study guide to Ch 15 - Restriction Enzymes, DNA Fingerprinting

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Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 9 months ago)

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Ch. 15 Study Guide



Restriction Enzymes


Used to cut DNA into smaller fragments


Leaves the ends of fragments with STICKY ENDS (see picture

below
)


These STICKY ENDS are where inserted DNA fragments can attach


The complimentary bases (ACTG) will attach

here






Bacteria can incorporate genes from other organisms and use them to produce the
corresponding proteins. This is called transformation.


Selective

Breeding

Inbreeding

maintain desirable
traits

Hybridization

create animal with
desirable traits from 2
different animals

Induced Mutations

Use of radiation or
chemicals to create
new genetic variations

Plasmids are rings of DNA in bacteria that can be used to transform bacteria. This is why these
are widely

used in genetic engineering. (see picture)




Clones are organisms that are produced by taking a body cell and placing the nucleus into an
un
-
nucleated egg. The resulting offspring are genetically identical to the adult organism from
which the body cel
l was taken. (Dolly) (see picture)



GM (genetically modified)


Genetic engineering (changing of the DNA sequence of ATCGs) can create genetically
modified organisms. For GM crops there can be many advantages (faster growth, resistance
to pests, great
er yields etc.)


Gene Therapy


This process uses genetically modified viruses which are
inserted into humans to help
correct some medical disorder or disease. (see picture)





DNA Fingerprinting


Process of analyzing DNA fragments from gel
electrophoresis to compare samples of
DNA. This is valuable because no two people other than identical twins have the same
DNA.(see picture)



2008 Congress passed the
Genetic Information
Nondiscrimination
Act. This law makes it illegal
to use a
person’s genetic information to discriminate against them.