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Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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Interaction Design

HCI @ CMU

Today’s objectives


Continue Design approaches (UCD, ACD)


User
-
Centered Design


Activity
-
Centered Design


The process of
interaction design

Video:

Tim Mott
-

watching users

Paul Bradley
-

model building, user testing for the mouse

Four threads of technical
development

1) Prototyping and Iterative Development

3) Software Psychology and Human Factors

2) New User Interface Software

4) Models, Theories, and Frameworks

Software crisis in the 60’s…

Requirement

Definition

System &

Software Design

Implementation

Unit Testing

Integration &

System Testing

Operation &

Maintenance

Waterfall Life Cycle Model

User

involvement



Sequential phases



Each phase complete before the next

Iterative design process

User Testing

Design

Prototyping



Involve users throughout the process



Process is highly iterative

From linear to iterative processes

Approaches to IxD

General Approaches in IxD

1.
Focus on users

2.
Find alternatives

3.
Use ideation and prototyping

4.
Collaborate and address constraints

5.
Create appropriate solutions

6.
Draw on a wide range of influences

7.
Incorporate emotion

Four main approaches to working
on interaction design projects


User
-
centered design (UCD)


Activity
-
centered design


Systems design


Genius design

User
-
Centered Design Process

1.
Identifying needs

2.
Establish

requirements

3.
Develop

alternative designs

to meet needs

4.
Build

prototypes

that can be communicated
and assessed

5.
Evaluate

-

throughout process evaluate what is
being built and user experience it offers

UCD : Designer Roles


Involve users

in every stage of project.


Consult users

at start to see if project addresses
needs.


Conduct extensive research

to determine user
goals.


Ideation
, users brought in to help generate
concepts
-

known as
Participatory design
.


Evaluate and test

prototypes with users.


User
-
Centered Design


Premise of UCD:



Users know best.



Users of product or service know what their
needs, goals, and preferences are.



Designers must find those things and design
for them.


UCD : Designer Roles


Designers facilitate achievement

of users' goals.


Participation from users at every stage process,
ideally.


Designers try to fit
products to people
,
not people
to products
.


People must adapt to or
accommodate the design.


Source: http://www.baddesigns.com/

Wait to see where people
walked


paths formed


Fit products to people
instead people to products.

Wait to see where people
walked


paths formed


Fit products to people
instead people to products.

UCD : Designer Roles


UCD is best at getting
designers to move
away from their own preferences


… and to focus on user preferences
.


UCD @ IBM

IBM | User
-
Centered Design
principles

1.
Set business goals


Determine market, users, and competition.


2.
Understand users

3.
Assess competitiveness


Ongoing awareness of competition
.

4.
Design total user experience (UX)


Everything a user sees and touches

5.
Evaluate designs

6.
Manage by
continual user observation



Source:
http://www
-
01.ibm.com/software/ucd/design.html


IBM | User
-
Centered Design
process

1.
Market definition


Define the target audience…

2.
Task analysis


Understand the users' goals and tasks…

3.
Competitive evaluation


Determine strengths and weaknesses of competition.

4.
Design and walk
-
through


Create alternative proposed solutions, solicit feedback…

5.
Evaluation and validation


User feedback on the evolving design and iterate design…

6.
Benchmark assessment



Benchmark assessment against competition…



Source:
http://www
-
01.ibm.com/software/ucd/design.html

Activity Centered
Design

Activity
-
Centered Design


Roots in Activity theory

-

when people
interact with environment,
production of
tools results
.


Tools are "exteriorized" forms of mental
processes.


Activity
-
Centered Design


Decision
-
making and
internal mental state

of user
de
-
emphasized
.



What people do

and
tools

they create are
most important


not user
.



I want to be
able to…

Activity
-
Centered Design


ACD allows
designers to focus on the
work

at hand and create support for
activity itself.


Activity
-
Centered Design


Suited for:



complicated actions



products with many diverse users.


Activity
-
Centered Design


Focused not necessarily on user’s goals
but on actions and decisions, known as
tasks
.





Here, task is most important, not user
goals.



Looking for most efficient and
effective way to complete task.



Many different people may be in this
job.


Activity
-
Centered Design


Like UCD,
ACD relies on research

as the
basis for its insights.



Observe

and
interview

users for insight about
behavior.



Catalog users activities and
tasks
, and design solutions
to help users accomplish
tasks.


An Agile Approach
to User Experience
and Design

Agile Manifesto


Uncovering better ways of developing software
by doing it and helping others do it. Through this
work we have come to value:



Individuals and interactions over processes and tools


Working software over comprehensive documentation


Customer collaboration over contract negotiation


Responding to change over following a plan

http://agilemanifesto.org/

Agile @ IBM

http://www
-
01.ibm.com/software/ucd/agileuxd.html

1. Incorporating continuous user
feedback


All stakeholders (principals, users,
partners/deployers, and developers) should be
an integral part of the design and development
team.

2) Working across multiple
iterations


User research and high
-
level design

before code
development, even though design will change over
iterations.



User research and design

for a specific iteration should
precede the actual code development for that release.



Usability evaluations with live code after the milestone is
made available to users.



3) Understanding your
stakeholders


User research should include


a definition of the roles,


personas,


goals,


tasks,


environment of use, and


limitations and constraints.



Use cases and user stories should be used to
describe the overall value of the product.


4) Designing the user experience


Use
high
-
fidelity prototyping

for user interactions that are difficult to
code (to eliminate waste).



Get iterative user feedback on designs prior to code

development to
ensure development time is well spent.



Product builds

can also be used
for early user feedback

and
evaluation.



Design

must be
communicated

to the development team.



Design changes

should be
communicated

through daily meetings.