IPv6 Survival Kit

reekydizzyNetworking and Communications

Oct 28, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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IPv6 & Packet Tracer

1

Academy Conference 2010

IPv6 Survival Kit

Dr. Jim Bergquist
jbergquist@lcsc.org


Lakes Country Service Cooperative

August 2010


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IPv6 Survival Kit Session Goals


Brief overview of IPv6 topics to build confidence in
configuring IPv6


Explore ways in which IPv4 and IPv6 can coexist on
devices


Use Packet Tracer to build, configure and troubleshoot
a simple IPv6 network


Take away knowledge, tips and resources for
effectively adding IPv6 content to Discovery 4 and
Exploration 4


Provide your students with fun and interesting facts
about this important protocol

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A big “Thank you” to …


Michael McKeever, Computer Networking and Security
Instructor, Santa Rosa Junior College, Petaluma, CA


Dallas
Shiroma
, Manager of Emerging Technologies,
Pacific Center for Advanced Technology Training,
Honolulu, HI


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Visualizing the
IPv6 Address
Space

… and other fun stuff

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Earth drawing credit:
http://flickr.com/photos/ontdesign/

http://search.creativecommons.org/


Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space


Assign one IPv6 address
per grain of sand


How many grains of
sand would be needed to
use all IPv6 addresses?


Fill Earth
-
sized
containers with the sand

128 bit addresses

2
128

is a very large number


Fill here

Hollow

Earth
-
sized

container

Sand

Grain


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Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space

The
filled Earth
-
sized
containers would make 20 circles
around the outer orbit of our solar system (Pluto)


Our Solar
System



Blue dots are
Earth
-

sized
containers

Based on image from
public image gallery at
http://www.eso.org/


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Features Enhanced by IPv6


Address
autoconfiguration

Plug and Play networking with wide variety of devices


Connectivity to roaming mobile devices


Built
-
in Security


Security is easier


Better reliability through
multihoming

hosts


More efficient route aggregation


Simpler packet header


Many devices and apps already support IPv6

See Chapter 7 of Exploration, Accessing the WAN,

Chapter 6 of Discovery, Designing and Supporting Computer Networks

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IPv6
Address Format,
Types and Scopes

Just what we need to know

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IPv6 Address Format


128 bits separated into eight blocks of 16 bits, as hex:

FC00:00D3:0000:2F00:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A


In each 16
-
bit block, leading zeros may be removed:

FC00:
00
D3:
000
0:
000
0:
0
2AA:
00
FF:FE28:9C5A

FC00:D3:
0
:
0
:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A


Adjacent zeroes can be compressed (once):

FC00:D3::2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A


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Prefix Length, Allocation of Bits


Example: 2001:DB8:0:2F00:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A
/64


Prefix length (number of network bits) is 64


Same notation as CIDR in IPv4, no subnet masks


16 subnet bits, (/49 to /64) given to a site


65,535 LANs!


Usually 64 bits are used for hosts in IPv6


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Types of IPv6 Addresses


Unicast

(one to one)


Also:


Multicast (one to many)


Loopback (0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1)


Anycast (one to “nearest,” not widely used)


No broadcasts in IPv6

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Unicast IPv6 Address Scopes


Link
-
local addresses

only on single link, not routed

FE80 prefix


Unique
-
local addresses

routed within private network

FC00 prefix


Global unicast addresses

globally routable

2001 prefix currently being issued

64 bit host portion

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IPv6 Address
Assignment

Often, it does the work for us

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IPv6 Stateless Autoconfiguration


Host automatically configures its own link
-
local
address


With link
-
local address, a host discovers
connected routers to obtain a global prefix


A host then builds its own global unicast address

Static assignments are also possible

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Stateless
Autoconfiguration

Process

Uses MAC Address

00

90

27

FF

FE

17

FC

0F

FF

FE

00

90

27

17

FC

0F

00

90

27

17

FC

0F

000000U0

Where U=

1 = Unique

0 = Not Unique

02

90

27

FF

FE

17

FC

0F

U = 1

48 bit MAC Address

64 bits become part
of IPv6 address

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Router(config)#ipv6 unicast
-
routing

Router(config)#int fa0/1

Router(config
-
if)#ipv6 addr 2001:db8::/64 eui
-
64

Router(config
-
if)#ipv6 enable

Router(config
-
if)#no shut

Stateless Autoconfiguration

Only the network part of the address is supplied

in the
ipv6 address
command

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Stateless Autoconfiguration

Router’s fa0/1 interface generates its link
-
local
address and global unicast address



Router#sho ipv6 int bri

FastEthernet0/0 [administratively down/down]

FastEthernet0/1 [up/up]


FE80::201:42FF:FE44:3C02


2001:DB8::201:42FF:FE44:3C02

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Good Practice in IPv6 Addressing


Hosts should have globally routable addresses created
with stateless autoconfiguration

Use 2001 prefix

Use /64 eui
-
64 to create them


Serial links between routers should
not

use globally
routable addresses

Use FC00 prefix and static addressing

Use a prefix length /64

However, the prefix length could also be, for example, /112

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Good Practice in IPv6 Addressing



Static addresses
between routers

Stateless
autoconfiguration

for
hosts

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Commands for
Students to Compare

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Commands for Students to Compare

show ip interface brief

show ipv6 interface brief

show ip route



show ipv6 route

show ip protocols


show ipv6 protocols




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Ping Command for IPv6


Cisco
routers
, Packet Tracer routers and Packet
Tracer PCs use
ping


Windows XP uses
ping6


Packet Tracer PCs and Windows XP uses
ipv6config




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Configuring

IPv6 RIP


Differs slightly from RIP for IPv4

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Global Commands

Router(
config
)#ipv6 unicast
-
routing


(enable IPv6)

Router(
config
)#ipv6 router rip CIRCUS


(define a routing process called CIRCUS)


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Interface Commands
-

Auto Config

Router(
config
)#
int

fa0/0

Router(
config
-
if)#ipv6 enable

Router(
config
-
if)#ipv6
addr






2001:db8:2:3::/64 eui
-
64

Router(
config
-
if)#ipv6 rip CIRCUS enable

Router(
config
-
if)#no shut



The router is now configured with IPv6 RIP on fa0/0

Repeat for other involved interfaces

Ensure that the PCs are set for Auto
Config

in the
Config

Tab


The IPv4
network

command is not used

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IPv4 and IPv6
Co
-
existence

Configuring Dual Stack

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Dual Stack Example


Dual stack
means configuring IPv4 and IPv6 on router
interfaces and PCs


No special router commands needed

Works on any router that supports IPv6


Main tasks:

Configure IPv4 and IPv6 addresses

on appropriate interfaces

Enable RIP and IPv6 RIP routing protocols (or OSPF and OSPFv3)

Note: The IPv4 and IPv6 routing tables are separate

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PC0 is a Dual Stack Host


Ping from an IPv4 host to PC0

Destination

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PC0 is a Dual Stack Host


Ping from an IPv6 host to PC0

Destination

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IPv4 Routing Table, Router1

Router1#show
ip

route

Codes: C
-

connected, S
-

static, I
-

IGRP, R
-

RIP, …

<output omitted>


Gateway of last resort is not set



R 192.168.2.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.5.2, 00:00:04,
Serial0/0/1

C 192.168.4.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0

C 192.168.5.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1

R 192.168.7.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.4.1, 00:00:05,
Serial0/0/0



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IPv6 Routing Table, Router1

Router1#sho ipv6 route

IPv6 Routing Table
-

6 entries

Codes: C
-

Connected, L
-

Local, S
-

Static, R
-

RIP


C 2001:DB8:0:1::/64 [0/0] via ::,
FastEthernet0/0

L 2001:DB8:0:1:202:16FF:FE53:4601/128 [0/0] via
::, FastEthernet0/0

R 2001:DB8:0:7::/64 [120/1] via
FE80::2D0:BCFF:FEAB:6681, Serial0/0/0

C FC00:0:0:1::/64 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/0/0

L FC00:0:0:1::2/128 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/0/0

L FF00::/8 [0/0] via ::, Null0


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Configuring Dual Stack
-

Lab


Open this lab with Packet Tracer 5.3


Work with a neighbor on questions that arise

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ICMPv6 Packet
Type Numbers


You can look at packet details with Packet
Tracer

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Some ICMPv6 Type Numbers


Router Advertisement

(Neighbor Discovery)
-

134

Specific to IPv6

Sent periodically to neighbors


v6 Echo Request (ping)
-

128

Compare with v4: Type 8


v6 Echo Reply (ping)
-

129

Compare with v4: Type 0

Activity: Use Packet Tracer in Simulation mode

Click a packet to see type number

Type 134

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IPv6 Modeling in
Packet Tracer


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IPv6 Modeling in Packet Tracer


In PT, click Help. In browser, click Modeling, Layer 3 IP


Addressing topics


Click Modeling, Routing


IPv6 routing protocols

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Links to Additional
Information

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Additional Information


“IPv6”
(go to)

General IPv6 information, FAQ, links


go6, (“The IPv6 portal”)
(go to)

Upcoming events, blog, wiki, newsletter, member area


IPv6 Task Force (“The IPv6 Portal”)
(go to)

Introduction, news, pressroom, RSS, IPv6 Guide, and Portal


The IPv6 Forum
(go to)

Events, news, book recommendations, government news,
competitions, and an “IPv4 Exhaustion Counter”!


Portals, Forums, information sites

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Additional Information


IETF RFC repository
(go to)

Find an RFC if you know its number


networksorcery.com list of IPv6 RFCs
(go to)

Excellent searchable list, including obsoleted RFCs


Microsoft IPv6 implementation
(go to)

RFCs used to implement IPv6 in Windows 2003 Server and XP



Useful RFCs and lists

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Additional Information


Introduction to IPv6


Why IPv6?
(go to)

Overview and In
-
depth sections


Cisco IOS IPv6 Command Reference
(go to)

Excellent source for learning and troubleshooting


List of RFCs for IPv6
(go to)

Useful for understanding Cisco IPv6 implementations


A description of
address types


IPv6 Introduction
video podcast

by Darrel Root

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Related
Academy
Conference
Sessions

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Related Academy Conference

Session Material


IPv6 and Packet Tracer, Dr. Jim Bergquist, 2009


Getting Ready for IPv6, Dr. Ron Kovac and graduate
students, 2010


IPv6 Survival Kit, Julian Carranza, 2010


IPv6 Survival Kit, Michael McKeever, 2010


Will include a lab for configuring
NetLabs

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List of Activities in IPv6 and Packet Tracer


Stateless Autoconfiguration

Stateless Autoconfig.pkt

Build an IPv6 EUI
-
64 Address.doc (A separate activity)


IPv6 RIP

IPv6 RIP.pkt


IPv6 OSPF

IPv6 OSPF CCNP Lab 8
-
1.pkt


Comparing ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Packets

Comparing ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Packet types.doc (and answers)

ICMPv4 ICMPv6 packets.pkt


From 2009 conference

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List of Activities in IPv6 and Packet Tracer


Broken Networks

3 Router
-
IPv6 RIP
-
broken1.pkt

IPv6 RIP
-
broken2.pkt


Unconfigured

Network

Unconfigured.pkt

(Configured.pkt included for reference)


Dual Stack

Dual stack
-
both IPv6 and IPv4.pkt


Upgrade IOS for PT 2620XM to support IPv6

Upgrading IOS of Packet Tracer 2620XM router.doc

Upgrading IOS of Packet Tracer 2620XM router_ANSWERS.doc

No pkt file

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Obtaining Conference Materials


Go to
https://cisco.webex.com/meet/kalderso


Click the Files tab


Select the + to expand the “2009USAcadConf” folder, OR


Select the + to expand the “2010USAcadConf” folder

(It will be posted after completion of all conferences)


Download the files you want


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Obtaining Conference Materials


Login

to the 2010 Virtual Academy Conference


In the Resource Room, session materials are posted
for each conference separately


Another method, for 2010 materials

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Topics Not
Covered Here …


… but check the additional resources I’ve referenced

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Topics Covered in Other Resources


Why IPv6, and why not NAT?


Time frame for implementation


Details of the parts of the address


Special addresses


Type and scope of addresses


Details of packet header


Neighbor discovery


See the links to resources and additional information

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Topics Covered in Other Resources


IPv6 ACLs


Security with IPv6


Mobility with IPv6


IPv4 to IPv6 migration: dual stack, tunneling, translation


Current deployment status of IPv6


Some IPv6 sites on internet


Tunneling


See the links to resources and additional information

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Q & A

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FAQ Area

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Where is IPv6 covered in Exploration?


Network Fundamentals

6.3.6


Routing Protocols and Concepts

1.1.3, 3.1.1, 5.1.1, 10.2.3, 11.1.1, 11.7.1


LAN Switching and Wireless

no coverage


Accessing the WAN

7.0.1, 7.3, 7.5.1

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Where is IPv6 covered in Discovery?


Networking for Home and Small Businesses

No coverage


Working at a Small
-
to
-
Medium Business or ISP

4.1.6


Introducing Routing and Switching in the Enterprise

5.2.1


Designing and Supporting Computer Networks

6.3

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What are the “Documentation”
Addresses?


Addresses within 2001:db8::/32 range should be used
only in examples given in documentation for networking
scenarios or tutorials

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Does BGP Support IPv6?


The current version of BGP is BGP4


BGP4 does support IPv6


See
http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft
-
ietf
-
idr
-
bgp4
-
ipv6
-
01

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What IOS do I need to run IPv6?


You need 12.0(21)T, or later, or 12.2(2)T or later


To find out when a command was introduced, see the
Cisco IOS IPv6 Command Reference
(go to)
. Locate the
command. The listing will show when it was introduced


Also see Cisco IOS Software Release Specifics for IPv6
Features
(go to)


The Packet Tracer 2620XM router does not support IPv6
unless you upgrade the IOS image

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How many IPv6 addresses can I
configure?

Router#show run
(part of output)



interface FastEthernet0/0


ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0


duplex auto


speed auto


ipv6 address 2001:1:1::/64 eui
-
64


ipv6 address 2001:DB8:2::1/112


ipv6 address FC00:1:3::1/112


ipv6 address FC00:1:4::1/112

Example, of IPv4 address and four IPv6 addresses, in
addition to link
-
local address (not shown
)

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