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Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Languaculture
: Re(de)fining
Advanced Proficiency

Jim Lantolf

Penn State University

Distinguished Language Proficiency

ACTFL


Shows strong sensitivity to
social and cultural

references and aesthetic norms by
processing
language from within the
cultural

framework
.

ILR


Use the language fluently and accurately on all levels
normally pertinent to professional needs. Organizes
discourse well, using appropriate rhetorical speech
devices,
native
cultural
references, and
understanding
.



The Encirclement

Language Segregated from Culture

Saussure Builds the Wall


Language = inventory of systematically organized
symbols


Bloomfield Builds a Higher Wall


“ripped” language out of the ethnographic research
program [of Boas]


linguistics = the study of the sound system and
grammar.


study of meaning assigned to psychology






(Agar 1994, see also Crowley 1996)


Consequences for Language
Teaching


Encased
-
linguistics framed the way applied
linguistics construes language.


Pedagogy


Language Assessment

Triumph of Structure

(
Fauconnier & Turner 2002
)




We live in an age of the triumph of form.

In
mathematics, physics, music, the arts, and the
social sciences, human knowledge and its progress
seem to have been reduced in startling and
powerful ways to a matter of essential formal
structures and their transformations… scientific
knowledge is only a matter of finding deep hidden
forms behind ostensible forms.



Meaning, Mind & Culture

Anthropology argues that culture is meaning


Antipsychological stance


Pushed psychology out of anthropology


Geertz, sustaining Saussure’s dualism, insisted
meaning resides
exclusively

in signs and relations
between them


Cognitive Anthropology

--

meaning resides in individuals
& collectives (Strauss & Quinn 1997)


Cultural Psychology



organic & dialectical relationship
between psychological and cultural processes meaning
organizes and imbues humans with mental
intentionality (Vygotsky 1987)



Learning a Second Language


Learning inside
-
the
-
wall


Make a few minimum frame changes, and you’re
ready to communicate (Agar 1994).


Inside the wall most aspects of language are
perceptual, indexical, iconic, or denotative



FL learners rely on word definitions because the
experience in which concepts emerge are not open
to this group
(Kecskes & Papp 2000).




Fork = Gabel, tenedor, forchetta, etc.


L2 laid down on L1 inner speech

(Ushakova 1994)




Learning Outside the Wall


Re
-
establish connection between language and
culture


languaculture
(Agar 1994)


The Challenge:


Development of new L2 conceptual base
(Lantolf 1999)


Learner centeredness
: concern with learning
richness of the L2 system’s symbolic resources
rather than with ‘creatively’ expressing
personal meanings or applying learning
strategies and styles, a frequent interpretation
in FLED (Byrnes 2002)


Conceptual Proficiency



Conceptual Proficiency

=
know how the
target language reflects or encodes its
concepts on the basis of metaphorical
structuring and other cognitive
mechanisms. Conceptual knowledge also
serves as a basis for grammatical and
communicative knowledge. (Kecskes &
Papp 2000)

Problem of L2 Conceptual Development


Are new conceptual systems learnable ?


Does this entail experiential replication ?


If so, which experiences are open to adult
L2 learners ?



Are new conceptual systems teachable ?





(Valeva 1996)


Motion Events

Six criteria:


Figure
:

object moving/located with respect to
another object (ground)


Ground
:
reference object in relation to which the
figure moves


Path
:

trajectory of figure


Motion
:

changes of locatedness


Manner
:
how
motion is performed


Cause
:
efficient origin of change in motion or
location (Talmy 2000)

Talmy’s Motion Event Typology


Verb
-
Framed Languages
: conflate path of motion
with verb and express manner lexically, through
gesture or not at all.


Romance Languages (Spanish, French,
Portuguese, Rumanian, Italian, Catalan, etc.);
Japanese, Korean, Turkish



Satellite
-
Framed Languages:

conflate manner of
motion with verb and express path through a
satellite mentioning the ground against which figure
moves.


English, German, Dutch, Russian, Chinese

Motion Event Examples

S
-
Language


The cat crawled/scrittered up inside the drainpipe

[Figure] [Manner]


[Satellite … Ground]


V
-
Language (Type 1)



El gato subio el canalon.



The cat climbed up the drainpipe



[Figure] Path


Ground


V
-
Language (Type 2)



payswukwan
sok
-
ulo

tul
-
e ka
-
se<e>


drainpipe


interior
-
via enter
-
INF go
-
and


(a cat) goes into the drainpipe


Manner of Motion




The cat rolls out of the drainpipe



El gato sale rodando del canal
ó
n



The cat exits rolling from the drainpipe



koyangi
-
ka tasi ccwulwulwuk nayly
-
e


cat
-
NM again ONM descend
-
INF


wa
-
ss
-
eyo.



come
-
PST
-
POL



Thinking for Speaking


Slobin (1996): in activity of speaking,
thinking takes on a particular quality as
experiences are filtered through languages
into verbalized events.



TSF not merely influence how people talk
about events but how they experience those
events “they are likely to talk about later”
(Slobin, 2003, p. 179).


Manner Saturation


English lexicon highly saturated with
conflated manner verbs:
trudge, shinny,
swagger, plop, scamper, leap frog, slog,
skip, barrel, etc.



Spanish lexicon has conflated manner
verbs, but not saturated:
tambalearse,
trepar, agitar


(Slobin 2003)

Gesture/Speech Interface


Growth Point
: integration of distinct
verbal

and
imagistic

“semiotic architectures” into
a single meaning system (McNeill 1992)



Gestures
: “
material carriers
of thinking”
and therefore provide "an enhanced
window into mental processes“ (McNeill &
Duncan 2000)

Gesture and Motion


V
-
languages
: gestures synchronize with
path verbs & optionally used to express
manner.



S
-
languages
: gestures synchronize with
path satellites or conflated manner verb,
depending on focus







(McNeill & Duncan 2000)




Negueruela, Lantolf, Jordan & Gelabert (2004)

Spanish L1 > English L2


3 Speakers Residing in U.S. 1 > 6 years


English L1 > Spanish L2


3 Speakers Enrolled in Spanish Graduate Program;
min. 1 year abroad


English L1 control = 3

Spanish L1 control = 3


Task: Narrate Frog Goes to Dinner




L1 Speakers Path

L1 Spanish:
La rana [se ha
metido

en el saxofon]






The frog [got into the saxophone]





PATH = hand cupped describes trajectory,


other hand mimicking the bell of the



saxophone)


L1 English The frog …
jumps

out of boy’s pocket,



through

the restaurant,
into

a saxophone

(Path = three strokes, one on each satellite


hand emerges from pocket with index
finger extended, moves away from body,
moves downward index still extended

L2 Speakers: Path

Spanish L1: the [
frog

ap
pears] … from




inside the salad.



PATH = hands move toward face


English L1: y me parece que se va a caerse



[
pa detras
]





Path = hand and body leaning



back with stroke of gesture on



invented satellite

L1 Speakers: Manner

Spanish L1: la ensalada [echa
un





desastre
]





‘the salad [is a disaster]





Manner = hand shaking


English L1: the plate’s [kind of
tumbling




a little bit]






Manner = hand shaking

L2 Speakers: Manner


Spanish L1: and [the
cup
,
the
plate
, the
fork

are



all
falling

off the table]




MANNER + PATH = four consecutive


strokes with both hands, palms facing


each other, vigorously moving upward


English L1:
la ensalada [
está ...

como en medio


aire]
‘the salad [is ... like in mid
-
air]’





MANNER = hand shaking palm down





Choi & Lantolf: L2 Korean & L2 English

Path Gestures

L2 Korean:


[RH ku
phai
/phu
] [<u>
a<a>n
-
ulo tul
-
e ka


pipe



inside
-
via enter
-
INF go
-
and
^
se
<e>



/silpeysuthe
-
ka][<a>



Sylvester
-
TC


Sylvester enters inside the pipe.

Right hand, with all fingers extended, moves up passing through
left hand which is holding a shape of a pipe:
path only
information.


Choi & Lantolf: Path Gestures

L2 English



climbing <uh> up the building [# <uuhh>] [RH /
through the gu
tter / ]






While left hand holds a gutter shape, right hand, with
all digits extended, rises up from lap and moves up
through left hand: path only information
.

Choi & Lantolf: Manner Gestures

L1 Korean



kulayse mak [BH
oll
-
a ka
-
n
un][RHtey


so ascend
-
INF go
-
and

So (the cat) went up and

Both hands, with chopping motions, move upward to
depict Sylvester’s climbing up the drainpipe: manner
+ path information
marked in gesture only


L1 English

so you
[
BH see this [
big
] [
bulge
] [
coming
] up the
gutter
]


Both hands, with palms facing each other, draw a
shape of bulge three times while moving up: manner
+ path information.


Choi & Lantolf: Manner of Motion

L2 Korean

[
mak oll
-
a ka
-
ss
-
eyo]

intensly ascend
-
INF go
-
PST
-
POL

(the cat) went up




Both hands wave up and down, imitating Sylvester’s paws
climbing up the pipe while moving up: manner + path
information.

[Manner fog]


L2 English

[BH so
# (gesture)

/][RH

the cat was climbing through
the*

/
gutter but then<n> somehow the b^ird knew it # s^aw

it

# so]




Both hands, with chopping motion, imitate Sylvester’s paw:
manner only information. Right hand vertically rises up and
holds in the position: path only information.


Choi & Lantolf: Manner Salient

L2 English

so <uuhh> the cat was <uuhh > %laugh he* he* # so <uuhh> the
cat was <uuhh>

[/ I
mean /

rolling o*
][ //
(stroke starts) on the s
]
treet <uuhh>
#


Both hands, with all digits extended, sweep from left to right: path
only information.

Both hands repeat the previous path only
gesture: path only information.
[No Manner conflated Path
Gesture typical of English



Choi & Lantolf: Manner Salient


L2 Korean

[RH ma
k / kil

n
ay][ ly
-
e
wa
-
ss
-
eyo
/

]


intensely road descend
-
INF come
-
PST
-
POL

(the cat) came down the road



Right hand, with an index extended, bounces up and down while
diagonally moving down from left to right:
manner + path

information. Right hand repeats a smaller version of previous
gesture, with less bouncing:
manner + path information.


[RH mwe kunikka mwusun <m> mwe<we> # kwu<wu>*ha
-
myense amwuthun]


what so what m what *roll (wrong form) do
-
while anyway



Right hand, with an index extended, continuously draws circular
motions: manner only information.


NB:Manner Fog acceptable in Korean but not for speaker, who
searches for low frequency Korean verb to roll

Fictive Motion


Fictive Motion
: metaphorize what is
factive stationariness as if it were in
motion; thus reflecting “a cognitive bias
toward dynamism” (Talmy 2000: 101).



FM emerges when a speaker holds two
discrepant representations in mind


Belief about real nature of referent


Representation of the literal reference of the
linguistic forms used in the utterance


Fictive Motion


The fence RUNS along the floor of the
valley.


Literal representation = fictive


Belief representation = factive



Thus, fictive motion is integrated with factive
stationariness

Categories of Fictive Motion



Emanation


Pattern Paths


Frame
-
relative motion


Advent Paths


Access Paths


Coextension Paths

Coextensive Path

(English/Spanish)



The highway goes from State College to
Bellefonte.


La carretera va desde SC hasta Bellefonte.



The electric cord runs from the TV to the wall.


*El cable eléctrico corre de la tele a la pared.


El cable eléctrico va de la tele a la pared.



(Talmy: 105)

Emanation Path


The tree threw its shadow across the roof.


*El árbol tira/echa/arroja su sombra a lo largo
del tejado.


El árbol proyecta su sombra a lo largo del
tejado.



His shadow fell on her face.


Tenía la sombra de él en su cara.



The wallpaper shows through the paint


El papel se ve por debajo de la pintura


(sensory path).


Pattern Path


As I painted the ceiling, ants slowly progressed
across the floor.


Mientras pintaba el techo, las hormigas iban
avanzando lentamente por el suelo.



As I painted the ceiling,
paint spots

slowly
progressed across the floor.


*Mientras pintaba el techo, las manchas de
pintura iban progresando através del suelo.


Mientras pintaba el techo, iban cayendo
manchas de pintura por todo el suelo e iban
formando progresivamente una hilera.

Advent Paths


The palm trees clustered together around the
oasis.


Las palmeras se apiñaban alrededor del oasis.


(De repente había un montón de palmeras
alrededor del oasis (use gesture))



The beam
falls

away from the wall.


La viga está atravesada con respecto al muro.


(Gesture with one hand vertical and the other
slanted agains it. Needed because
‘atravesada’ can impart the idea that the
beam passes through the wall


SLA


Inside
-
the
-
circle: Linguistic Proficiency


Grammar, phonology, lexicon


Ultimate attainment = control of lexico
-
grammatical properties of new language



discourse, pragmatics, identities ??





SLCA


Outside
-
the
-
circle: Conceptual Proficiency


Conceptual knowledge and meaning, including
gesture/speech interface


Ultimate attainment = making acceptable choices
“within the nexus of intended meanings available
resources, and privileged forms of expression
as the
L2 speech community has evolved them
” (Byrnes
2002).



Thinking/communicating

through

the new
languaculture


Teaching = bringing students to the language rather
than the language to the students