THE EXPOSURE OF HUMANS TO THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

rawfrogpondUrban and Civil

Nov 16, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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URBAN ECO
2011



1
International Conference

ECOLOGY OF URBAN ARE
AS

,
29.
-
30. September 2011, Zrenjanin, Serbia


THE
EXPOSURE OF HUMANS TO
THE
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS





Vladimir Šinik

,
Technical Faculty „Mihajlo Pupin

Zrenjanin, Serbia

Slobodan Janković,
Technical Faculty „Mihajlo Pupin

Zrenjanin, Serbia

Željko Despotović, Institute „Mihajlo Pupin

Beograd, Serbi
a



Abstract:



Over the recent decade an extensive application of electric and radio communication
devices and a rapid growth of mobile phone users were observed, thus a massive population
exposure to non
-
ionizing electromagnetic fields took place. Non
-
i
onizing radiations are defined
as electromagnetic (EM) radiations having photon energy less than 12.4eV. These include:
ultraviolet or UV radiation (wavelength 100
-
400nm), visible radiation (wavelength 400
-
780nm),
infrared radiation (wavelength 780nm
-

1 m
m), radio
-
frequency radiation (frequency 10kHz
-

300GHz), low field electromagnetic frequency (frequency 0
-
10kHz), and laser radiation. Non
-
ionizing radiation includes ultrasound, or sound having a frequency greater than 20kHz, even
though it is not an EM
radiation. Any house contains various sources of non
-
ionizing radiation:
wireless phones, computers, TV sets, irons, microwave ovens, extension cables, electric cooking
ranges, refrigerators, freezers, and other electric home appliances.

The environment al
so contains various sources of non
-
ionizing radiation. These include:
power lines, cable and satellite communications, power stations, electric transportation vehicles
(electric trains, trams and trolleybuses), TV and radio repeaters. As a result there is
an interaction
between the electromagnetic fields and biological tissue. The effects of these fields can be
harmful to humans if the field strength exceeds certain threshold value. This value is defined by
the corresponding standards and it is determined o
n the basis of reaching the threshold of harmful
effects. In order to analyze the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation and assess the
associated hazards in a particular situation, it is necessary to know value of the field for each
frequency wh
ich is presen
t and compare it with the corresponding allowed value. The field values
can be reached by applying analytical calculations, numerical methods, or by using the
appropriate measurement equipment. Despite the fact that the non
-
ionizing electromagnetic
pheno
mena have been well studied, interactions between electromagnetic fields and organic
matter, and especially human body, are still not fully clarified.


The paper analyzes sources of electromagnetic radiation, their intensities and frequency
ranges where th
ey are manifested. It also gives the biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

At
the international level are given guidelines for limiting exposure to time
-
varying electric,
magnetic and electromagnetic fields by

the International body for the protection of non
-
Ionizing
radiation.

It is important to determine whether, in situations of simultaneous exposure to fields of
different frequencies, these exposures are additive in their effects.


Key words
:

Electromagneti
c Radiation, Non
-
Ionizing Radiation, Biological effects