Gazetteers and the Semantic Web

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Oct 21, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Linking Open Data with Location:

Gazetteers and the Semantic Web

Xavier Lopez, Director, Product Management

Overview


Linked Open Data (LOD) Concepts


Role of Gazetteers in LOD


Interconnected Web of Content


Towards Geospatial Knowledge Management


“A method of publishing structured data,
so that it can be interlinked and become
more useful”



Wikipedia

Linked Data

Linked Open Data


The Opportunity


Manage
relationships

for massive
collections of structured and
unstructured data



Flexible and extensible data model
supports powerful search and end
-
user discovery of related content



Enable users to define their social
networks or communities based on
common interests, subjects, image
scenes, locations,
etc
.


Rich platform for data integration,
data repurposing, and better quality
control and classification



Tactical, non
-
invasive, iterative
solution for strategic modernization

Semantic Aggregation & Navigation of Data

Simple Linked Data Architecture



User


(Reasoning/Inferencing)
Engine

Data

Ontologies

Domain &
Task

Ontologies

Query & results

Data
Sources

Linked Open Data Cloud (2008)

Linked Open Data Cloud (2010)

Resource Description Framework (RDF)

RDF is a general framework for
describing a Web site's
metadata
, or the
information about the information on
the site. It provides interoperability
between
applications

that exchange
machine
-
understandable information
on the Web.




W3C


Modeling: A FOAF Example

Gazetteers and Linked Open Data Services


Provide common terms (place names) to link across
existing spatial data resources


Enable consolidated view across the map layers


Reconcile differences in data semantics so that they
can all “talk”and interoperate


Resolving semantic discrepancies across databases
gazetteers and applications


Integrate full breath of enterprise content continuum
(structured, spatial, email, documents, web services)

Modeling: Enterprise Integration


Ordnance Survey maintains
definitive mapping data of Great
Britain, the world’s largest and
most detailed Geo DB


Semantic Web is used to
integrate different, semantically
diverse sources of data


General ontologies already developed to bridge differences in terminology


The data is queried efficiently via the ontology or RDF


Advantages include efficient data integration, data repurposing, and better
quality control and classification

Source: http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/sweo/public/UseCases/

From Linked Data

to Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management Conditions


Filtering search queries with “context”


Discovery of data relationships across…


Structured data (database, apps, web services, RSS schemas)


Unstructured data (email, office documents)


Queries are not defined in advance


Schemas are continuously evolving


Support Machine2Machine interaction


Location can be common link, along with names, concepts,
synonyms

What Can Linked Data Enable?

Mapping & Geotagging

Social Network Relations

Rule
-
based Reasoning

Analysis of Complex Relations

Ontology
-
driven Map Apps


Simple Features


GeoRaster


Topology


Networks


Gazateers







RDF & OWL Data

Situational

Awareness

Theater

National Map

Core Datasets

Targeting

Spatial

Data

Geographic

Names

Raster

Data


Data Integration


National Map schemas


Geographic names


Temporal


Naïve Geography









Application
Ontologies



We need to associate a number of factors, including
hospital type and facilities


its accessibility after a
disaster


and the staff available




The query needs to be structured based on
Concepts & Relationships that can be retrieved and
then customized for the specific query.




Using this approach, a listing of the hospitals
capable of dealing with large number of burn cases
is returned to the user and information associated
with the query retrieved.



A “Simple” Knowledge Query

Which hospitals within 30 mins of Alpine, CA
provide burn treatment?”


“Typical” Analyst Query:


Which hospitals within 30 mins of Alpine, CA provide burn treatment?”

Buffer or
proximity?

Driving or Flying?

Road Closures?


Where is this?

Centroid or outline?

Feature Reference

Type?

What does

this mean?

Definition?

Ontologies for Problem Solving

Hospital

A&E

Type

Size

Route

Roads

Specialists

Treatment

Location

Illness

Burns

Emergency


Team

Vehicles

Type

Duty Rota

Burns

Unit

Beds

Weather

Obstructions

Helipad

Flood

Hazards

Skin Graft




Storage & Loading



Native W3C RDF graph data store




Fast Bulk, batch & Incremental load




Query



SQL: SEM_MATCH graph pattern query



SPARQL: supported via Jena plug
-
in



Reasoning



RDF, OWL Prime, RDF++ semantic rules



Forward chaining inference model



User defined rule base



Scalability



Scales to billions of triples



Partitioning, RAC, Adv. Compression



Standards & Interoperability



Aligned with W3C specifications



Supported by leading semantic tools

Oracle 11
g

RDF/OWL Graph Data Management

Structured DBMS, Unstructured, Spatial, RSS, email, Documents



Key semantic technologies are mature




Semantic technologies are key enablers for
enterprise and Web




Reuse existing of authoritative gazetteers are
needed




Model the real world rather than data artifacts



Conclusions

Find out more...


oracle.com/database/spatial.html

oracle.com/technology/products/spatial

oracle.com/technology/products/spatial/htdocs/pro_oracle_spatial.html

A

Q

&

Information Explosion




Structured data stores are growing in size


Amount of semi
-
structured data is
expanding (XML, RDF, Semantics, Spatial)


Metric data, beacons, sensors supplying
mega volumes


Unstructured data is gathered at a
staggering pace (email, documents,
messages, streams, feeds)


Modeling Domain Information

Resource Description Framework (RDF)

RDF is a general framework for
describing a Web site's
metadata
, or the
information about the information on
the site. It provides interoperability
between
applications

that exchange
machine
-
understandable information
on the Web.




W3C


Simple Transitive Reasoning


:partOf rdf:type owl:TransitiveProperty


:California :partOf :USA

:USA :partOf :NorthAmerica

Asserted Facts

:California :partOf :NorthAmerica

Derived Facts

:California

:USA

:NorthAmerica

:partOf

:partOf

:partOf

owl:TransitiveProperty

rdf:type

:partOf

Query
: SELECT ?x ?y


FROM




WHERE { ?x :partOf ?y }

Result
:
?x______

?y__________


:California :USA


:California :NorthAmerica


:USA :NorthAmerica

Integrated Bioinformatics Networks

Source: Siderean Software

Text/Spatial Mining Workflow


Information
Extraction

Categorization,
Feature/term Extraction

Web Resources

News,
Email, RSS

Content Mgmt. Systems

Processed
Document
Collection

RDF/OWL

Analyst

Browsing, Presentation, Reporting, Visualization, Query

Explore

Domain
Specific
Knowledge
Base

OWL

Ontologies

Ontology Engineering
Modeling Process

Spatial Data