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raviolirookeryBiotechnology

Oct 2, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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Questions to Consider:



1.

Know the general work and findings of the following scientists:

a.

Gregor Mendal
:

Gregor

Mendel was the founder of genetics. Many considered him to be the “father of modern
genetics.” This is because he demonstrated that the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants follows
particular patterns.

b.

Edward Jenner
:

Edward Jenner considered to b
e the
“Father of immunology
.


He was the pioneer of the smallpox
vaccine, and he saved many lives.

c.

Watson and Crick
:

Watson and Crick were both scientists who d
iscovered the structure of DNA.

d.

Cohen and Boyer
:

Cohen and Boyer i
nitiated the biotechnology in
dustry
. They i
nvented a method of cloning genetically
engineered molecules in foreign cells.

e.

Erwin Chargoff
:

Erwin Chargoff was a biologist who
discovered two rules that helped lead to the discovery of the double
helix.

f.

Rosalind Franklin
:

Rosalind Frankli
n is a biophysicist and x
-
r
ay crystallographer
.
She m
ade critical contributions to the
understanding of the fine molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal, and graphite.

g.

Craig Ventner
:

Craig Ventner was a biologist. He is b
est known for the first t
o sequence the human genome and for
creating the first cell with a synthetic genome.

2.

What are three main parts of a DNA nucleotide?

The three main parts of a DNA nucleotide are
5
-
carbon sugar, phosphate, and four bases.

3.

What are the three bases found withi
n DNA?

The four bases found in DNA are guanine and cytosine, and adenine and thymine.

4.

What are the DNA base pair rules?

The DNA base pair rules are that G and C must always be together and A and T must always be together. And
also if you look at one seque
nce of DNA, then you will be able to find out the other sequence of DNA.

5.

If one side of a DNA helix reads AAATCG what does its complimentary strand read?

The other side of the complimentary strand reads
TTTAGC
.

6.

How does a DNA double helix, chromosomes and
genes relate to one another?

A chromosome consists of a spiral of DNA (in the shape of a double helix) and the DNA consists of genes.

7.

How do DNA and proteins relate to one another?

Proteins are t
ranslated to RNA.
And RNA is transcripted to DNA.

8.

What is
the overall charge of a strand of DNA?

The overall charge of a strand of DNA is negative.

9.

How does DNAs charge help in electrophoresis?

The top of the gel electrophoresis is negative and the DNA is also negative. So you load the DNA at the top of
the gel
and the largest sized DNA will be stay at the top, while the smallest DNA will move to the bottom.

10.

What is the goal of DNA electrophoresis?

The goal of DNA electrophoresis is to separate the largest DNA strands from the smallest DNA strands.

11.

What is BLAST
and what does it do?

BLAST is a basic local alignment search tool. It compares different DNA samples to find the mutations in DNA
and find out what disease the person/organism has.

12.

What are restriction enzymes

and how are they used in genetic engineering?

Restriction enzymes are enzymes that cut the DNA at a specific place. It is used in Genetic Engineering to check
if a particular gene present in a strand of DNA or not.

13.

What are “sticky ends” and how do they relate to restriction enzymes.

An end of a DNA

double helix at which a few unpaired nucleotides of one strand extend beyond the other.

14.

What is bioinformatics and how does it relate to the human genome project?

Bioinformatics is the collection and storage of data or information from sequencing. The go
al of the human
genome project was to store this information, read it (analyze), and improve data analysis.

15.

What basic characteristics are used to identify different fingerprints?

Different fingerprints can be characterized by looking at whether the finger
print pattern is a loop, whorl, or arch.

16.

What is the difference between a latent and patent fingerprint?

A latent fingerprint is a fingerprint that is barely visible. It is normally on a knife of countertop. A patent
fingerprint is a fingerprint that is
visible and is pressed into clay or something like that.


Be able to:

1.

Describe the process of gene splicing to create recombinant DNA.

2.

Identify fingerprints.

3.

Read a DNA electrophoresis gel.

4.

Describe the process of DNA electrophoresis.


Vocabulary


Amino
Acid

a) The basic building block of proteins (or polypeptides). Containing
a basic amino group, an acidic carboxyl (COOH) group and a side
chain (R
-

of a number of different kinds) attached to an alpha
carbon atom. b)The fundamental building blocks of a p
rotein
molecule.

Angstrom

A unit of length equal to one ten
-
thousandth of a micron (10
-
4
micron) or 10
-
10 of a meter with adenine.

Bioinformatics

a) Refers to the generation or creation, collection, storage (in
databases), and efficient utilization of
data or information from
genomics, combinatorial chemistry, proteomics, and DNA
sequencing research. b) Examples of the data or information that is
manipulated and stored include gene sequences, biological activity
or function, pharmacological activity, bi
ological structure, molecular
structure, protein
-
protein interactions, and gene expression products
or amounts.

Bioluminescence

The emission of visible light by living organisms such as the firefly
and various fish, fungi, and bacteria.

Biopharmaceutical

A therapeutic product created through the genetic manipulation of
living things, including (but not limited to) proteins and
monoclonalantibodies, peptides, and other molecules that are not
chemically synthesized, along with gene therapies, cell therapies
,
and engineered tissues.

Bioprocessing

Using organisms or biologically derived macromolecules to carry out
enzymatic reactions or to manufacture products.

Bioreactor

A container used for bioprocessing.

BLAST

Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is

a sequence
comparison algorithm optimized for speed used to search sequence
databases for optimal DNA sequence alignments.

CODIS

Combined DNA index system.

DNA Analysis

The testing of DNA samples that exists on the evidence collected
from a crime scene.

DNA Fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting is an individual's unique sequence of DNA base
pairs, determined by exposing a sample of the person's DNA to
molecular probes.

DNA Replication

The process of making an identical copy of a section of duplex
(double
-
stranded) DNA, using existing DNA as a template for the
synthesis of new DNA strands.

Double Helix

The normal structural configuration of DNA consisting of two helices
winding about the same axis.

Electroporation

A process utilized to introduce a

foreign gene into the genome of an
organism.

Forensics

Involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of evidence to
solve crimes; its purpose is to create doubt as to the testimony of the
witness.

Forensic Scientist

A professional that analyzes
and interprets DNA samples as well as
other forms of evidence collected from a crime scene.

Genetic Engineering

a) The selective, deliberate alteration of genes. b) The direct
manipulation of genes for practical purposes. c) The technique of
removing,
modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule in order to
change the information it contains.

Pathogen

Refers to a virus, bacterium, parasitic protozoan, or other
microorganism that causes infectious disease by invading the body
of an organism (e.g.,

animal, plant, etc.) known as the host.

Plasmid

An autonomous self
-
replicating genetic particle is usually of circular
double
-
stranded DNA.

Protein

A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in
a specific order, required for the stru
cture, function, and regulation of
the body's cells, tissues, and organs.

Transformation

The modification of a genome by the external application of DNA
from a cell of different genotype.