multiplication

of two input signals, A
filter can be connected

so that the fundamental wave
can be

reconstructed out of the PWM signals.


Isolation amplifier, channel A, B, C, E:

-

Frequency range: D C , 8
0 kHz

-

Voltage: max. 600

V DC/40
0 V AC
.


Attenuator, three
-
stage: x1, x0.1, x0.01

-

Accuracy: 2 %

-

Current: max. 10
A AC/DC

-

Ranges: 1 V/A and 1/3 V/A


-

Overdrive indication with LEDs

-

Outputs: 4
-
mm sockets
Multiplexer:

-

Multiplex freq., adjustable: 50...500 kHz

-

Ampl
itude attenuator: 0.2...1

-

Y
-
position:
-
8 V...+8 V

-

Trigger source A, B, C, D or E

-

Oscilloscope output: 2 BNC sockets


Mathematical module and filter:

-

Modi for channel D:
A+B, A
-
B, (AxB)/10,
AxB, L1N(A, B, C), E

-

Lowpass filter, switchable:

1 kHz

-

Mains connect
ion:

115/230 V, 45
...
65

Hz


with mains connection cable and Euro plug


53

Multimeter Metraport
6


With built
-
in measuring amplifier for exact
Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

3E


measurement&;
Zero
left;

Meas ranges:

-

0.1/0.3/1/3/10/30/100/300/1000 V AC/DC

-

10/100 uA,

1/10/100 mA, 1/10 A AC/DC

-

0 Ohm to 20 MOhm (5 ranges]:

-

Rin
= 10 MOhm.

-

Accuracy. class 1.5 DC, 2.5 AC;

-

Overload
capacity;
for all

ranges
to 250 V;



54

Shunt Wound Machine


2


Specification:

DC shunt wound machine for motor and
generator operation, with
commutating
winding.


-

All windings are separately connected to 4.

-

Ratings for motor operation:

-

Power:
(
0.3
-
0.5)

kW

-

Voltage: 220 V

-

Current:
(2
-
3)

A

-

Excitation voltage: 220 V

-

Excitation current: (0.4
-
0.5)

A

-

Speed: 2000 min
-
1


55

Digital Tachometer


1


For c
ontact measurement, battery operated, built
-
in
memory function.

-

Measurement range: 1 ... 25,000 rpm

-

Accuracy:
+I
-

1 min
-
1

-

Display: 5 digit, large 7
-
segment

-

LC display

-

Complete with carrying case, 3 batteries,

-

2 cone
-
shaped and
1
funnel
-
shaped probes,

-

1
mea
suring wheel for rotation speed
0.1
m.


56

Handheld Three Phase
Power Analyzer


1


[1]Measured parameter:

-

V(DC/AC), A(DC/AC) , W(DC/AC) ,VA,VAR.

-

Inrush current up to 200ª.

-

Power factor.

-

Energy.

-

Flicker.

-

THD.


[2]Rating resolution

-

Voltage, (1
-
1000), 0.01
accuracy.

-

Current, (0.2
-
1000)A, 0.01 accuracy.

-

Power factor, 0.00
-
1.00, 0.04 accuracy.

-

Frequency, 45
-
65 Hz, 0.4 accuracy .


[3]Other features:

-

Voltage input 4.

-

Current input 4.

Number

Equipment

Qty

Unit

Spec

-

IP rating ip54.

-

Data logger Up to 10,000 readings.

-

Scope display.

-

Carrying case
.

-

Software to connect to computer.

-

Current clamp.