Basics of Networking, Setting up a Home Network and Internet ...

refereeoppositeNetworking and Communications

Oct 30, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Christina
Angstadt

Karlie Meyer

Kait Sharer

Networking


Internet Protocol Address: exclusive number all information technology
devices use which identifies and allows them the ability to communicate
with each other on a computer network


Dynamic IP Address


Can change at any time


Issued from a pool of IP addresses allocated by ISP or DCHP Server


Computer automatically gets this number as it logs on to the network


Static IP Address


Fixed and never changes


ISP provides a single static IP or a block of static IP’s


IP version 4


Currently used by most network devices


Limited to 4,294,967,296 addresses


IP version 6


Estimated number of unique addresses =
340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456


Can be written in the following formats:


1080:0000:0000:0000:0000:0034:0000:417A


1080:0:0:0:0:34:0:417A


1080
::34:0:417a




Domain Name System (DNS):
Allows
the IP
address to be translated to
words


Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP):


A computer
networking protocol used by hosts to
retrieve IP address assignments and other
configuration information
.


Client
-
server architecture


The client
sends a broadcast request for
configuration information. The DHCP server
receives the request and responds with
configuration information from its configuration
database


Public IP address:


Avoid online bans


ISP may assign you an invalid address due to some
technical glitch in their
equipment


Private IP address:


Accidentally
configured an invalid address


Using
a malfunctioning router that is providing bad
addresses


Installing
a new router and re
-
configuring your
home network to use its default IP address range



To change a static IP
address,
contact the ISP
and work with their technical support to have
them assign a new
one


To change a
dynamic IP
address:


If your computer is directly connected to the
Internet, you can attempt to release and renew the
address using
ipconfig

or a similar
utility


Often, you will need to disconnect your modem
from the Internet for a long period of time (many
hours or a few days) before the ISP will assign a
different dynamic IP address.



Easier


Static address:
directly set a new IP address
on the
device


Dynamic Address:


release and renew the DHCP address on the
client

Or


set up the router to use a different IP address
range

Or


change one or more devices on the network from
dynamic to static addressing

1.
Control Panel

2.
Network
Connections

3.
Find Network
Connection to
Internet (LAC)

4.
Right Click and
select Properties

5.
Click Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP)
item in list

6.

Click Properties
Button

7.

Click
Use the
following IP address:
and enter the IP
address, subnet
mask, and default
gateway
information

8.

Enter the same info
for DNS servers

9.
Click OK until done


All information is
provided by ISP

BUT if you are behind a router it gets more
complicating….


Static
IP address should
be
assigned to the
router
.


Configuring the router

to

to

not get an IP address
dynamically, but instead you'll enter the IP, gateway,
subnet, and possibly DNS information by hand, using
whatever approach your router uses for configuration
.


Port
-
forwarding


Configure
it to accept requests on
certain "ports" and direct them to
certain computers on your LAN.



Bandwidth: the volume of information per
unit of time that a transmission medium (like
an Internet connection) can handle.


Latency: refers to any of several kinds of
delays typically incurred in processing of
network data.


Low latency
network
experiences small delay
times


High latency
connection

suffers from long delays


Actual bandwidth
is affected by high
latencies.


Excessive
latency creates bottlenecks that prevent
data from filling the network pipe, thus decreasing
effective bandwidth



A set of rules which is used by computers to
communicate with each other across a
network governing the syntax, semantics,
and synchronization of communication.


A protocol is a convention or standard that
controls or enables the connection,
communication, and data transfer between
computing endpoints.


Implemented
by hardware, software, or a
combination of the two.



Set
of communications protocols used for the
Internet


Two
-
layer program


Transmission Control Protocol (
TCP):


Higher layer


Manages
the assembling of a message or file into
smaller packets that are transmitted over the
Internet


Messages are received
by a TCP layer that reassembles
the packets into the original message


Internet
Protocol (IP
):


Lower layer


Handles
the address part of each packet so that it gets
to the right destination


Program
that allows applications on different
computers to communicate within a local area
network (LAN
).


Two
communication modes
:


Session mode lets two computers establish a
connection for a "conversation," allows larger
messages to be handled, and provides error
detection and
recovery



Datagram
mode is "connectionless
"

messages must
be smaller, and the application is responsible for
error detection and recovery.
Also
supports the
broadcast of a message to every computer on the
LAN.



Full
-
duplex
data can be transmitted in both
directions on a signal carrier at the same
time


Half
-
duplex
data can be transmitted in both
directions on a signal carrier, but not at the
same time
.


Both imply a bidirectional line, or one that
can move data in both directions


Windows
has two modes of operation


Workgroup and
Domain


Workgroup:


Peer
-
to
-
peer network, or each computer is sustainable on its own


In order for a user to access resources on another workgroup
computer, that exact user must be setup on the other
computer


Workgroups
offer little security outside of basic access control
.


Workgroups
are more than
adequate
for most small business and
home
use


Domain:


Trusted
group of computers that share security, access control
and have data passed down from a centralized domain controller
server or
servers


Domain
Controllers handle all aspects of granting users
permission to
login



U
se
Active Directory which allows and even more centralized point
for software distribution, user management and computer
controls


Most mid to large businesses will run in Domain mode


HTTP (Hypertext
Transfer Protocol
):


Set
of rules for transferring files (text, graphic images, sound,
video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.


Application
protocol that runs on top of the TCP/IP suite of
protocols


Web
browser is an HTTP client, sending requests to server
machines. When the browser user enters file requests by either
"opening" a Web file (typing in a URL) or clicking on a hypertext
link, the browser builds an HTTP request and sends it to the IP
address indicated by the URL. The HTTP daemon in the
destination server machine receives the request and sends back
the requested file or files associated with the request
.


FTP:


simplest
way to exchange files between computers on the
Internet


Used to
transfer Web page files from their creator to the computer
that acts as their server for everyone on the
Internet


Used
to download programs and other files to your computer from
other
servers
.





POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3):


Client/server
protocol in which e
-
mail is received and held for you
by your Internet
server


Built
into most popular e
-
mail products, such as Eudora and
Outlook Express. A
lso
built into the Netscape and Microsoft
Internet Explorer
browsers


“Store
-
and
-
forward” service


IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol):


Provides
the user more capabilities for retaining e
-
mail on the
server and for organizing it in folders on the
server


POP and IMAP both
deal with the receiving of e
-
mail


SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol):


Protocol
for transferring e
-
mail across the
Internet



You send e
-
mail with SMTP and a mail handler receives it
on your recipient's behalf. Then the mail
is
read using POP
or IMAP.


TELENET:


User
command and an underlying TCP/IP protocol for
accessing remote
computers


An
administrator or another user can access someone else's
computer
remotely


You log
on as a regular user with whatever privileges you
may have been granted to the specific application and data
on that computer.


Telnet
is most likely to be used by program developers and
anyone who has a need to use specific applications or data
located at a particular host computer.


HTTPS:


Use of
Secure Socket Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security
(TLS) as a
sublayer

under regular HTTP application
layering


Encrypts
and decrypts user page requests as well as the
pages that are returned by the Web
server



LAN (Local Area Network):


Group
of computers and associated devices that share a
common communications line or wireless
link


Connected
devices share the resources of a single
processor or server within a small geographic
area


Server
has applications and data storage that are shared
in common by multiple computer users. A local area
network may serve as few as two or three users
or
as
many as thousands of
users


WAN (Wide Area Network):


Geographically
dispersed telecommunications
network


May
be privately owned or
rented


Inclusion
of public (shared user) networks


Hub:


Place
of convergence where data arrives from one or more directions and
is forwarded out in one or more other
directions


Place
where data comes
together


Switch:


Device
that channels incoming data from any of multiple input ports to the
specific output port that will take the data toward its intended
destination


One
or more switches are used to set up a dedicated though temporary
connection or circuit for an exchange between two or more
parties


a switch determines from the physical
device (MAC) address
in each
incoming message frame which output port to forward it to and out of


Router:


A device
or, in some cases, software in a computer, that determines the
next network point to which a packet should be forwarded toward its
destination


Connected
to at least two networks and decides which way to send each
information packet based on its current understanding of the state of the
networks it is connected
to


Often
included as part of a network switch


A virtual
private network (VPN) is a network that
uses a public telecommunication infrastructure,
to
provide remote offices or individual users with
secure access to their organization's
network


The goal of a VPN is to provide the organization
with the same capabilities, but at a much lower
cost


The protocols, by encrypting data at the sending
end and decrypting it at the receiving end, send
the data through a "tunnel" that cannot be
"entered" by data that is not properly
encrypted



Plenum


In buildings with computer installations, the plenum space is
often used to house connecting communication
cables


Often
made of Teflon and is more expensive than ordinary
cabling


In
the event of fire, its outer material is more resistant to flames
and, when burning, produces less smoke than ordinary
cabling


Both
twisted pair and coaxial cable are made in plenum cable
versions.


PVC


Software
-
defined
logical connection in a network such as a frame
relay
network


Feature
of frame relay that makes it a highly flexible network
technology is that
users
can define logical connections and
required bandwidth between end points and let the frame relay
network technology worry about how the physical network is used
to achieve the defined connections and manage the
traffic


The
end points and a stated bandwidth called a Committed
Information Rate (CIR) constitute a
PVC


Multiple
PVCs share the same physical paths at the same time


UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair):


Most
common kind of copper telephone wiring


Ordinary
copper wire that connects home and many
business computers to the telephone
company


Each signal on twisted pair requires both
wires


Twisted
pair is sometimes installed in two or more pairs,
all within a single
cable.


Although twisted pair is often associated with home use,
a higher grade of twisted pair is often used for
horizontal wiring in LAN installations because it is less
expensive than coaxial cable


STP (Shielded Twisted Pair):


Special
kind of copper telephone wiring used in some
business
installations


T
wisted
pair is enclosed in a shield that functions as a
ground



Fiber to the home (FTTH):


Installation
and use of optical fiber from a central point directly to
individual buildings such as residences, apartment buildings and
businesses to provide unprecedented high
-
speed Internet access.
FTTH dramatically increases the connection speeds available to
computer
users


Implementing
FTTH on a large scale will be costly because it will
require installation of new cable sets over the "last links" from
existing optical fiber cables to individual
users


Coaxial Cable:


Copper
cable widely installed for use in business and corporation
Ethernet and other types of local area
network


“Coaxial
" because it includes one physical channel that carries the
signal surrounded (after a layer of insulation) by another
concentric physical channel, both running along the same
axis


Outer
channel serves as a
ground


Can
be placed in a single outer sheathing and, with repeaters, can
carry information for a great distance


RJ45:


Single
-
line
jack for digital transmission over ordinary phone wire, either
untwisted or
twisted


Eight
pins or
positions


Two
varieties of RJ
-
45: keyed and
unkeyed



Keyed
has a small bump on its
end


Both
jack and plug must
match


RJ11:


Most
common telephone
jack


Can
have six conductors but usually is implemented with
four


Likely
to be the jack that your household or office phones are plugged into
from the ordinary "untwisted" wire
people are most familiar with


Four
wires are usually characterized as a red and green pair and a black
and white
pair


Red
and green pair typically carry voice or
data


Black
and white pair may be used for low
-
voltage signals such as phone
lights


A computer that uses a dial
-
up modem to connect to a network is usually
plugged into an RJ
-
11 jack


Server:


Web, ftp, email, application server


Provides service to client(s)


email exchange


web / database access


Client:


browser, email, online chat


Initiates request for some service


All communication through server


Clients do
not

communicate directly

+
Maintenance

+
Security

+
Centralized server / data



Overload


Centralized server




No

dedicated server


End systems directly communicate


Switch roles of client & server


More peers = better performance


+
Shared resources

+
No Single point of failure


High Bandwidth usage


Security


P2P

Client / Server


Centralized server


Find IP address of remote party / peer


“controls” communication


Direct client


client connection


not
through server



Skype


Instant messaging


High
-
speed Internet
access


exceeding 200 Kbps


“Always On”


More reliable


Wider range of
frequencies


Simultaneous access to
voice & data
communication


splitter


Access limited to
phone line bandwidth


56 Kbps max


Initiate connection


Dynamic IP address


Less vulnerable to
attacks


Difficult to download
multimedia files


Less cost


DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)


existing copper telephone lines


Kbps


Mbps


Cable


Coaxial cables


1.5 Mbps +


Fiber to the Home (FTTH)


Converts data signals to light & sends them through glass
fibers


Speeds exceed DSL / Cable by hundreds of Mbps


Satellite


Provides wireless broadband to remote areas


500 Kbps (download) & 80 Kbps (upload)


Extreme weather can disrupt service


High
-
speed Internet service via wireless
technology


Radio waves / signals


Speeds roughly equivalent to wired
broadband access


1.5 Mbps data rate




Standard

802.11a

802.11b

802.11g

802.11n

Speed

54Mbps

11Mbps

54Mbps (108)

100Mbps (600Mbps)

Range

150ft

300ft

300ft

300ft

Frequency

5GHz

2.4GHz

2.4GHz

2.4
-
5GHz

Security

SSID, MAC Filtering, WEP, WPA (TKIP), WPA2 (AES)

Compatibility

802.11a

802.11b

802.11g/b

802.11n/g/b

Spread Spectrum
method

DSSS

DSSS

OFDM

OFDM

Mode

Ad Hoc or Infrastructure


WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)


Algorithm used to secure wireless networks


Authentication


Data encryption


WPA (WiFi Protected Access)


Encrypts wireless traffic


Protects against eavesdropping


More secure than WEP


Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol


Retrieve IP address assignments


Configuration information


Client / server architecture


Client broadcast request for configuration info


Server responds from configuration database


Configure DHCP


Add new machines to network


Given unique IP Address


Wireless technology


Exchanges data over short distances


PANs


Uses frequency
-
hopping spread spectrum


Transmits data into chunks


2402
-
2480 MHz range


Communicate with up to 7 devices


Mobile phones, laptops, GPA, digital cameras,
printers, PCs, video game consoles


Network type


DSL, cable, Fiber, etc


Desired speed


Hardware requirements


Network adapters


Connect computers to network to communicate


Hubs & switches


Ethernet


Routers & Access Points


Share single connection between multiple computers


Modems


Send / receive information over telephone & cable


Network Cables


Connect computers & hardware


provides networked computers with the
ability to share a single connection to the
Internet


If you have multiple computers, you can use
ICS to allow you and others on your local area
network (LAN) to perform different tasks
simultaneously


For example, one person can send and
receive e
-
mail messages, while another
person downloads a file, and another person
browses the Internet


Multiple users can gain access to the Internet through a single
connection by using Dial
-
Up Networking and local networking
.


Connected devices receive transparent network configuration
by using Domain Name System (DNS) and Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to resolve Internet
names


Any IP
-
attached device can connect, including older Windows
-
based clients, non
-
Windows
-
based clients, Microsoft Windows
98
-
based clients, and Microsoft Windows 2000
-
based clients,
with no additional client software required
.


Connected devices and software have comprehensive protocol
support. For example, you can play Internet games without
additional configuration, or you can use Point
-
to
-
Point
Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) and Virtual Private Networking (VPN)
to gain access to your corporate network.


DHCP Allocator
-

A simplified DHCP service that assigns
the IP address, gateway, and name server on the local
network
.


DNS Proxy
-

Resolves names on behalf of local network
clients and forwards queries
.


Network Address Translation (NAT)
-

Maps a set of
private addresses to a set of public addresses. NAT
tracks private
-
source IP addresses and public
-
destination IP addresses for outbound flows. It changes
the IP address information and edits the required IP
header information dynamically
.


Auto
-
dial
-

Automatically dials connections
.


Application programming interfaces (APIs)
-

For
configuration, status, and dial control for programs.


Your ICS network is a type of local area
network that relies on a single computer
called a gateway, through which all other
computers and TCP/IP
-
capable devices
connect to the Internet.


The hardware and software needed to set up a home
network includes
:


A
primary computer, called a gateway, that provides
network connectivity to the Internet. This computer must
be running Windows 98 Second Edition, Windows 2000, or
Windows Me with Internet Connection Sharing enabled
.


One
or more computers running Windows 95, Windows 98,
Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, or other TCP
-
IP
enabled client software
.


Devices
that are capable of connecting to the Internet
.


A
network connection device for each
computer


.
Cabling and hubs, depending on the type of connection
devices you use
.


A
single modem (or an ISDN or ADSL line) for the entire
network
.


Internet
browser software and TCP/IP drivers installed on
each device that shares the connection.


You can enable Internet Connection Sharing
by using the Add/Remove Programs tool in
Windows 98 Second Edition or Windows Me
:


Click
Start, point to Settings, click Control Panel,
and then double
-
click Add/Remove Programs
.


On
the Windows Setup tab, double
-
click Internet
Tools
.


Click
to select the Internet Connection Sharing
check box, and then click OK
.


Click
OK, and then follow the instructions on the
screen to run the Internet Connection Sharing
wizard.

Basic tools:


Network
Diagnostics in Help and
Support


Contains
detailed information about the network configuration and
the results of automated tests
.


Network
Connections
folder


Contains
information and configuration for all network connections on
the computer. To locate the Network Connections folder, click Start,
click Control Panel, and then click Network and Internet Connections
.


IPConfig

command


Displays
current TCP/IP network configuration values, updates, or
releases, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) allocated
leases, and display, register, or flush Domain Name System (DNS)
names
.


Ping command


Sends
ICMP Echo Request messages to verify that TCP/IP is configured
correctly and that a TCP/IP host is available.


Make
Sure You Have Correct IP
Information:



Make sure you have the correct IP scheme for your
network. This would include the
:


IP Address


Subnet Mask


Default Gateway


DNS
Servers



IP
Config

Command


Displays current TCP/IP network configuration values,
updates, or releases, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP) allocated leases, and display, register, or flush
Domain Name System (DNS) names
.


FOR: Win9x
-

Start / Run / command;
Windows2000
/XP/Vista
-

Start / Run /
cmd


Then
run IPCONFIG /ALL.





IP
Config

Command




Possible causes for not getting an IP address
assigned are
:


Defective
cable, network card or port on the router.
Make sure you are using all known working
components.


Your
router is not configured for DHCP (which
would automatically be assigning IP addresses)
.


Basic ping tests:


Using the command prompt


Try pinging the router's IP
address


e.g
. ping
192.168.1.1


If
you get a reply, then your connection to the
router is working
.


If
you don't get a reply, then you need to double
check your network card, cable, port on the router.
You might also see if any other computers on the
network can do the same.



Basic ping tests:


Try pinging an external site by IP
address


e.g
. ping
4.2.2.1


If
you get a reply, then you have a connection to
the Internet
.


If
you don't get a reply, there are several things
you can try
:



Double check that the router is connecting to the Internet.
Typically you can access the router through your web
browser and check it's
status.


Take
the power off your DSL/Cable modem and Router.
Plug the modem back in a wait a minute or so. Plug the
router back in and wait a minute or so. Then restart your
computer.



Basic ping tests:


Try pinging an external site by
Name


e.g
.
ping
www.yahoo.com


If
you get a reply, then you have a connection to
the Internet and DNS is
working


If
you don't get a reply, there are several things
you can
try:


Double
check your DNS
entries


You
many need to use the same DNS IP address that
your ISP or Router is
using.


On
rare occasions your ISP has problems with their DNS
servers. But that is rare in comparison to
misconfigured

computers.




Advanced tools:


Hostname
command


Displays
the name of the host computer
.


Nbtstat

command


Displays
the status of current NetBIOS over TCP/IP connections,
updates the NetBIOS name cache, and displays the registered
names and scope ID
.


PathPing

command


Displays
a path of a TCP/IP host and packet losses at each router
along the way
.


Route command


Displays
the IP routing table and adds or deletes IP routes
.


Tracert

command


Displays
the path of a TCP/IP host
.


To
view the correct command syntax to use with each of
these tools, type
-
? at a command prompt after the name
of the tool.

Automated
troubleshooting


For
most issues that involve Internet connectivity,
start by using the Network Diagnostics tool to
identify the source of the issue. To use Network
Diagnostics, follow these steps
:


Click
Start, and then click Help and Support
.


Click
the link to Use Tools to view your computer
information and diagnose problems, and then click
Network Diagnostics in the list on the left
.


When
you click Scan your system, Network Diagnostics
gathers configuration information and performs
automated troubleshooting of the network connection
.


When
the process is completed, look for any items that
are marked "FAILED" in red, expand those categories,
and then view the additional details about what the
testing showed.


Start by rechecking your physical
connections


verify that your client's wireless adapter is installed and working
properly


verify that your wireless router's LAN settings are
correct


verify your client's TCP/IP
settings


Once your client has a valid IP address, use "ping" to verify network
connectivity


If your wireless client still cannot connect, get a valid IP address, or ping
your router, it's time to consider wireless
-
specific
problems


If
a matched wireless client and router can "hear" each other but still
cannot connect or exchange traffic, look for a security
mismatch


Ensure RADIUS is
working


If RADIUS is working but the client's access requests are rejected, look
for an 802.1X Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) or user login
problem


If
your wireless client connects and pings successfully, but encounters
intermittent network connectivity problems (e.g., some pings work,
some fail), you may be experiencing poor signal strength, RF
interference, or disconnection caused by AP roaming.


Microsoft Support


http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314067


http://support.microsoft.com/kb/306126


http://support.microsoft.com/kb/234815


Bob
Cerelli’s

Windows Page


http://www.onecomputerguy.com/networking/troubleshoo
t_internet.htm


Wireless network troubleshooting:
Connectivity By
Lisa
Phifer


http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/news/article/0,28
9142,sid7_gci945257,00.html


Wikipedia


http://www.wikipedia.org


Search Networking.net


http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/


What it is.com


http://whatis.techtarget.com/