《Service robots》Chapter 5

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Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Chapter 5 Military Robots


5.1 Overview

5.2 Robotic Vehicles

5.2.1 Remote
-
Controlled Vehicles

5.2.2 Autonomous Vehicles

5.3 Robot Soldiers

5.4 Reconnaissance Robots

5.5 Support Robots

5.6 Robot Wars


The wars in 21th century
will be

high
-
tech wars, the battlefield commanders
and technical staffs will compose a small number of headquarters, the external
troops are constituted by the robots and
the computer
information systems. The
battle between the two sides is three
-
dimensional (land, sea, air) robot
ic

wars, the
military fight each other will be the robots or the robot army corps. The military
robots consist of ground military robots, underwater military robots, and space
military robots.



The military robots are scheduled to complete tactical or strategic tasks as
the goal,
the
intelligent information processing and communication technology
is

the core of the military robots. The current military robots are mostly remote and
semi
-
autonomous control, and its relatively low intelligence and
low
autonomy,
which
also is
a bottleneck factor for actual use of the military robots. From the
view point of U.S. military robots in Iraq battlefield, although the military robots
can find

the enemy area, the different communication ways between people and
the military robots as well as among military robots remain
very
difficult.


T
he benefits of the military robots
are: firstly, they
can replace the human
soldiers to complete the dangous tasks; Second, because the various harsh
environments greatly exceed the human

s capacity, so the military robots can
accomplish many tasks that human soldiers could not do;

5.1 Overview



In addition, the future battlefields will appear more and more new weapons with
mass destruction, the human soldiers to survive in such conditions are very
difficult, so a lot of use of the military robots will be a trend; Finally, since the
military robots is set by the planning actions, they may take some suicidal actions
or behaviors in order to win the war, it will fearlessly take on combat missions by
self
-
sacrifice. Therefore, the military strategists generally agreed that the military
robots will play an increasingly important role in the future battlefield
s
. Especially
with the computer technology, integrated circuits, artificial intelligence, machine
vision, sensor technology, the rapid development of the military robots will have
more combat functions, and now many countries, especially the developed
countries have invested heavily in research and development of the military robots.




From the current perspective of the military robot developments, the
countries are struggling to develop highly intelligent and autonomous military
robots. U.S. remains dominance in the military robot research field, the wide
applications of the military robots from the sky to the ground and then to the water,
can be described as ubiquitous. As the robot soldiers will not hungry, not be afraid,
do not forget the orders, they may be more excellent than the human soldiers. USA
Government believes that the robot soldiers will become the main force of the U.S.
military in 10 years. At first, the robot soldiers used are semi
-
autonomous (ie,
remote
-
control
led
), and gradually through continuous improvement, they will be
able to fully self
-
contained, and they will more strong than the human soldiers to
observe, think, react and act.


Robotic vehicles (unmanned vehicles) are used to complete a variety of military tasks.
Their action mechanism can be divided into 3 types (wheeled, tracked
,

walk); their control
methods can be divided into remote
-
control
led

vehicles and autonomous (divided into semi
-
autonomous, fully autonomous) vehicles and other types. The involved technology of the
r
obotic vehicles
is

quite extensive, it mainly includes following subsystems:



propulsion subsystem. Including the power, the operational agencies and the ground
-
based
navigation systems. The propulsion subsystem needs light weight, large torque and flexible
operation.
The a
ction agencies are mostly wheeled or tracked;



sensing subsystem. It is equivalent to the human

s senses, is responsible for collecting the
required environmental information, the key technology is the vision sensors, such as high
-
resolution stereo camera
s
, millimeter
-
wave radar
s
, board sensors and distance sensors,
proximity sensors, temperature sensors, inertial reference sensors, alarms, etc.;



information processing/control subsystem. The subsystem with high speed PC, mainly to
extract key information, recognize and judge the images, create a task model that enables the
robotic vehicles to complete certain specific tasks;



communication subsystem. Mainly to complete the states of the robotic vehicles and the
information transmission between the console
s
, so that the vehicle operator
s

can remotely
control the robotic vehicles;



execution/output mechanism. It is used to accurately complete some action
s

and specific
tasks, such as the operating arm, a variety of weapon systems, a variety of specific tasks. If a
robot
ic

vehicle installs the missile system for anti
-
tank in
its

combat platform, it can complete
shooting tank action;



other subsystems.
The
other
s
ubsystem and special weapons such as the protection
subsystem. According to the task needs, it can selete and install machine guns and other light
weapons, anti
-
tank missiles and other heavy weapons.

5.2 Robotic Vehicles



A

robotic vehicle
can be
remotely control by an operator to complete
various operation. The remote
-
controlled robotic vehicle
are
similar to the
conventional remote control of a car, but the techniques are more complex. By
remote control, the operator
s

can also carry out monitoring operation by video
image. Remote
-
controlled vehicles are mainly divided into two parts: the robot
work space and the operator operating space, and the remote
-
control vehicle can
be also divided into two types: fixed and mobile. The remote
-
controlled robotic
vehicles are widely applied to various not easy to reach or inaccessible work in
hazardous environments.



The robotic vehicle may remotely control its manipulator installed in the
vehicle, through the selected remote control mode. Early simple remote
-
control
led

vehicles, such as Germany "Goliath" is only a vehicle which
transports
the
explosives to the destination, but also a vehicle which can be used
to destroy fortifications. Germany produced a total of more than 7000 vehicles in
1942 to 1945, used in France and the Soviet Union and other battlefield. Later,
Germany has developed a more advanced BIV robot
ic

vehicle, it can throw out
the explosives to the destination by radio control, so to overcome the
shortcomings of the cable control.



5.2.1 Remote
-
Controlled Robotic Vehicles










To solve the vehicle control problems beyond the operator

s sight, the vehicle
is equipped with a stereo camera in recent years, the operator can observe the
monitor to control the vehicle. Currently the fiber optical control is most widely
used, fiber optic light weight (2 kg/1000m) which has low signal attenuation and
high
confidentiality, and can transmit more information. The distance of fiber optic
remote control, such as the remote control distance of USA

commandos


robot
ic

vehicle is up to 10 km. To enable
the
fiber optical control and
the
radio
control mutually reinforcing, some remote
-
control
led

vehicle is controlled by a
combination of both methods. Such as the U.S. Army

s ROBAT
vehicle

is
dominated by radio control and fiber optic control. In the current technology level,
the remote
-
control
led

vehicle development is easy success, short cycle, low cost.

5.2.2 Autonomous Robotic Vehicles


Autonomous robotic vehicles are different from the vehicles
,

which do not
require operators, but rely on their own to complete the scheduled tasks, the main
feature is the use of many advanced and reliable sensors and high
-
speed
computer, it requires sophisticated artificial intelligence technology and expert
system program. When traveling on the ground to choose the best route and
terrain to reach the destination. The navigation of autonomous vehicle requires
high
-
speed computers, and its observation system needs to have a high level of
image recognition capabilities.






While the development of the autonomous vehicles is direction, but the developed
autonomous vehicles failed to meet practical requirements, most of them are semi
-
autonomous. Such as the U.S. Army

s PROWLER 60 series autonomous vehicle only can
patrols along the border. In 1984, the United States developed the first autonomous vehicle,
it c
ould

only
drive on the road. In 1992, an autonomous vehicle with a speed of 75
kilometers has been developed. Although there are still many unresolved technical
problems, but the development of the autonomous vehicles greatly promoted the
development of robotic vehicles. In order to improve the level of
the
robot
ic

vehicles, USA
DARPA has started

an

autonomous vehicle research plan. The plan is actually to develop a
robotic vehicle platform for demonstrating the latest achievements. The platform includes
video systems, new computer
s
, planning systems, and microelectronic devices.

ROBAT vehicle PROWLER vehicle Commandos vehicle

Robotic vehicle to participate in the contest

Figure 5.1 a variety of ground military robots


Carrying a variety of weapons and ammunition and equipment, a remote
-
control
led

vehicle or autonomous vehicle is
called
a robot soldier. Currently a large number of
different robot soldiers have emerged, some of the robot soldiers have highly intelligence
and flexiblity, the robot soldiers widely used are shown in Figure 5.2. Currently robot
soldiers primarily as a weapon of war and the protection of the weapons. In
the
harsh
environments, the capacity of the robot soldiers greatly exceeds the manned system, and
can perform many tasks that the manned systems could not do, such as
the
robot soldiers
can work in the nuclear wars and the biochemical conditions.




Robot soldiers can be divided according to their function
,

reconnaissance robots,
combat robots, anti
-
tank robots, as well as support robots. As computing technology,
control technology, optical technology and communication technology improve and
progress, the robot soldiers are moving to a higher level of development. Experts believe
that the U.S. military robot soldiers entered the practical stage is not a problem, the next
task is to make this particular military means more economical, more cheaply.




Experts believe that the robot soldiers
can

prevent more human soldiers sacrifice, it
can maintains world peace and human security as the heroic warriors. When the robot
soldiers run to the battlefield, it will dramatically change the local war manifestations;
Together with other information system

s applications, the robot soldiers are either macro
or micro reflect the intelligent features in the future battlefields .

5.3 Robot Soldiers





Inspectors Gladiator automatic loading robot "Sword" robot





U.S. soldiers and claws robot claws robot French SYRANO German BASE 10


American Airlines and U.S. Army Grumman jointly developed a remote
-
control
led

robot
ic

vehicle
named

commandos.


It is driven by an electric motor, weighing about
160 kilograms. It can drive to 16km/hour speed over rough terrain. The vehicle uses fiber
-
optic communications, the camera images
in the

vehicle

can be transmitted to the operator,
while the operator sends commands to it, and put on machine guns, its total height is
about one meter. The robot soldiers can complete various tasks, including the anti
-
tank
role. The vehicle can also be equipped with anti
-
tank missile launchers, machine guns,
tear gas bombs.



Foster • Miller has delivered 2000

claws


(TALON) military robots to the U.S. Army.

The

c
laws


robot
s

equipped with a M240 or M249 machine guns,
the
soldiers can
hide
in

a

safety zone
, and send
the remote command

to fire

the enemy. Since 2003, the
U.S. military has been working on the enhanced firepower

claws

robot
s

for testing.
The

c
laws


robot
s

are

to meet operational needs in Afghanistan and Iraq, and
its
design different from other robots is that it can not be self
-
activity, people must rely on
fiber
-
optic network or wireless remote control command to complete the move,
surveillance and shooting all action
s
.
The

c
laws

robot weighs about 36 kg, equipped
with a battery can ensure its continued walking about 32 km
with
speed of 8.4 km

per
hour
. In standby (monitor), it

s battery to recharge a battery can be used continuously
by
one

week.



The

c
laws


robot has already been extensively deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq and
other regions, its primary task is to assist the most military personnel
s

to complete some
extremely dangerous work, such as reconnaissance and attack enemy forces have been
dismantling troops
,

and set up road side bombs and some improvised explosive devices.
The

c
laws


robot can also

be
restored after the explosion damaged
, and

return to the
battlefield to continue to work, each

claws


average robot can withstand

an
explosion, damage, repair, return to the battlefield


, which can

repeat 10 times or more.
It has p
roved
that the
"claws" robot does have a strong durability and persistence.



U.S. weapons research and development engineering centers and Foster • Miller,
co
-
developed a revolutionary

Special Weapons Observation Reconnaissance
Detection System

.

The system uses

claws


robot chassis as a platform installed
several different weapons systems. SWORDS is a
short call of

Special Weapons
Observation Reconnaissance Detection System

, as with the

Sword


in English
spelling the same, so called

Sword


robot.

Sword


is a robot to participate in
military history

s first face to face combat with the enemy robots.

Sword


type
robots are equipped with weapons definitely can play several human soldiers in combat,
it equipped with 5.56 mm M249 machine gun or 7.62 mm M240 machine guns.




In addition, it also equipped with M16 series assault rifles, 16 mm rocket
launchers M202 and six 40 mm grenade launcher.
I
t is equipped with four cameras,
night vision devices and other optical zoom lens, and reconnaissance and targeting
devices. Rocket and grenade launchers
can send
control commands via a newly
developed remote fire control system. This remote fire control system allows a soldier
to control up to 5 different firepower platform.




As the

Sword


robot arms mounted on a stable platform, and the use of
electric firing mechanism, so it

ha
s quite amazing shooting accuracy. For example, if a
shooter can accurately hit targets 300 meters away
with
size of a basketball, then

Sword


robot will be able to hit the same distance but only 5 cents coin
-
sized target.
The operator

can
effective
ly

control the

Sword


robot
by
farthest distance of 1000
m, it uses AC power, batteries or rechargeable batteries as power, control box weight
13.6 kg, with two joysticks, were used to control the weapons and robots , the use of
battery time depending on the specific strength of continuous fighting from 1 hour to 4
hours.











Attack Robot

English unmanned
robot


sniper killer

Sweden

r
obot




Israel

Viper


robot


M1ABV barrier
-
breaking

SandBot robot
s

are the sand flying"


Figure 5.2 a variety of robot soldiers



Reconnaissance robot
s

are
remote control
led

vehicle
s

or autonomous
vehicles. Western military powers have been developed more than 100 kinds
of reconnaissance robots, they can perform a variety of armed reconnaissance
missions, shown in Figure 5.3.
T
he camera system
in the
robot
may

obtain
information, and then by transmitting signals
to

the
reconnaissance
headquarters. More advanced reconnaissance robot

machine bird


can fly
over the enemy

area to

take
video images
,

and then back to analyze
information. This

machine bird


can
also
perform tasks at night, the body
of the infrared night vision system will not miss any suspicious areas.

Machine bird


auditory sensor can distinguish the sound intensity is less
than 30 db,

machine bird


high efficiency photovoltaic lighting, daytime
for

machine bird


sustained flight at night
,


machine
b
irds


relying on
efficient battery.



The first generation of the U.S. military reconnaissance robot is
developed by the United States Marine Systems Center. In order to better
urban warfare concealment, the U.S. Marine Corps is developing the second
generation of small reconnaissance robot
named
Sarge, its first appearance in
early 1998,
it
conducted a demonstration

in 1999 . Sarge was in an all
-
terrain
vehicle
,
and put on different cameras and night vision devices. It

s good for
hiding, suitable for day and night surveillance. Sarge
c
an be
operat
e
d

by radio
or cable remote control, the controller can be equipped with a global
positioning system to accurately determine the location of enemy targets. But
U.S. Marines
k
new
that its volume is small enough, the next step should be
the development of smaller reconnaissance robots.

5.4 Reconnaissance Robots






U.S. military intends to develop the next generation of nuclear and chemical sensors

in the next five years, and put them into
t
he
reconnaissance vehicles,
t
he
reconnaissance
vehicles with those
c
an
detect nuclear, biological pollution

in the mo
t
ion
. They can be
found on the battlefield, identification, mapping and marking NBC contamination, and to
force an alarm. In order to expand reconnaissance vehicle detection capability, the
U
.S.
Army is also considering developing a number of small UAV reconnaissance vehicle
s
.




To perform reconnaissance task,
t
he
reconnaissance robot must have two things: the
sensor and excellent program. They must be able to quickly and safely get the status of the
surrounding environment, even if they are crossing over the barrier or in the traffic
exchanges should do it. Reconnaissance mission not only need
s

to find the hidden point,
but also self
-
selected
a
route. Sensor
s

a
re
indispensable equipment
s
for
creat
i
ng the
reconnaissance robot
s
with
flexible behavior. Currently U.S. Army reconnaissance robot
laboratory first performed escort and patrol mission training, U.S. Army hopes to
incorporate more specific tactical behavior.




W
hen
the
reconnaissance robot perform
s

a reconnaissance mission in the process of
approaching an intersection,
t
he
reconnaissance robot must understand what elements it
needs to react.

The r
econnaissance robot to react
t
he
walls and
t
he
roads
i
s
relatively
simple; relatively difficult is how to avoid pedestrians around, observe stop sign, scan for
suspicious items and select the optimal route. In order to avoid accidents,
t
he
reconnaissance robots need to be able
t
o control it
s speed, and to develop their own
forward line, in order to avoid a collision.




Prowler


reconnaissance robot

XAV robot
i
n
Korea

portable reconnaissance robot

Urbie
Robots

Figure 5.3 a variety of reconnaissance robot
s


Researchers are working to increase U.S. military reconnaissance robot

s capabilities.
Because of the high intelligence reconnaissance robot should not only be confined to a
single city or
t
he
rugged terrain conditions, it should be able to adapt to harsh
environmental reconnaissance, so
t
he
researchers are trying to create a more effective
reconnaissance robot, more rugged and more compact sensors. U.S.

m
ilitary hopes
t
he
reconnaissance robot can more effectively adapt to the changing situation on the battlefield
and to play its due role. For example, when there is a new roadside boxes, improvised
explosive devices, or may be something else,
t
he
reconnaissance robot should be able to
discover
t
hem in
time.




Korea Defense agencies design the multi
-
purpose reconnaissance robots
,
and
e
xpected that these reconnaissance robots will play a greater power

in street fighting.
I
n
the f
ollowing two reconnaissance robot
s
, the light robot will
b
e
followed by
t
he
combat
robots.
The
combat robots
a
re
equipped with rocket launchers and machine guns and
other weapons, as well as a portable surveillance reconnaissance robot
i
s
equipped

in
the body

o
f the
combat robot. The reconnaissance robot can climb the ladder of the
building, so it can quickly move to the front of the enemy, and be able to learn an armed
enemy position and extent. You can even throw a grenade
-
sized surveillance robot
around

the
predictable enemy positions
.

T
he
reconnaissance robot will be
controlled

b
y

the soldier

s wrist watch
-
type computers

a
fter landing,
the
combat soldiers
w
ill

attack
the enemy.



South Korean Defense Ministry is planning to introduce
t
he
reconnaissance robots
to defend the country

s borders, about 250 reconnaissance robot
w
ill

guard the border

b
y June of
2011. In accordance with the requirements of the military, these
reconnaissance robot
s

must be able to perform long
-
distance remote control or
automatically detect, track and attack enemy targets.
T
he r
econnaissance robots
guarding the border
i
s

just the part of South Korean military

security measures. Other
plans include the military early warning and detection systems, video surveillance
networks, sensor equipment. The first early warning and detection systems deployed in
June 2006 to the border region with North Korea, and the first reconnaissance robot
service time is
i
n
Jun
e

2011.
T
hey
also developed an automated surveillance system to
monitor the situation in the demilitarized zone between North and South Korea. This
system was put into use in 2007, stationed in the inter
-
Korean military demarcation line
near some South Korean troops surveillance cameras can be replaced
b
y the
reconnaissance robots.



Lockheed Martin Corporation has introduced

human weight exoskeleton


equipment HULC

which
can greatly increase the load capacity

of
a soldier, shown
in Figure 5.4. HULC is designed to mimic the characteristics of the body structure
encircling mechanical bone, an internal unit equipped with hydraulic transmission
and the same as the curved joint design, not only to erect the road, but also the
completion squatting, and other relatively complex creeping action. HULC is
actually able to meet the soldiers by providing mobility and support, which can
reach a maximum weight 90.7 kg.



HULC control is not complicated, without going through a joystick or other
mechanical devices for control, but also very easy to wear, completely off just 30
seconds. HULC can significantly reduce the body

s oxygen consumption. When
the soldiers wear and carry on the HULC 36.7 kg heavy goods carry combat
w
ith
speed of 3.2 kilometers per hour
.
W
hen traveling, the amount of oxygen consumed
than when not wearing HULC reduced by about 15%. Because oxygen
consumption increases, the soldiers more easily lead to fatigue.



British Ministry of Defense also announced the future battlefield soldier
equipment (robot
i
c

supported), shown in Figure 5.5. The biggest highlight of this
equipment is the helmet part. New helmet with ear and mouth protection, wearing
such a helmet can be effective against the new battlefield explosions caused ear
damage, but others voice was heard more clearly. Further, in the side portion of the
helmet
,

the
support robot is also equipped with a portable flashlight,
t
he
soldiers

eas
i
ly

expand military operations

at
night.

5.5 Support Robots



Figure 5.4 HULC soldiers who wore


Figure 5.5 in the future battlefield equipment

British soldiers

5.6 Robot Wars


Robot
w
ars is often seen
i
n
a science fiction movie
o
r
plot. From the battle
s

between
t
he
robots and
t
he
humans battle, people
are
feel
i
ng

or
concern
i
ng
about

the
future robot
wars
. It is undeniable that robots replace people to become the main force
of the future battlefield
,

i
t
will be the end result
t
hat the
technological leap brought,
t
he
military robots are the future battlefield combat units, some of the country

s military
robots have begun to perform reconnaissance and surveillance missions, replacing

the
human
soldiers standing guard, sentry, mine
.

I
n addition to burst, some countries have
even begun to build robot forces,
the
scenes

of the
robot soldiers fight for human
soldiers
i
n
battlefield will likely become a reality in 10 years. At present, the world has
unknowingly slipped into robot arms race
.
As
lethal force
,

t
he
fully autonomous robot
s

will become a reality

in the near future.



In fact, U.S. military already has made a huge breakthrough

on the battlefield
unmanned combat technology.
T
he f
uture a brigade combat unit
in
U.S. military will
include at least 151 robot soldiers. In order to verify the robot team combat capability,
U.S. Army held a

robot war exercises


in 2007
.

T
he
18 kinds of robot soldiers
i
n
the e
ntire robot combat corps perform different tasks, various land and air combat
platforms and sensors connected together. The battle started, the robot soldiers
spearheading. When the hidden enemy attack it,
t
he
reconnaissance robot
s

find the
enemy position, notify
t
he
cruise

air military robots (UAVs) missile target. All tactical
operations by the military people
w
ill be
complete
d

b
y
their own machines

(
military
robots
)
. It is estimated that such a robot combat troops would fight half the time, while
U.S. soldiers casualty rate will be reduced from 60% to 80%. US military experts say
that half of the U.S. military will be robot soldiers


by 2015, while the other half is an
ordinary human soldiers.



As early as 2000, the U.S. Congress passed a bill requiring 1/3 of the ground
military vehicles
o
f
U.S. military in 10 years
will use

robot technology, and U.S.
military strive
s

to build the future robot army,
the
robot soldiers
i
n
U.S. troops will
become the main force

in
10 years. Currently, the United States is aggressively
developing the

Future Combat System

, U.S. Department of Defense

s ultimate
goal is to use the robot soldiers replace human soldiers on the battlefield, enabling
staff

zero casualties.


United States in Iraq has deployed more than 4,000 robot
soldiers. U.S. Department of Defense in its publication of the

Unmanned Systems
Roadmap

, the proposed cost of $ 4 billion by 2010 developed robot arms, and plans
to spend $ 24 billion, which took 25 years to develop air and sea robot system.
According to the

war costs mathematics

, for every manufacturing a robot soldiers
need more than 20 million U.S. dollars, to spend a few months or even years cultivate
a high
-
tech soldiers about the money, but once the high
-
tech soldiers killed or
seriously injured,
l
et
a
new robot

to replace,
w
hich will not
increas
e

much investment.



Another benefit of
the
robot soldiers even though it "dead", and need not to its
"parent" wrote the obituary notice. In addition, the robot soldiers can also greatly
reduce the military cost of other aspects, such as salaries, supplies, medical care,
transportation, housing, security and so on.


Britain, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Canada, South Africa, Singapore and Israel
and other countries
a
re
develop
ing

a new generation of military robots.
The
robot
s

d
eveloped by a group of British soldiers have been added into the British Army
.

South Korea

s goal is to have 2018 robots
a
s
one of the three largest powers.
T
he
number of U.S. robots soldiers on the battlefield will exceed the number of human
soldiers

b
y 2020. With the new generation of

the

military robots and intelligent
autonomous robots soldiers continue to raise the level on the battlefield, the robot
war era is no longer distant.
I
n the future, there will be

robot army


i
n t
he
military establishment, and perhaps have specialized military academies
t
o
train

and
command the robot combat. In the future battlefield,
t
he
robot soldiers could be like
human soldiers as strikes, establish feats.



Not difficult to imagine in the near future, the protagonist of strikes on the
battlefield will be a variety of robot soldiers, shown in Figure 5.6.
F
irst
ly,
t
he
reconnaissance robots, and even smaller micro
-
robots (such as insect
-
style
reconnaissance robot) against the enemy

s military deployment, distribution and
other important military target positions for reconnaissance; followed by a party to
robot soldiers assault force combined with the implementation of saturated drone
strikes against the enemy positions, destroying various types of resistance forces,
while the rear is composed of a large robot soldiers from the supply line, continue to
supply materials for the front
-
line delivery; while
the
airborne robot party a secret
landing behind enemy lines of command and communications facilities, supply lines,
and even the command post implementation of anti ......; finally,
t
he
human soldiers
simply complete the final sense of occupation, which ended the war.

Reconnaissance
r
obot
UAV reconnaissance
r
obot

robot guided missile targets

Figure 5.6 a future war fighting and attacks schematic imagine diagram