geo:lat and geo:long ?

religiondressInternet and Web Development

Oct 21, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

89 views

Geospatial Semantic Web:

Is there life after

geo:lat and geo:long ?

Joshua Lieberman

Traverse Technologies & Open Geospatial Consortium

European Geoinformatics Workshop, March 2007

jlieberman@traversetechnologies.com

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
2

What’s the (Geo) Problem?


Special spatial


What is geospatial interoperability?


s
emantic Web
-

microformat tagging and (multiple) identity


S
emantic Web
-

(actionable) relationships and triple identity


g
eosemantic
-

geotagging position


G
eosemantic
-

spatial(
-
temporal) theories, relationships,
mediations, transformations


Feature (type) and Geometry (representation)


Model dependencies


Community of discourse


Scale


Reference frame / coordinate system


Perspective


Geospatial plus other (semantic) dimensions

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
3

Background


My context
-

earth / environmental sciences
-
> data
manager
-
> Web 1.0 victim
-
> geospatial standards geek


What is the geospatial problem, anyway? Is it a
geospatial problem? Who needs interoperability?


Playing fields and players, an arbitrary list:


Open Geospatial Consortium


Worldwide Web Consortium


SOCoP


“Standards are great, there are so many to choose from”


“OGC is full of semantics, we just don’t let much of it leak
out”


“If there is artificial intelligence, does that mean there is
also artificial stupidity?”

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
4

Geospatial Semantic Web Challenge:
Interoperability


The Geospatial part


Maps and map visualization


Features and feature geometries


Geographic and other relationships


Coordinate and other reference systems


The Web part


Distributed data
-

“own and maintain locally / find and access globally”


Shared services, loosely or tightly coupled to geodata


Interoperability between technologies, vendors, architectures


The Semantic part


Accessibility of “secret” knowledge


Interoperability between communities and domains


Softer software


Automated (machine to machine) reasoning and inference


The Geosemantic part


Feature discernment


Spatial reasoning


Representational dissonance


No particular part


Cognitive dissonance


Context and viewpoint

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
5

What are OGC and OWS ?




The Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. (OGC) is a non
-
profit, international, voluntary consensus
standards organization that is leading the development of standards for geospatial and location based
services”


“Opengeospatial Web Services” (OWS)
-

OGC has been developing for some time specifications for a
suite of Web services (sensu latu) and associated encodings to expose geospatial content and
operations from distributed content repositories to remote clients across diverse platforms:


GML

-

geographic markup language (an information model and XML schema) for encoding features
(geometric representations of geography).


Web Feature Service

-

service providing access to collections of features


Web Map Service

-

service providing access to map layers (cartographically rendered features and
images)


Catalog Service / Web

-

service supporting (spatial) discovery of geospatial datasets and services


Several

other associated specifications, e.g. coordinate reference system encoding


Many corresponding or related
ISO

standards, especially 191nn (TC211)

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
6

General Feature Model

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
7

Interoperability Stack


Meaning

-

? (OWL, RDF, MDL, …)


Vocabulary



UML, XML Schema, OWS


Encoding

-

ASCII, UTF
-
8, XML


Control



TCP, HTTP, WAP


Signal



Internet Protocol, DNS


Transport



Ethernet, WiFi, GPRS


Medium



Physical Connection

Increasing / higher level interoperability

Human
-
centric

Machine
-
centric

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
8

Geospatial R/Evolution


Geospatial Semantic Web: forming and
distributing rich geospatial relationships
across the Web


GeoRSS: adding features to information


Google Earth: the terrain as video game


GeoWeb: connecting features across the
Web


GIS: adding information to features
Cartography: symbolic representation of
the terrain


Geography: perception of the terrain

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
9

Which Geospatial Role?

Tasks / Processes

Information Domains

Petro

Aero

Geo

Hydro

Weather

Solar

Collect

Model

Interpret

Visualize

Geographic Infromation System

Common Geospatial Perspective

Upper Ontologies?

Base

Ontologies?

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
10

Use cases and roles

for semantic Web processing


Cross
-
domain resource discovery


Heterogeneous resource query


Resource translation

Client

Server(s)

Trader

Broker

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
11

“Typical” Geospatial Query

(Intelligence / Logistics Domain)

“Which airfields within 500 miles of Kandahar support C5A aircraft?”

Aero Feature or
Geo Feature?

Buffer or
proximity?

Statutory or Nautical?

Straight
-
line or driving?

Coordinate system?

Afghanistan?

Centroid or outline?

What does this
mean to a GIS ?

Feature
property or
non
-
spatial
information?

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
12

Multiple GSW Ontology Components

GeoIntel

Problem Domain

Ontology

Base Geospatial Ontology

(e.g. filter encoding)

Aero Feature

Ontologies

(AIXM, DAFIF)

OGC Upper

Ontology

(e.g. Feature)

Other Base Ontologies (e.g. measurements)

Other Upper Ontologies

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
13

Which airfields within 80
miles of Banda Aceh support
C5A aircraft, i.e. have a
runway length >= 12000 ft?


equivalence or
subsumption

based on

based on

Domain
Ontology

Ontological (DL) description of
the query concept

Query concept

Ontological (DL) description of the application concept “Dafif_Airport”

Application Ontology
Concept

Hybrid Ontology Approach

Logical
Reasoning

Ontologies for Enhanced GI Discovery

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
14

OWL
-
S Service Description

Components and Questions

Type of Service

Themes of Content

Provider / business terms

Content Description

Service Bindings / Messages

Bound Parameters

Process and
Behavior

Smart Service Consumption

Service Composition

Service Profile

Service Grounding

Service Model

Feature Schema

Content Domain

Feature Individuals

?

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
15

GeoRSS geospatially enabled
resource references

Geospatial Ontologies workshops

(resource, process, service)

W3C Geospatial

Semantic Activities

GSW IE and Beyond


The OGC geospatial semantic web interoperability experiment tested
initial architectures and technologies for cross
-
domain, distributed
geospatial knowledge query, leading to multiple follow
-
on activities.

Aero Data

(DAFIF) WFS

Aero Data

(AIXM) WFS

Geonames

Data Gazetteer

Service

DAFIF

Ontology

AIXM

Ontology

Gazetteer

Ontology

Query Domain

Ontology

OWL
-
S

Description

OWL
-
S

Description

OWL
-
S

Description

Geospatial Intelligence Query:

“Which airfields within 500 miles of
Kandahar support C5A aircraft”

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
16

A Theory of One’s Own


Classical Scientific Method:


Observation
-
> Hypothesis
-
> Test


SWE:


Procedure
-
> Sensor
-
> Measurement
-
> Observation
-
>
Hypothesis


John Wesley Powell:


Multiple Hypothesis
-
> Observation
-
> Selection


Practical / Tenure track


Theory
-
> Procedure
-
> Measurement
-
> Observation
-
>
Publication


In “reality” observations are always predicated upon a
theory, although they may subsequently induce theory
revision.

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
17

Problems of heterogeneity


Semantics: two names for the same thing


Semiotics: one name for two different things


Schizophrenia (cognitive dissonance): two names for two
different things

Lighthouse

Vertical Obstruction

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
18

Semantic quandaries


Two co
-
located shapes
-
> “semantic heterogeneity”


Agree “obstruction” equals “lighthouse”
-
> boat crashes
into a water tower


Agree lighthouse “is a” vertical obstruction
-
> ship
ignores light buoy, hits shoal


Agree vertical obstruction “is a” lighthouse
-
> plane hits
watertower


We have “cognitive heterogeneity”
-
> two theories for the
same reality


Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
19

Unsettling Solutions


Possible solution: intersect theories
-
> lighthouse and vertical
obstruction are both “elevations”, but little may be agreed on the role
or behavior of that shared reality. Semantic technology provides few
tools to distinguish the “theories” of the subclasses.

Vertical Obstruction

Elevation

Lighthouse

Marine

Navigation Aid

Aero Hazard

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
20

Top of the Interoperability Stack


Purpose


Enlightenment, tenure



Perception



Visual
-

aural
-

tactile


Theory

-

persistence, consequence


Discernment


Feature, context


Application


Discovery, analysis, profit


Representation


geometry, equation


Ontology



domain, upper, lower

Increasing / higher level interoperability

Human
-
centric

Machine
-
centric

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
21

W3C Geo XG


W3C Geospatial
Incubator
is a new type of activity for short
-
term
and/or startup goals


The (proposed) Geo XG has three objectives which address needs
of the Local Web:


Immediate
: update and harmonization with GeoRSS of the W3C Basic
Geo vocabulary, aka simpler than possible geospatial ontology.


Short Term
: draft recommendations for a geospatial ontology focused on
Web resources and tasks.



Longer Term
: draft a charter for a proposed W3C Local Web WG
and/or

IG to address issues beginning with geotags and continuing towards
geospatial enablement of the Semantic Web.


Largely open to public participation


Chartered until June 2007


http://www.w3.org/2005//Incubator/geo/



Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
22

W3C 2003 Geo Vocabulary


Devised and posted by Dan
Brickley (danbri)


Not a Note or
Recommendation


Separate latitude & longitude
properties, presumes WGS 84


Implies a point “feature” and
single position.


Makes no other assertion as to
the meaning of the coordinates
or their relationship to the item
or resource they characterize.


Geo:lat and geo:long are also
used for geotagging other
content (e.g. XHTML
microformats).

The vocabulary defines a class 'Point', whose members are
points. Points can be described using the 'lat' and 'long'
properties.



<geo:Point>


<geo:lat>55.701</geo:lat>


<geo:long>12.552</geo:long>


</geo:Point>


In common usage, the containing Point is dropped, for
brevity.



<?xml version="1.0"?>


<rss version="2.0"
xmlns:geo="http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#"
>


<channel>



...



<item>


<title>An example annotation</title>


<link>http://example.com/geo</link>


<description>Just an example</description>


<geo:lat>26.58</geo:lat>


<geo:long>
-
97.83</geo:long>


</item>



Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
23

GeoRSS 1.0 Content “Featurizing” Model

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
24

GeoRSS Examples


Simple



<georss:point>45.256
-
71.92</georss:point>


<georss:line>45.256
-
110.45 46.46
-
109.48
43.84
-
109.86</georss:line>


<georss:polygon>



45.256
-
110.45 46.46
-
109.48 43.84
-
109.86 45.256
-
110.45


</georss:polygon>


<georss:box>42.943
-
71.032 43.039
-
69.856</georss:box>

<georss:featuretyeptag>city</georss:featuretyp
etag>

<georss:relationshiptag>is
-
contained
-
within</georss:relationshiptag>



GML



<georss:where>



<gml:Point>



<gml:pos>45.256
-
71.92</gml:pos>



</gml:Point>



</georss:where>




<georss:where>



<gml:Polygon>



<gml:exterior>



<gml:LinearRing>



<gml:posList>



45.256
-
110.45 46.46
-
109.48 43.84
-
109.86 45.256
-
110.45



</gml:posList>



</gml:LinearRing>



</gml:exterior>



</gml:Polygon>



</georss:where>


GeoRSS Simple maps directly onto GeoRSS GML !

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
25

SOCoP:

Spatial Ontology Community of Practice


SOCoP is chartered as a Community of Practice under the Best Practices
Committee of the Federal CIO Council.


Charter: The strict purpose and focus of the Spatial Ontology Community of
Practice (SOCoP) is to foster collaboration among researchers, technologists &
users of spatial knowledge representations and reasoning towards the
development of a set of core, common spatial ontologies for use by all in the
Semantic Web. As a Community of Practice SOCoP using open collaboration
and open standards, SOCoP developed ontologies will offer increased
interoperability of spatial data across government (via synchronization with
Geospatial Profile of FEA & GeoLOB) as well as across the entire spectrum of
the World Wide Web (via W3C, ISO, OGC, etc.). SOCoP represents a strategic
investment for ontology development, building on core ontological
competencies, documenting best practices, and creating opportunities to partner
with other cross domain and ontology COP groups. Among other things SOCoP
can help inventory geospatial ontologies, develop an approach to
institutionalizing and streamline the effort to support the development and
management of ontologies across the GeoLOB.

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
26

Geospatial Semantic Web Standards (?)


Geospatial Ontologies


Neogeo / GeoRSS


Feature metamodel


Feature types


Geonames / toponymology


Spatial relationships


Coordinate reference systems


Geospatial Semantic Web
Services


(Does) content matter?


Transformation services


Mediation (semiotic, semantic,
cognitive) and client
perspective


Geosemantic Reasoning


Geospatial subsumption


Processing spatial relationships


Geospatial rules


(Geo) SPARQL ?


Visual reasoning
-

map and reality


Geospatial Discovery


Indexing vs modeling


GeoRSS: geographic
assertions over resources


GRL: Geo resource locator


GREF: Geo reference


GNS: Geo Name Server

Joshua Lieberman
-

European Geoinformatics Workshop 2007 ©Traverse Technologies.

Slide
27

Geospatial Semantic Convergence


When
geography
-
on
-
demand

joins
knowledge
-
with
-
location
, the result
will be a richer and more capable Web of physical resources, a
Geospatial Semantic Web

or
Local Web

having
identity
,
connection
,


and

locality

Local

Web

Geographic representation
standards

Geospatial Web services
architecture standards

Geospatial enablement of
enterprise information

Resource identifier and
transport standards

Resource relationship
standards

Semantic enablement of the
World Wide Web

Semantic
Web

Web of
Knowledge

Information Silos

GIS Guilds

Geospatial Web

Geospatial Enablement

What do you see is next?