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San Diego Regional CATESOL
Conference


ESL Digital Storytelling

1

Empowering Students

Through Digital Storytelling

San Diego Regional CATESOL Conference

October 2009

Presenters:

Ruth Gay rgay@miracosta.edu

Elizabeth Clarke rclarke@miracosta.edu

Kristi Reyes kreyes@miracosta.edu
















San Diego Regional CATESOL
Conference


ESL Digital Storytelling

2

What are digital stories?



Digital stories are multi
-
media projects that combine images and/or video with audio
recordings (voice
-
over narration) and/or music and sound effects and can be used
across the curriculum.





Some common types of digital stories:

personal stories of recover
y, loss,
accomplishment, immigration; adventure stories; tribute/memorial stories; character
stories; work stories; stories about a place; love stories; discovery stories
(adapted from
the following source:
http://
www.storycenter.org/memvoice/pages/cookbook.html
)


Why have students do digital story projects?



Digital stories have several educational benefits. They p
rovide opportun
i
ties for
students to practice and enha
nce their skills in writing, vi
s
u
al and media literacy, and
technology.



Digital story projects are motivational and engaging, sometimes therapeutic



The projects give students chances to express themsel
ves creatively (telling their own
stories, creating or selecting images and music).



Students learn 21
st

Century Skills: time management, self
-
direction,
teamwork/collaboration, problem solving.
(adapted from

The Art of Digital Storytelling
ebook
http://www.ebookhost.net/tldmc2/ebook.html
)

Ten Steps of Making Digital Stories


Step 1. Choose a topic



It is helpful for students to understand what digital stories are by exploring online digital
stories. Instructors can find and show in class a variety of different types.



Some sites with digital stories online are the following:



Stories for Change
http://storiesforchange.net/



National Storytelling Network
http://www.storynet.org/



DigiTales
http://www.digitales.us/



Power of Word Digital Stories
http://www.davarts.org/art_storiesB.html



KQED Digital Storytelling Initiative
http://www.dsi.kqed.org/



One World Journeys
http://www.oneworldjourneys.com/



Center f
or Digital Storytelling
http://www.storycenter.org/



Creative Narrations Projects
http://www.creativenarrations.net/site/projects.html



The Art o
f Digital Storytelling ebook
http://www.ebookhost.net/tldmc2/ebook.html



To see ESL
-
specific digital stories, see:



Rhodes Elementary School, Texas
http://www.nisd.net/rhodes/ELVIS.html

(teacher and elementary
-
school ELL’s digital stories)



MiraCosta College Noncredit ESL Digital Storytelling Class Blog
mccdigitalstory.blogspot.com/




English Language Center, LaGuardia Community College
http://faculty.lagcc.cuny.edu/eiannotti/



San Diego Regional CATESOL
Conference


ESL Digital Storytelling

3



Instructors can assign a topic or let students choose their own. The best digital stories
are typicall
y written in 1
st

person (I, me) point of view.



For an extensive list of potential topics, see
http://mccdigitalstory.blogspot.com/2007/12/ideas
-
for
-
digital
-
stories.h
tml

or
http://snipurl.com/digistoryideas

Step 2. Write a script



First, instructors may need to point out the differences between a paragraph (at lower
language levels) or essay (for adult / higher level stu
dents) and a script (which is meant
to be read aloud)



If possible, show a digital story with its transcribed script.



Most scripts are only one page typed double
-
spaced, and most digital stories are only a
maximum of three minutes long when narrated (it is
a good idea to set these limitations
in order to keep the project manageable and ensure students finish within the term, but
of course it will depend on the course and time available).



Teach the writing process: provide feedback on content first, and then

mechanics
(grammar, spelling, punctuat
ion) in subsequent drafts of th
e script.



To save time, it is often helpful to use a checklist (student self
-
checklist or for instructor
feedback checklist) or rubric or peer review (for higher levels), especially for
commenting on the initial drafts of the script.
Sample script feedback checklist for peer
or instructor review:

Script Feedback:

1.

The point of the story



What is the problem/conflict/tension?



How does the writer feel about this story? Why is this story
important to him / her?



What part do you like?



Is there anything you don’t understand?



What is not clear to you?



What do you want to know more about?

2.


Story Flow / Organization



Does the story have a beginning?



Does it have a middle?



Does it have an end?



Do
es it move along?

3.


Economy



Is the story 1


1/12 pages?



What can be said with images instead of with words?

San Diego Regional CATESOL
Conference


ESL Digital Storytelling

4

4.


Visuals:
What are 3


5 images that come to mind as you read the script?

5.

Audio / Soundtrack:
What music or sound effects came to mind as you read

the
script?


Step 3. Practice read
-
alouds (with instructor, in pairs, or in small groups)



The instructor should provide feedback on pronunciation, intonation, stress, volume, the
need for pauses, etc.



The instructor should stress that the “art” of storytelling is to use one’s voice effectively.
This can be accomplished by showing or reading good and bad samples (for example,
reading a script about an emotional topic in a monotone voice and then re
-
read
ing it
with pauses, stress, volume, pitch that suits the treatment of the topic).

Step 4. Make a storyboard



A storyboard is an initial plan for the digital story that helps digital storytellers save time
when searching for / creating images and soundtrac
k (audio sound effects, music) and
helps to visualize the story elements. At this point, instructors may want to discuss
symbolism and how certain images can symbolize the emotions, moods, and
atmospheres in stories. For example, an image of a dark, cloud
y day can symbolize
sadness or gloom.



See sample storyboard form downloaded during workshop

(modified from the original,
courtesy of Penny Pearson, OTAN).

Step 5. Record voice
-
over narration



Programs such as Windows Movie Maker and PhotoStory have built
-
i
n recording
functions, as does PowerPoint.



Audacity (
www.audacity.sourcforege.net
) is a free, useful option that can be
downloaded. This is an example of a program that should be used if the soundtrack
will
be complex (with voice
-
over combined with multiple music and sound effects tracks).
The tracks can be edited, saved, and exported into a single audio file (.wav) that can be
inserted into PowerPoint slides and imported into programs often used for di
gital
storytelling, such as Movie Maker.



Audacity manuals and online video tutorials:



Audacity Manual:

http://audacity.sourceforge.net/manual
-
1.2/



Audacity Tutorial:

http://www.edhsonline.org/other/audacity/




Teacher Tube Videos Related to Audacity and Sound Recording/Editing:
http://www.teachertube
.com/search_result.php?search_id=audacity




If Audacity or a similar audio editing program is used, music and sound effects can be
added in. See handout for how to rip music from a CD. Sources for music and sound
effects downloads (many are free and co
pyright free):


San Diego Regional CATESOL
Conference


ESL Digital Storytelling

5



A1 Free Sound Effects

http://www.a1freesoundeffects.com/



Absolute Sound Effects Archive
http://www.grsites.com/sounds/




ArtistServer http:
//www.artistserver.com/music.cfm




CC Hits
http://cchits.ning.com/hits/




ccMixter

http://ccmixter.org/



ccMixter
http://www.ccmixter.org/




Findsounds

http://www.findsounds.com/



Foxtunes

http://www.foxtunes.com/



Free Loops
http://free
-
loops.com/free
-
loops.php




Free Music

http://freemusic.com/



Free Music Project
http://freemusic.freeculture.org/




Free Sound Project
http://www.freesound.org/searchText.php




Freeplay Music
http://freeplaymusic.com/



Funky Remixes
http://funkyremixes.com/




iBeat
http://ibeat.org/




incompetech
http://incompetech.com/




Internet Archive
http://www.archive.org/details/audi o




Jamendo
http://www.jamendo.com/




JamStudio
-

make your own music online

http://www.jamstudio.com/Studio/index.htm



Kitzu
www.kitzu.org



Many .wav Sound Files

http://www.externalharddri ve.com/waves/waves.html



Mp3.com
http://www.mp3.com/free
-
music/free
-
mp3s



Mutopia
http://www.ibiblio.org/mutopia



Open Music Archive
http://w
ww.openmusicarchive.org/index.php




Opsound
http://www.opsound.org/opsound.html




Partners in Rhyme Free Sound Effects

http://www.partnersinrhyme.com/pir/PIRsfx.shtml



Partners in Rhyme

http://www.partnersinrhyme.com/



Podsafe Audio
http://www.podsafeaudi o.com/




Public Domain Music
http://www.pdinfo.com/




Sample Net
http://www.samplenet.co.uk/




SimplytheBest Free Sounds

http://simplythebest.net/sounds/



So
undsnap
http://www.soundsnap.com/




Soungle
http://www.soungle.com/




TheFreeSite
http://www.thefreesite.com/Free_Sounds/Free_WAVs/



WavCentral
http://freeplaymusic.com/



WebPlaces
www.webplaces.com/html/sounds.htm


S
tep 6. Compile images



S
tudents should be encouraged to use original artwork (paintings, drawings, sketches).



If possible, students can take digital photos and download to a computer.



Images can be edited with photo editing programs, such as the following:



Photoshop, if available

and if digital storytellers have experience using the
program.



PowerPoint has very basic tools for editing (cropping, increasing
brightness) images and adding effects (see 2007 version)



Picasa is a free Go
ogle download for photo editing.
To download Picas
a,
go to

http://picasa.google.com/download/
.
See the Picasa video tutorial
can be viewed at
http://www.ewi za.com/misc/picasa
-
video
-
tutorial.html

San Diego Regional CATESOL
Conference


ESL Digital Storytelling

6



There are several
online photo editing

and altering (special effects) sites
with no download required, but registration is required with some sites.
Some of these are the following:



Adobe Photoshop Expr
ess
https://www.photoshop.com/express/landing.html



Be Funky
http://www.befunky.com/



FotoFlexer

http://fotoflexer.c
om/



Graphita
http://www.graphita.com/



Phixr

http://www.phixr.com/



Picnik

http://www.picnik.com/



Pixenate

http://pixenate.com/



Students can scan old (not digital) photos.



Or the Internet can be used to find images.



Sources
(many are free and copyright free; if not designated as copyright
-
free,
students can use images only for

classroom presentation


permission should be
obtained when using copyright images in digital stories that will be posted online,
in order to avoid copyright infringement):



Animation Station

http://animationsta
tion.com/



Art Images for College Teaching (Royalty Free
)
http://www.arthist.umn.edu/aict/html/



Background City

http://backgroundcity.com/



Copyrightfreephotos.c
om

http://www.copyrightfreephotos.com/




Flickr

http://www.flickr.com/



Flickr Storm

http://www.zoo
-
m.com/flickr
-
sto
rm/




Free Digital Photos

http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/



Free Graphics

http://freegraphics.com/



Free Range Stock Photos
http://www.freerangestock.com/



FreeFoto
http://www.freefoto.com/




FreeStockPhotos
http://freestockphotos.com/




Fresher Image
http://fresherimage.com/



Google Images

http://images.google.com/



More Free Photos
http://karenswhimsy.com/public
-
domain
-
images/



Morguefile
http://www.morguefile.com




Nations Illustrated

http://www.nationsillustrated.com/




Open Photo Project
http://openphoto.net/




PD Photo
http://pdphoto.org/




Photogen free photos

http://www.photogen.com/



Pics4Learning

http://www.pics4learning.com/



Pixel Perfect Digital
http://www.pixelperfectdigital.com/free_stock_photos/




Public Domain Photos
http://www.public
-
domain
-
photos.com/




Public Domain Pictures

http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/



Smithsonian Images

http://smithsonianimages.si.edu/siphoto/siphoto.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=home




Snap
-
shot.com

http://snap
-
shot.com/



stock.xchnge free stock photos

http://www.sxc.hu/



The Royalty Free Clip Art Collection For Foreign/Second Language Instruction

http://tell.fll.purdue.edu/JapanProj/FLClipart/



The University of
Victoria Teaching Clipart Gallery

http://hcmc.uvic.ca/clipart/


San Diego Regional CATESOL
Conference


ESL Digital Storytelling

7



World Images
http://worldart.sjsu.edu/




YotoPhoto
http://yotophoto.
com/


Step 7. Use a computer program to digitize the project



There are several free programs for making digital stories. The following is a list of
options:



PowerPoint presentation with slides narrated (choose the record narration option)



Windows Movie Maker (comes standard on PCs with Windows operating systems)
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/moviemaker/default.mspx



Microsoft PhotoStory

(download for PCs)
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/digitalphotography/PhotoStory/default.mspx




Apple iLife (includes iMovie and GarageBand, comes
standard on Apple computers)
http://www.apple.com/ilife/



Online tools such as J
aycut

http://
jaycut.com
,
VoiceThread
http://voicethre
ad.com/

,
Bubbleshare slideshows
http://www.bubbleshare.com/

, Slide
http://www.slide.com/
,

Muveemix
http://www.muveemix.com/
,
Bubblr

http://www.pimpampum.net/bubblr/
,
Glogster
http://www.glogster.com/

, and many more. See CogDogRoo Wiki on “50+
Web 2.0 Ways to Tell a Story” at
http://cogdogroo.wikispaces.com/50+Ways

for a list of
numerous tools for making digital stories.



Some other options (not free):



Adobe Premiere
http://www
.adobe.com/products/premiere/index.html



Final Cut Pro (Apple)
http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/finalcutpro/



Pinnacle Studio (PCs)
http://www.pinnaclesys.com/ProductPage_n.asp?Product_ID=1501&Langue_ID=7

Step 8. Add titles, credits, special effects, and transitions (as the program used allows)
and s
ynchronize audio with images

* In Windows Movie Maker as well as other video editing software programs, this is the
most time
-
consuming step, if audio is imported.








San Diego Regional CATESOL
Conference


ESL Digital Storytelling

8



Step 9. View “rough cuts” and provide feedback



Use a checklist or form to provide feedback as a whole class, for peer feedback, or one
-
on
-
one instructor to student feedback.
Sample:

Team Rough
-
Cut Feedback Form

1.

Does the story grab and keep your attention? If so, how?


2.


What is the message or theme of

the story?


3.


What is the best part of the story? (the story itself, images, voice
-
over, soundtrack,
special effects such as transitions and video effects)


4.

What is something that could be better or that is missing? Be specific about images,
colors, titles

and credits, effects, voice
-
over, sound track…





Feedback sessions should be followed with further revisions, editing.




Step 10: Final saving, rendering, publishing (burning digital story to a CD or DVD or
posting online with students’ permission), vie
wing, celebrating (voting for best digital
stories in such categories as best technical, best story, best overall digital story, etc.),
and evaluating projects














San Diego Regional CATESOL
Conference


ESL Digital Storytelling

9






Sample rubric for evaluating student digital story projects:

Rubric for Digital
Story Assessment

Digital Story
Element

1 point

2 points

3 points

Story

Relevance

Not an interesting story
or incomplete story or
not student’s own story;
confusing

Not completely clear
how the story is
personal or has
importance to the
storyteller; some

parts
unclear

Compelling, dramatic
story

Vocabulary

Much repetition of
words or use of
inappropriate
vocabulary

Some repetition of
words and some
inappropriate
vocabulary

Appropriate and varied
vocabulary

Length

Too short or too long

Just a little
shorter or
longer than it should be

Treatment of the topic is
the right length

Revision / editing

No or few revisions;
story shows no change
or improvement from
first draft

Some revisions; some
errors corrected; story
improved somewhat

Story revised; erro
rs in
grammar, spelling were
corrected; story
improved significantly

Visuals

Images

Choice and number of
images is inadequate or
inappropriate; images of
too poor quality

Choice and number of
images is adequate but
some images are
inappropriate, of poor
quality, or do not
enhance the story

Images effectively
support and enhance
the story

Titles and Credits

Two or more mistakes
or serious spelling and
grammar errors

Most titles and credits
are accurate but there is
one mistake

All titles and credits are
a
ccurate, appropriate,
and enhance the digital
story

Audio

Voice
-
Over Narration:
Use of voice (pacing,
intonation, stress)

Does not use voice
effectively to tell the
story; pacing too fast or
too slow

Uses voice somewhat
well to tell the story;
pacing
OK

Effective use of voicing
enhances the story;
pacing enhances the
tone of the story

Voice
-
Over Narration:

Fluency, pronunciation

Frequent pronunciation
errors that affect
comprehension; influent
speaking

A few pronunciation
errors, some hesitations
that

make it sound as if
reading

Good pronunciation and
fluent speaking, no
hesitations

Soundtrack

No soundtrack or
completely
inappropriate

Soundtrack OK but may
not fit the story

Soundtrack reflects the
story and enhances it

Production

Transitions,
effects,
synchronizing audio and
images/titles

No transitions or special
effects; most of the
story is text; images and
A few transitions and
special effects; images
and audio out of synch
Mix and trans
itions and
special effects enhance
the story; images and
San Diego Regional CATESOL
Conference


ESL Digital Storytelling

10

audio out of synch; story
not finished

in some places

audio meld together
seamlessly

Points: _______/ 30 points possible = ______ %

Comments:



If digital stories are burned to a CD, they can be viewed on most computers. If they are
burned to a DVD, th
ey may also be viewed on televisions when played in a DVD player.
Another option for publishing and sharing students’ work is to upload the digital stories
to a class blog or website. There are also many sites that allow free video uploading.
Some allow
registered users to choose private or publish postings. Of course, students
should fill out release forms if the instructor uploads their work to the Internet.





This is a list of some of the most popular (free) video sharing sites:


Blip.tv
http://blip.tv/

Crackle

http://crackle.com/index.aspx

Daily Motion
http://www.dailymotion.com

DropShots

http://www.dropshots.com/


Freevlog

http://www.freevlog.org/index.php/category/tutorial/

(set up a video blog)

Google Video

http://video.google.com/

Internet Archive
http://www.archive.org

MetaTube

http://www.metatube.com/

Odeo
http://odeo.com

OurMed
ia
http://www.ourmedia.com

Photobucket
http://photobucket.com/


Revver

http://revver.com/

School tube
http://www.schooltube.com/

TeacherTube
http://www.teachertube.com/

TinyPic

http://tinypic.com/

Viddler

http://www.viddler.com/

Yahoo! Video
http://video.yahoo.com/

YouTube
http://www.schooltube.com/

ZippyVideos
http://www.zippyvideos.com/




If PowerPoint is

used for digital stories, PowerPoint slideshows can be uploaded
to the web for sharing with these sites (registration required). With these sites,
users are provided an embed (html) code, so that the PowerPoint slideshow can
be embedded on a class Web si
te or blog.


AuthorStream

http://www.authorstream.com/

Myplick

http://www.myplick.com/

Scribd

http://www.scribd.com/




PowerPoint slideshows can also be uploaded to YouTube. See the following
tutorials:

San Diego Regional CATESOL
Conference


ESL Digital Storytelling

11

Video tutorial on YouTube

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mUcZG38_hoI

Slideshare video tutorial

http://www.slideshare.net/gaochuhan/how
-
to
-
upload
-
powerpoint
-
to
-
you
-
tube/



Other Useful Resources:

PhotoStory Tutorial

http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/digitalphotography/photostory/tips/firststory.mspx

Kodak Photo Tips

http://www.kodak.com/eknec/PageQuerier.jhtml?pq
-
path=39&pq
-
locale=en_US&_requestid=856


Microsoft Digital Photography Tips

http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/digitalphotography/learnmore/composition.mspx


Photography Tips

http://www.photographytips.com/

Windows Movie Maker Tutorials

Windows Tutorial

http://www.microsoft.com/windows/products/windowsxp/default.mspx

Atomic Learning Tutorials
http://www.atomiclearning.com/moviemaker2


Adobe P
remiere Elements Tutorials
http://www.mediacollege.com/adobe/premiere/pro/

,
http://www.techtutorials.info/adpremier.html

,
http://www.wrigleyvideo.com/videotutorial/tutorials.htm

Everyone Has a Story to Tell
http://visalia.k12.ca.us/
teachers/mblanton/techcoach/photostory/

Techlearning article on Digital Storytelling
http://techlearning.com/story/showArticle.php?articleID=196605451&page=1

The Art o
f Digital Storytelling ebook
http://www.ebookhost.net/tldmc2/ebook.html

Edutupia Article: “How to Use Digital Storytelling in the Classroom”
http://www.edutopia.org/use
-
digital
-
storytelling
-
classroom

Tech Head Digital Storytelling Links
http://tech
-
head.com/dstory.htm

Digital Storytelling Resources for Teachers
http://www.techteachers.com/digitalstorytelling.htm

Electronic Portfolios (many useful links)
http://electronicportfolios.org/digis
tory/