La dimension culturelle dans la

religiondressInternet and Web Development

Oct 21, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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La dimension culturelle dans la
modélisation de l'usager

Jacqueline
Bourdeau

LICEF, TELUQ, Québec, Canada

MATI, 4 octobre 2012

Conférence
-
midi


2

Tell Me Where You've Lived, And I'll Tell You What You Like:
Adapting Interfaces to Cultural Preferences


Katharina
Reinecke
, Abraham Bernstein, University of Zurich, Switzerland

UMAP 2009, Best
Student

Paper

Award


My

reflections
:


UM
is

interested

in culture


UM
liked

Hofstede’s

framework


Culture
is

seen

as an interface issue


Culture
is

related

to
preferences


Culture
is

geography
-
related

And in ITS/AIED
R
esearch
?


CATS
International Workshop on Culturally
-
Aware Tutoring
Systems
: 2008, 2009, 2010


Blanchard, E. and Allard, D., Handbook of Research on
Culturally
-
Aware Information Technology, 2010


C
ultural student modeling: not reporting a set of
demographics, but to reconcile the multi
-
layered nature of
cultural identity

(Blanchard &
Ogan
, 2011); Model
instead

of
profile or
preferences


Modeling

in ITS:
s
tudent

(OLM) and
domain
; a tradition of
cognitive
computational

models
,
d
eep

semantics
,
conceptualization
,
k
nowledge

representation
,
reasoning

(
Nkambou
,
Bourdeau

&
Mizoguchi
, 2010)

4

Studies

on Cultural Issues In ITS
Research

5

Allard

Cultural
interferences

in L2
learning

Blanchard

A Top
ontology

of culture

About
WEIRDness

in AIED/ITS
research

Savard

An
ontology

of cultural
differences

for
instructional

design

Wu

Modelling

cultural intelligence

Plan

1.
Culture:
W
hat’s

in
it
? And
what’s

not?

2.
Why

is

it

meaningful

for User
Modeling
?

3.
A Layer or a Dimension?

4.
Towards

an
O
ntology

of Culture

5.
Cultural
Diversity

and
Instructional

Design

6.
Cultural Intelligence

7.
Culture and Adaptation

8.
Towards a Culturally Aware Web 3.0

6

User A
has R1, User B has
R2, User C has R3 = 3
different

representations

for the
same

manifestation
(a
strong

man
)!

Multiple
Facets

of Culture:

Manifestations and
Representations








User B:

Adapts

to
the system

User C:

Lost
!

User A:

System
should

adapt
!

User D:

No
need

to
adapt

either

one:
she

is

transculturally

competent

7

1. Culture:
W
hat’s

in
it
?


Definitions

from

the
literature



Culture,
context
, and situation


Culture and
l
anguage
,
c
ommunication


Individual

and
c
ollective culture


Hofstede’s

framework

(
theoretical
)


Sperber’s

naturalistic

a
pproach

(
theoretical
)


Cultural intelligence: Ang &
Earley

(
empirical
)


CQ four
-
dimensional structure
by
Ang

and Van
Dyne
(
empirical
)


8

Definitions

from

the
L
iterature
:


A
C
onstruct


Hofstede
:

The collective programming of the mind which
distinguishes the members of a human group from another (1980)


Sperber
: An epidemiology of representations (1986, 1996)


UNESCO
:
The set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and
emotional features of society or a social group, [...] it encompasses,
in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together,
value systems, traditions and
beliefs (1982)


Kroeber &
Kluckhohn

(1952
), in
Culture
: A Critical Review of
Concepts and Definitions,
inventoried
a list of over 200 different
definitions for the word
culture.


Culture
is

social
, not
only

geography
-
related


Culture
is

about
sharing or not sharing
,
including

the case of
rebels
,
hybrids

and
mutants


Culture
is

about
meaning

9

Hofstede’s

Framework, 1980


An
anthropologist

working

on
organizational

culture (IBM
etc
);
descriptive/
interpretative


“people carry
mental programs
that are developed in the family in
early childhood and reinforced in schools and organizations. These
mental programs are of three levels: individual, collective and
universal, and contain a component of national
culture”



Five dimensions:



individualism
versus
collectivism


masculinity
versus
femininity


power distance


uncertainty avoidance


s
hort
-

and
long
-
term orientation


Advantages: clarity, parsimony, resonance with managers for cross
-
cultural management


Manifestations: symbols, heroes, rituals, values (deepest)


Representations: mental


10

Manifestations: Four levels


Hofstede

&
Hofstede

(2005) present the
manifestations of
culture at different
depth
levels
, using four
concepts: symbols,
heroes, rituals and
values.

11

Rituals

Ritual2

12

Criticism

of
Hofstede’s

Framework


Limitations:
oversimplistic
, ignores evolution of culture,
ignores cultural diversity within a country


Challenging the view of cultures as relatively stable systems in
equilibrium


Fundamental
:
interpretative
,
speculative


Methodological
:
overgeneralization


B.L.
Kirkman
, K.B. Lowe, C.B. Gibson, "A quarter
century

of
culture’s

consequences
: A
review

of
empirical

research

incorporating

Hofstede

»s
cultural values
framework
," Journal of International Business
Studies
, vol.
37, pp. 285
-
320, 2006 (a
meta
-
analysis

of 180
studies

based

on
Hofstede’s

Framework)


13

Sperber’s

N
aturalistic

A
pproach


A
materialist

anthropologist

trying

to
explain

Culture as
a
phenomenon
,
its

mechanics
, the
factors

causing

the
phenomenon
,
with

the
metaphor

of
biology


Approach
:
epidemiology

of
representations

(causal
chains
),
seeks

for
causality
,
reconceptualization


C
ultural macro
-
phenome
n
a
= cumulative
effect

of

1)
I
ndividual

mechanisms

forming

and
transforming

mental
representations

2)
Inter
-
individual

mechanisms

transmitting

the
representations


A cultural
fact

is

the
combined

effect

of
countless

micro
-
mechanisms


Adressed

the issue of an
O
ntology

of culture, 1986

14

Scharifian’s

Cultural
C
onceptualizations


C
ultural
conceptualizations

vs
conceptualization

of culture


Cultural
schemas
,
c
ultural
categories


Emerge

from

interactions
between

people, are
continually

negotiated



Distributed

among

members

of the group
is

more or
less

coherent
; not
evenly

distributed


Example
:
Australian

a
boriginals

schemas

for
events
,
roles
,
images, propositions


F.
Scharifian
, "On cultural
conceptualizations
," Journal of
Cognition and Culture, vol. 3(3), pp. 187
-
207, 2003


An
ethnographist
,
Persian



15

(Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich and Democratic)


Most people are not WEIRD
,
Joseph
Henrich
, Steven J. Heine and Ara
Norenzayan
,

Nature, Vol 466, 1 July 2010


On the WEIRD nature of ITS/AIED conferences
: A 10 year longitudinal study analyzing
potential cultural biases, Emmanuel G. Blanchard
, ITS 2012



Why

is

Culture
meaningful

for User
Modeling
?


Adaptation=
individual


Social web= group

sharing
something

(cultural?)


Semantic

web
is

about
meaning


Culture a
common

feature

among

individuals

in a
society
-
group vs in a social network


Cultural issues a source of
problems

and
misunderstandings

in a
globalizing

world


User
Experience

(UX)
is

influenced

by culture, and
vice
v
ersa

17

Q
uestioning


Does

socialization

in social networks
level

cultural
differences
?


Do
we

live a
different

life in the
virtual

than

in the real
world?
Transcultural

versus cultural?


Are
we

aware

of
our

culture/s? of
being

cultural in
what

we

do,
think
?


Cultural: bi
-
, multi
-
, inter
-
, cross
-
,
transcultural


Emerging

cultures,
dependent

or not on
language

(FB,
Tweeter)


What

is

not cultural?
What

is

social
that

is

not cultural?

18

A Layer or a Dimension?


Cultural
features

a layer
between

individual

and
social?


Or a dimension
that

pervades

life in the social
web?


Culture a
prominent

feature

in
human

interactions? (Johnson &
Valente
, 2008)


Cultural
diversity

in teams, networks, countries


Culture: an Ill
-
defined

domain

(Blanchard & al,
2010)

19

Towards

an
O
ntology

of Culture


Semantic

issues
with

culture:
entity

or
property
?
Culture or
culturality
?


A top
level

ontology

of culture (Blanchard & al)


An
ontology

of cultural
interferences

in
human

communication (
A
llard & al)


An
ontology

of cultural
differences

for
culturally
-
aware

instructional

design (Savard & al)


Cultural Intelligence (Wu & al)


Small
pieces

of a
masterpiece

still

to come…


20

A Top
Level

Ontology

Of Culture: Goals

1. To allow development teams to
consider cultures
in a
scientifically
-
sound and cross
-
disciplinary way

2. To propose ways of appropriately
computerizing cultural
aspects

of a given problem by suggesting templates for
theory
-
driven data structures and data management
processes

3. To promote
interoperability

by enforcing the consistency of
cultural data
modelling

between systems, thus facilitating
reuse of computerized cultural data

4. To promote
cultural automatic reasoning
, thus allowing
systems to take culturally
-
informed decisions that may
impact on their internal processing as well as on human
-
computer interaction (Blanchard & al, 2010)

21

A Top
Level

Ontology

Of Culture

(Blanchard & al, 2010)


An
o
ntology
:
specification

of a
conceptualization


An ontology consists of a set of concepts, axioms,
and relationships that describe a domain of
interest (SUOWG, 2009)


The
most

possible abstract
level

of culture


Built

upon

a
general

top
level

ontology


In
order

to
specify

cultural
components,
events
,
agents,
with

their

properties

within

a
semantic

network


Excerpt


22

23

Lightweight

and
Heavyweight

Ontologies


Lightweight ontology:
for web search engines, consists of a
topic hierarchy
with little consideration of rigorous
definition of a concept, principle of concept organization,
distinction between word and concept, etc. The main
purpose of such a hierarchy is
to power up the search
engine and hence it is very use
-
dependent.


Formal (heavyweight) ontology
: developed with much
attention paid to
rigorous meaning
of each concept,
organizing principles developed in philosophy, semantically
rigorous relations between concepts, etc. Instance models
are usually built based on those
ontologies

to model a
target world, which requires careful conceptualization of
the
world to guarantee of the consistency and fidelity
of
the model. (
Mizoguchi
, in Blanchard & al, 2010)

24

Culture and
Language

(Allard & al)


Problem
: Cultural
interferences

in
human

communication, in L2…Ln
learning


Interference: Error due
to transfer stemming from
a native
language (L1), or
another previously acquired
language


C
ultural knowledge: part of language learning


UNESCO’s
objectives
for
intercultural
education (
2007)
underline
interaction
amongst and within groups of people:


To
respect “the
cultural identity
of the learner through the provision of culturally
appropriate and responsive quality education for
all”


To
provide “every learner with the cultural knowledge, attitudes and skills
necessary to achieve active and full
participation in
society



To
provide “all learners with cultural knowledge, attitudes and skills that enable
them
to

contribute
to respect, understanding
and among individuals, ethnic,
social, cultural and religious groups and nations



Objectives:


examine
cultural variables that contribute to explain the existence and / or use
of certain language patterns,
and also explain
why students of a given cultural
group
face
difficulty acquiring L2 patterns given the influence of L1, itself a
reflection of certain cultural values.


25

26

27

Cultural
Diversity

and
Instructional

Design
(
Savard)


Problem:


in
order to be reused,
Learning Objects (LO)
should be as
neutral as
possible


However
, students need
anchors
for learning to occur and
LOs must be presented in a context that is meaningful to
them


Semantics
: not
o
nly

the LO (content) are
referenced
,
but
also

the
learning

scenarios (
student
-
centered
,
multi
-
actor

activities
), in
terms

of cultural aspects


Not
only

for
learners
, but
also

for
instructional

designers to
search
,
adapt
,
share

and
reuse


Scenarios are
specifications

of
learning
/
techning

activities

using

learning

objects





28

The Life Cycle of Culture (Savard)

Adapting

to a
culture:

Adapt

manifestations
AND
representations

29

30

Savard’s

Objectives


A
‘’cultural diversity’’ knowledge
base
exploitable
by a system
designed to help instructional
designers in their design tasks



A
method to process cultural
variables that can be
implemented into an
instructional design
process


An
agent to
integrate

cultural
awareness

in the
instructional

design
process




31

Cultural Intelligence (Wu)


A
kind

of Intelligence (
intellectual
, affective,
social..)


Definition
: The
ability
to collect and to process
information, to form judgments, and to
implement effective measures in order to adapt
to a new cultural context


Measuring

IQ


Modelling

IQ


Reasoning

about IQ


Applications: training,
expat
,
decision
-
making



32

Cultural Quotient (Wu)


Cultural quotient

is


the
level of success people obtain when adapting to
another
culture
(
Thomas)


the
ability to interact efficiently with people who are
culturally different
(Ng
et
al.)


the
ability to be effective in all cultures (
Johnson
et
al.)


the
ability of an individual to integrate a set of
knowledge, skills and personal qualities so as to work
successfully with people from different cultures and
countries, both at home and
abroad (Wu et al, 2012)

33

Modelling

CI & CQ (Wu)


Ang

and Van
Dyne:


four
-
dimensional
CQ
structure


based
on the general intelligence structure of Sternberg
and
Detterman



divides
CQ into
metacognitive

,
cognitive
, motivational
and behavioral
CQ


Wu:


the
four CQ dimensions
are interdependent entities


a

computational

model
with

an
inference

engine

(
hybrid
neuro
-
fuzzy soft
-
computing
technique
)


The smart CIES system
interacting

with

users


Needed
:
big

data!

34

35

36

37

Culture and Adaptation


Taking

culture
into

account

to
adapt


Taking

cultural intelligence
into

account

to
adapt


Culture
is

deep
!
Complex
!
Pervasive
!
Evolutionary
! Ill
-
defined
!


What

is

not cultural?


Towards

a
Culturally

Aware

Web 3.0



38

Lan

Onto of
education

OMNIBUS

Cultural
intelligence

Onto of culture

+KB

CIES
Cultural
Intelligen
ce Expert
System

SMARTIES

scenario
builder

Towards

a
Culturally

Aware

Web 3.0

Top
level

ontology

Language

Cultural

interferences

ITS?

L2L
-
ITS?

Instru

Semantic
,

Adaptive,

Context

aware

Semantic
,

a
daptive,

c
ulturally

aware

Adaptive,

Culturally

aware

Elearning

design

Semantic

Web,

adaptive,

c
ulturally

aware

INDEED
Cultural
agent

ITCIC
C
I

CI
-
ITS?

39

R
eferences


Allard, D.,
Bourdeau
, J. and
Mizoguchi
, R. (2011).
Addressing L1 Interference and Related Cultural
Factors Using Technology, CALICO Journal,
Vol

28, No. 3.


Allard, D.,
Bourdeau
, J. and
Mizoguchi
, R. (2010).
Addressing and Modeling Knowledge of Cross
-
Linguistic Influence and Related Cultural Factors Using Computer
-
Assisted Language Learning
(CALL), in Blanchard, E. et Allard, D., Handbook of Research on Culturally
-
Aware Information
Technology: Perspectives and Models, IGI
-
Global, pp. 582
-
598.


Ang

S. and Van Dyne, L. (2008). Handbook of Cultural Intelligence. 1st ed. M.E.
Sharpe.Armonk
.


Blanchard, E. G.,
Mizoguchi
, R.,
Lajoie
, S. P. (2010). Structuring the Cultural Domain with an Upper
Ontology of Culture. In E.G. Blanchard and D. Allard (
Eds
),
Handbook of Research on Culturally
Aware Information Technology: Perspectives and Models, Hershey, PA: Information Science
Publishing.


Blanchard
E. and

Ogan
, A. (2011)…
. Advances in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Heidelberg: Springer
Verlag
, Studies in Computational Intelligence, Volume 308


Blanchard
E. (2012).
On the WEIRD nature of ITS/AIED conferences: A 10 year longitudinal study
analyzing potential cultural biases, Proc. of the ITS Conference, 2012.


Bourdeau
, J. et
Grandbastien
, M. (2010).
Modeling Tutoring Knowledge, in
Nkambou
, R.,
Bourdeau
,
J. et
Mizoguchi
, R. (Eds.), (2010). Advances in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Heidelberg: Springer
Verlag
, Studies in Computational Intelligence, Volume 308, pp. 123
-
144.


Earley

P.C.,
Ang
, S.: Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Stanford, CA:
Stanford University Press, 2003.


Henrich
, J., Heine, S. and
Norenzayan
, A. (2010). Most people are not WEIRD, Nature,
Vol

466/1,
July.


Hofstede
, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work‐
relatedvalues
.
Beverly Hills, CA: Sage
.


Hofstede
, G
., and
Hofstede
,
J.G. (2005).
Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind
(2nd
Edition
).
New
-
York, NY:
McGraw
-
Hill.


40

References
,
cont’d


Johnson, L. and
Valente

(
2008).
Tactical Language and Culture Training Systems: Using Artificial
Intelligence to Teach Foreign Languages and Cultures, In Proceedings of IAAI 2008.


Kirkman
, B.L., Lowe, K.B., and Gibson, C.B. (2006). A quarter
century

of
culture‟s

consequences
: A
review

of
empirical

research

incorporating

Hofstede‟s

cultural values
framework
, Journal of
International Business
Studies
, vol. 37, pp. 285
-
320.


Mizoguchi
, R. ,
Hayashi
, Y. et
Bourdeau
, J. (2010).
Ontology
-
Based

Formal

Modeling

of the
Pedagogical

World:
Tutor

Modeling
, in
Nkambou
, R.,
Bourdeau
, J. and
Mizoguchi
, R. (
Eds
.), (2010).
Advances

in Intelligent
Tutoring

Systems. Heidelberg: Springer
Verlag
,
Studies

in
Computational

Intelligence, Volume 308, pp. 229
-
248.


Nkambou
, R.,
Bourdeau
, J. and
Mizoguchi
, R. (
Eds
.), (2010).
Advances

in Intelligent
Tutoring

Systems. Heidelberg: Springer
Verlag
,
Studies

in
Computational

Intelligence, Volume 308.


Reinecke
, K., Bernstein, A. (2009). Tell Me Where You've Lived, And I'll Tell You What You Like:
Adapting Interfaces to Cultural Preferences, UMAP 2009, Best student paper award.


Savard,
Bourdeau

& Paquette, ITS 2008


Scharifian
, F. (2003). "On cultural
conceptualizations
," Journal of Cognition and Culture, vol. 3(3),
pp. 187
-
207.


Sperber
, D., Explaining culture: A naturalistic approach, Oxford: Blackwell, 1996.


SUOWG. (2009).
IEEE Standard Upper Ontology Working Group
. Retrieved from http://suo.ieee.org


Tremblay, O.(2009) Une ontologie des savoirs lexicologiques pour l' élaboration d'un module de
cours en didactique du lexique.
Unpublished

dissertation, Université de Montréal.


Wu, Z.,
Nkambou
, R.
and
Bourdeau
, J. (
2012).

Cultural Intelligence Decision Support System for
Business Activities, accepted paper for the BUSTECH 2012 Conference, Nice, France.


Wu, Z.,
Nkambou
, R.
and
Bourdeau
, J. (
2012). The Application of AI to Cultural Intelligence, in Proc.
of ICAI 2012, The International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Las Vegas, USA.


41