OWL Annotation Tool

religiondressInternet and Web Development

Oct 21, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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1

OWL Annotation Tool

Supervisor: Mike Rosner

Co
-
Supervisor: Charlie Abela


2

Overview


Implement

an

annotating

tool

which

can

be

used

to

add

OWL

descriptions

to

the

CSAI

department’s

web

pages

thus

making

their

content

accessible

to

semantically

enabled

software

agents
.

3

The Semantic Web



Focus

on

machine

consumption
:

"The

Semantic

Web

is

an

extension

of

the

current

web

in

which

information

is

given

well
-
defined

meaning,

better

enabling

computers

and

people

to

work

in

cooperation
.
"



Tim

Berners
-
Lee,

Hendler

and

Lassila,

The

Semantic

Web,

Scientific

American,

2001


Whereas

the

Web

has

made

people

smarter,

the

SW

will

make

machines

smarter
.


The

current

Web

stores

things

whereas

the

SW

enables

agents

which

do

things
.

4

TBL’s semantic web vision


The

Semantic

Web

will

globalize

KR
,

just

as

the

WWW

globalize

hypertext


--

Tim

Berners
-
Lee

5

Why HTML is not enough


Consider

a

web

document

describing

information

related

to

a

particular

lecture
.


A

software

agent

that

stumbles

over

this

page

while

performing

a

search,

cannot

understand

any

of

the

information

on

this

page

6

What a web page looks like to a
machine…

7

One solution….

We

could

tell

the

machine

what

the

different

parts

of

the

text

represent

title

time

speaker

location

abstract

biosketch

host

8

Make use of XML

<title>

<time>

<speaker>

<location>

<abstract>

<biosketch>

<host>

</host>

</biosketch>

</abstract>

</location>

</time>

</speaker>

</title>

XML fans propose
creating an XML tag set
to use for each
application.


For talks, we can
choose <title>,
<speaker>, etc.

9

XML


Machine accessible meaning

<title>

<time>

<speaker>

<location>

<abstract>

<biosketch>

<host>

</host>

</biosketch>

</abstract>

</location>

</time>

</speaker>

</title>

But, to your
machine, the
tags still look like
this….


The tag names
carry no meaning.


XML DTDs and

Schemas have
little or no
semantics.

10

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf
-
8"?>


<xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">


<xs:element name="book">


<xs:complexType>


<xs:sequence>


<xs:element name="title" type="xs:string"/>


<xs:element name="author" type="xs:string"/>


<xs:element name="character" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded">


<xs:complexType>


<xs:sequence>


<xs:element name="name" type="xs:string"/>


<xs:element name="friend
-
of" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"


maxOccurs="unbounded"/>


<xs:element name="since" type="xs:date"/>


<xs:element name="qualification" type="xs:string"/>


</xs:sequence>


</xs:complexType>


</xs:element>


</xs:sequence>


<xs:attribute name="isbn" type="xs:string"/>


</xs:complexType>


</xs:element>

</xs:schema>

XML Schema helps

XML Schemas provide a
simple mechanism to
define shared
vocabularies.

<title>

<time>

<speaker>

<location>

<abstract>

<biosketch>

<host>

</host>

</biosketch>

</abstract>

</location>

</time>

</speaker>

</title>

<title>

<time>

<speaker>

<location>

<abstract>

<biosketch>

<host>

</host>

</biosketch>

</abstract>

</location>

</time>

</speaker>

</title>

XML Schema file

after
Frank van Harmelen and Jim Hendler

11

XML & XML Schemas are still not
enough


There

may

exist

many

schemas

that

define

the

same

information


And

there

is

no

way

to

relate

these

schemas

together,

either

manually

or

automatically

--

XML

Schema

is

very

weak

on

semantics

12

The Semantic Web Solution


Make use of more expressive XML
-
based
languages


Resource Description Language (RDF)


Darpa Agent Markup Language (DAML)


Web Ontology Language (OWL)


Make use of concept definition repositories


Ontologies

13

RDF


RDF

is

based

on

the

idea

of

identifying

things

using

Web

identifiers

(called

Uniform

Resource

Identifiers
,

or

URIs
),


Resources

are

described

in

terms

of

simple

properties

and

property

values
.


This

enables

RDF

to

represent

simple

statements

about

resources

as

a

graph

of

nodes

and

arcs

representing

the

resources,

and

their

properties

and

values


14

An Example

A Simple Fact


http
:
//www
.
example
.
org/index
.
html

has

a

creation
-
date

whose

value

is

August

16
,

1999

RDF/XML representation


<?xml version="1.0"?>

<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22
-
rdf
-
syntax
-
ns#



xmlns:exterms="http://www.example.org/terms/">


<rdf:Description
rdf:about="http://www.example.org/index.html">


<exterms:creation
-
date>August 16,
1999</exterms:creation
-
date>


</rdf:Description>

</rdf:RDF>

15

Example (cont)

Statement is described by a Triple:

(Subject, Predicate, Object)

http://www.example.org/index.html

August 16, 1999

http://www.example.org/terms/creation
-
date

Subject

Predicate

Object

Directed Graph representation

16

Ontologies


An

ontology

defines

the

terms

used

to

describe

and

represent

an

area

of

knowledge
.


Ontologies

are

used

by

people,

databases,

and

applications

that

need

to

share

domain

information

(a

domain

is

just

a

specific

subject

area

or

area

of

knowledge,

like

medicine,

tool

manufacturing,

real

estate,

automobile

repair,

financial

management,

etc
.
)
.

Ontologies

include

computer
-
usable

definitions

of

basic

concepts

in

the

domain

and

the

relationships

among

them

...



They

encode

knowledge

in

a

domain

and

also

knowledge

that

spans

domains
.


In

this

way,

they

make

that

knowledge

reusable
.



Working

Draft,

Web

Ontology

Working

Group
.


17

Annotating HTML


Annotating

tools

allow

inserting

and

maintaining

ontology
-
based

markups

in

Web

pages


The

objective

of

these

tools

is

to

alleviate

the

burden

of

including

ontology
-
based

annotations

manually

into

Web

pages

18

Web Page Annotation:

An Example

<html>

<head> <!
--
Start of Commented RDF
--
>

<!
--


<rdf:RDF


xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22
-
rdf
-
syntax
-
ns#"


xmlns:daml="http://www.daml.org/2001/03/daml+oil#"


xmlns:"http://www.cse.dmu.ac.uk/~monika/Pages/Ontology.daml#">




<PhDStudent rdf:ID="Monika">




<has_affiliation rdf:resource=



"#http://www.cse.dmu.ac.uk/monika/Ontology.daml#DMU"/>




<name>Monika Solanki</name>




<address>Hawthorn building, H00.18 </address>




<country>U.K.</country>




. . . . . .




. . . . . .




. . . . . .



</PhDStudent>



</rdf:RDF>

--
><!
--

End of Commented RDF
--
>

</head>

19

Annotation Tool:

Proposed Architecture

Annotator

Tool

Ontology

Web

Browser

Annotated
Web Pages

Ontology

Editor

20

Main Issues


Ontology

Editor
:

any

ready

made

tool


Ontology

Building
:

related

to

CSAI

department


Information

should

refer

to

departmental

lecturing

staff,

the

courses

they

teach,

research,

publications

etc


Web

Browser
:

permits

manipulation

(such

as

highlighting)

of

rendered

html


Annotator
:

Maps

text

chosen

from

Web

page

to

concepts

defined

in

the

ontology


Concepts

refer

to

defined

classes,

properties

and

instances

for

a

particular

domain


21

Literature


Towards Annotation using DAML+OIL, Bechnofer, Goble


RDF Primer:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC
-
rdf
-
primer
-
20040210/


OWL Tutorial:

http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/~horrocks/ISWC2003/Tutorial/


Tutorial on Ontology creation:
http://www.ksl.stanford.edu/people/dlm/papers/ontology101/
-
ontology101
-
noy
-
mcguinness.html



Ontomat:

http://annotation.semanticweb.org/tools/ontomat



FOAF (friends of a friend ontology),
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/