List of questions and tasks

rapidparentBiotechnology

Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

322 views

List of theoretical questions for the

final module

control

№1 for medical faculty


“Morphology and physiology of microorganisms. Infection. Immunity. General and special
virology




Introduction to microbiology.

1.

Definition of microbiology as science.
Branches of microbiology.

Subject and tasks of
medical microbiology. Basic

characteristic and development

tendency of modern
microbiology.

2.

Microorganisms’ discovery by А.Leeuwenhoek. Periods of microbiology development. Contribution
of L. Pasteur and R.
Koch in microbiology.
.

3.

Formation of basic directions of microbiological science. Role of E. Jenner, D.Samoilovich,
E.Metchnikoff, D. Ivanovskyi, P. Erlich,

S.
Winogradsky, Emil von Behring, G. Ramon,
G.Domagk,

A.Fleming. Development of microbiology in
Ukraine.




Morphology and structure of prokaryotes and parasitic monocelled eukaryotes. Staining of
microorganisms. Microscopy
.

1.

Basic differences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Bacterial forms with the defect of synthesis of cell
wall, protoplasts,

spheroplasts. L
-
forms of bacteria.

2.

Morphology and structure of bacteria. Role of

certain
structures for the vital functions of bacteria and
in pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Vegetative forms and spores.

3.

Classification and morphology of fungi

4.

Method
s of microscopy. Preparation of bacterial smear. Dyes and staining solutions, simple and
complex staining methods.

5. Complex methods of

microorganisms staining. Gram staining technique. Factors, which determine
Gram staining of microorganisms. Proper
ties of Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms.
Practical importance of Gram staining method.


6.
Principles of organization, apparatus and types of activities of bacteriological, serological and virology
laboratories.


7. Bacterioscopic

research method. Stages.


Physiology of microorganisms (prokaryotes). Evolution and classification of microorganisms.

1.

Types and mechanisms of nutrition of microorganisms. Mechanisms of penetration of
nutrients in a bacterial cell. Chemical composition of
microorganisms. Importance of
components. Nutrient media, requirements. Classification of nutrient media used in
microbiology.

2.

Oxygen requirements of microorganisms. Aerobic and anaerobic type of respiration. Enzymes and
structures of cell which take part

in the process of respiration. Methods of growing of anaerobic
bacteria.

3.

The enzymes of microorganisms, their role in metabolism. Use for differentiation of bacteria.
Enzymes of pathogenecity.

4.

Growth and modes of reproduction of bacteria. The mechanisms
of cellular division, phases of
reproduction of bacterial culture under stationary conditions Batch culture and bacterial growth curve.

5.

Bacteriological method of research. Principles, methods and stages of isolation of pure cultures of
bacteria and their i
dentification.

6.

Influencing of physical, chemical and biological factors on microorganisms. Sterilization, methods of
control of sterilization. Asepsis. Antisepsis.

7.

Origin and evolution of microorganisms. Modern classification of prokaryotes. Basic taxons.
Systematization and nomenclature of bacteria. Species as basic taxonomical unit.

8.

Systematics and nomenclature of bacteria. Basic principles of systematics. Classification of bacteria.
Characteristic of species


Genetics of microorganisms.


1.

Material basis o
f heredity. Genotype and phenotype. Types of variability. Non
-
inherited variability.

2.

Inherited variability. Mutations and their varieties. Physical, chemical and biological mutagens.
Genetic recombination: transformation, transduction, conjugation.

3.

Exstrachromosomal factors of bacteria heredity. Plasmids, their basic genetic functions. Mobile
genetic elements. Role of mutations, recombination and selection in the evolution of microbes. Basic
factors of evolution.

4.

The importance of genetics in develo
pment of general and medical microbiology, virology, molecular
biology. Microbiological bases of the genetic engineering.

Scheme of obtainment of genetic
structures and inherently
-
changed organisms. Achievement
s, using of genetic engineering

preparations in medicine.


5.

Genetic methods of research. PCR(polymerase chain reaction). Principle, practical importance.

Microbiological bases of antimicrobial chemotherapy.

1.

Chemotherapy and chemotherapeutic drugs. Chemotherapeutic index. Mechanisms of a
ntibacterial
action of sulfonamides. Role of P.Ehrlich and G.Domagk in development of studies about
chemotherapy.

2.

Phenomenon of antagonism of microbes. Role of native

scientists in development of antagonism
doctrine. Antibiotics, definition, principles of
obtainment, Classification, units of activity.
Classification based on mechanisms of action.


3.

Drug resistance of microbes, mechanism of formation of resistant forms. Methods of determination of
sensitiveness of microbes to the

antibiotics. Minimum inhibitory (
М
IC) and minimum bactericidal
(
М
BC) concentration. Practical importance. Principles of prevention of drug resistance development.







Infection.


1.

Infection.
Conditions of infectious process genesis.

Role of the
microorganisms in the infectious
process. Pathogenicity, virulence, the units of measurement, methods of determination. Virulence
factors of microorganisms, their description.

2.

Toxins of microbes (exo
-
, endotoxins). Classification of exotoxins on functiona
l properties.
Properties and chemical composition, obtainment.

Units of measuring of exotoxin activity.

Role of
toxins in pathogenesis and immunogenesis of infectious diseases.

3.

Phases of development of infectious process. Mechanisms of infection by pat
hogenic
microorganisms. Bacteremia, toxemia, sepsis. Periods of infectious disease.

4.

The role of macroorganism in the infectious process. Immunological reactivity of organism of child.
Influence of environment and social factors on development of infectio
us process in human.
Persistence of bacteria and viruses. Concept about the relapse, reinfection, superinfection.


Immune system of organism. Reactions of non
-
specific defense of organism from
microorganisms
.

1.

Study of immunity. Periods of

immunology development . Types of immunity and form of

manifestation.

2.

Non
-
specific factors of organism defense against microbial agents. Complement, its properties, ways
of activating. Phagocytosis, types of phagocytes. Stages of phagocytosis. Completed
and
uncompleted phagocytosis.

3.

Immune system of organism, its organs. The role of thymus in an immune response. Cell of the
immune system, their varieties (
Т
-
,
В
-
cells and macrophages). Their role in cellular and humoral
immunity.

4.

Phases of immune response.

Immunological reactions. Immunological tolerance, reasons of its
development. Immunological memory, its mechanisms.

5.

Hypersensitivity immediate and delayed type, its mechanisms, differences. Practical importance

6.

Three
-
cellular system of cooperation in imm
une response. Role of certain cells of the immune
system, their cooperation. Interleukins.


Antigens. Antibodies.


1.

Antigens, their definition. Complete and incomplete antigens. Antigenic structure of bacteria.
Practical importance of studies about the anti
gens of microbes. autoantigens.

2.

Antigens of histocompatibility
(МНС, Н
L
А),

chemical nature, location. Antigens, associated with
tumor.

С
D

antigens, description.


3.

Antibodies, their nature. Site of synthesis, dynamics of antibodies products. Antibodies str
ucture,
auto
-

antibodies

4.

Antitoxins, their properties, mechanism of action. Principles of antitoxic serum obtainment.
Units of
measuring,
practical importance.

5.

Serological reactions, their definition, basic types, practical using

6.

Reaction of agglutination,

its mechanism, types. Practical using.

7.

Serological reactions. Reaction of precipitation, its mechanism. Using in medical practice. Reaction
of precipitation in gel.

8.

Serological reactions. Reactions of lyses. Reaction of complement fixation, its practical

using.

9.

Reactions with the labeled antibodies or antigens. Principles and practical use of immunofluorescence
assay,
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA).




Reactions of immunity. Immunopathology
.


1.

Forms and types of the immune reactions.
Humoral immune response and its phases
.

2.

Primary and second immune responses. Cooperation of cells of the immune system in the process of
immune response.

3.

Cellular immune response and its phases.

4.

Hypersensitiveness i
mmediate and delayed type. Mechanism of development of these reactions.

5.

Monoclonal antibodies, their preparation and use in medical practice.

6.

I
mmunodeficiency

condition
s
. Autoimmune processes. Complex estimation of immune status of
organism.

7.

Vaccines. His
tory of obtainment. Classification of vaccines. Corpuscular, chemical, synthetic,

genetic
(recombinant) and anti
-
idiotope vaccines.

8.

Live vaccines, principles of obtainment. Control, practical use of live vaccines.

9.

Chemical vaccines and toxoids, principles
of obtainment. Associated vaccines. Adsorbed vaccines,
principle of «depot».

10.

Toxoids, principles of obtainment,

units of measuring,
practical importance, evaluation.

11.

Corpuscular vaccines from the killed microbes. Principles of obtainment and control.



General virology.

1.

Main periods of virology development
.
Methods of viruses

research, their evaluation.

2.

Morphology and ultrastructure of viruses. Types of symmetry of viruses. Chemical composition,
functions of virus

components.

3.

Bacteriophages. History of

investigation. Structure, classification. Methods of quantitative and
qualitative bacteriophages determination. Practical use of bacteriophages

4.

Forms of interaction of bacteriophages with a bacterial cell. Virulent and temperate bacteriophages.
Descript
ion of productive interaction. Lysogeny and lysogenic conversion.

5.

Modern

view on nature and origin of viruses. Place of viruses in the system living.

6.

Principles of classification of viruses. Basic properties of viruses of human and animals.

7.

Methods of cul
tivation of viruses and their evaluation.

8.

Reactions of viral hemagglutination and hemadsorption.

Mechanism, practical use, diagnostic value.

9.

Serological tests using in virology. Reaction of virus neutralization, mechanism, principles of the use,
diagnostic

value.

10.


Reaction of inhibition of hemagglutination,

its mechanism, conditions of performing , principles of
the use, diagnostic value.

11.

Reaction of complement fixation, evaluation, using in viral infections.

12.

Reactions with the labeled antibodies and antigens in virology.
Е
nzyme linked immunosorbent assay
(ELISA)
.

13.

Use of cell cultures in virology. Classification of cell cultures. Nutrient media for cell cultivation.

14.

Types of virus
-
cell interactions.
Description of productive type. Stages.

15.

Peculiarities of viral infections pathogenesis. Acute and persistent viral infections.

16.

Immunological features of viral infections. Factors of antiviral immunity.

17.


Methods of viruses detection in cell culture and the
ir evaluation.
С
ytopathic effect
s

, types.

18.


Nonspecific factors of defense of macroorganism against viral agents, their description. Interferons,
mechanism of act
ion, interferonogenes.

19.


Viral vaccines, classification, principles of obtainment, requirements, control, evaluation .


Special virology.


1.

Family Orthomyxoviridae. Discovery history, biological properties, classification.

2.

Methods of laboratory diagnostics

of influenza and their evaluation.

3.

Antigen structure and types of antigen changeability of influenza virus. Modern hypotheses
explaining antigen changeability of influenza virus.

4.

Pathogenesis and immunogenesis of influenza. The role of specific and nonsp
ecific
mechanisms of immunity.

5.

Problem of specific prophylaxis and therapy of influenza. Preparations and their

valuation.


6. Family Paramyxoviridae. General description and classification. Structure of virion.
Antigens. Cultivation. Sensitive
ness to physical and chemical factors.


7. Genus Paramyxovirus. Viruses of human parainfluenza (1


5th types). Virus of epidemic
parotiditis. Role in pathology of man. Immunity. Specific prophylaxis.


8. Genus Morbillivirus.
Measles virus, biological properties. Pathogenesis of disease. Immunity
and specific prophylaxis.


9. Genus Pneumovirus. Human respiratory syncytial virus. Biological properties. Pathogenesis of
disease. Immunity. Persistency and pathology in h
uman. Laboratory diagnosis of respiratory
syncytial virus infections.


10.
Family Picornaviridae, general description. Antigen structure. Biological properties.
Importance in development of human pathology.


11.Viruses of poliomyelitis, descriptio
n, classification. Pathogenesis and immunogenesis of
infection. Laboratory diagnosis, specific prophylaxis. Problem of liquidation of poliomyelitis in the
whole world.


12. Genus Enterovirus, general description, classification. Coxsackie viruses and
ЕСНО

viruses ,
their role in human pathology. Laboratory diagnosis of enteroviral infections.

13. Genus Rhinoviruses
.

Classification. Role in human pathology. Laboratory diagnosis.

14. Family Rabdoviridae.

Rabies virus.
Biological properties.

Pathogenesis.
Laboratory diagnosis.
Differentiation of wild and fixed viruses. Specific prophylaxis.

15.Group of arboviruses. Common features, biological properties. Classification. Japanese
encephalitis and tick borne encephalitis (TBE). Pathogenesis. Methods of diagn
ostics and
prophylaxis

16.

Rubella virus.

Biological properties.

Pathogenesis. Immunity. Laboratory diagnosis. Specific
prophylaxis.


17. Family Retroviridae, biological properties. Classification.


18. Family Herpesviridae, biological propert
ies, value in development of human pathology.
Laboratory diagnosis. Genetic methods.

15.Family Adenoviridae. Biological properties. Antigenic structure. Cultivation. Pathogenesis and
laboratory diagnosis of adenoviral infections. Immunity. Specific prophyl
axis.

12 Virus of

smallpox. Pathogenesis of infection. Methods of diagnostics and specific prophylaxis.
Smallpox vaccine virus. Liquidation of smallpox in the whole world.

13 Causative agents of viral hepatitis, properties and classification of viruses. Pa
thogenesis of
diseases. Laboratory diagnostics. Prospects of specific prophylaxis.

14.

Oncogenic viruses.
Classification. Zilber's viral
-
genetic theory of oncogenesis. Mechanism of
viral oncogenesis.


14. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Properties. A
role is in human pathology. Pathogenesis
of AIDS. Methods of laboratory diagnostics (immunological, genetic). Prospects of specific
prophylaxis and therapy.


15. Prisons. Properties. Prion disease of animals (scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathi
es) and
human (curu, Creutzfeldt

Jakob disease and other). Pathogenesis of prion diseases. Diagnosis.



List of practical activities for the

final module

control

№1 for medical faculty

“Morphology and physiology of microorganisms.
Infection. Immunity. General and special
virology




1.

Perform

the bacterioscopy

of

smear

with

immersion

objective, make up conclusion

about
morphological and staining properties of microorganisms.

2.

Prepare the smear, stain by Gram, perform the

bacterioscopy,

and make up conclusion

about
purity of test culture. Describe the cultural properties, using Petri dish with grown colonies.
Describe the next stages of research.

3.


Explain

the

principle

of

Endo

medium

preparation

and

choose

colonies
,
which

are

similar

to

E
.
coli
,
prove

their

differences

from

another

colonies.

4.

Prove the principles of infectious diseases specific active prophylaxis. Choose 2
-
3 live vaccines,
explain principles of preparation and using

5.

Prove the principles of infectious diseases specific act
ive prophylaxis. Choose 2
-
3 killed
vaccines; explain principles of preparation and using.

6.

Explain the principle of antitoxic immunity creating. Choose 1
-
2 preparations to create antitoxic
active immunity.

7.

Explain the principle of antitoxic immunity creatin
g. Choose 1
-
2 preparations to create antitoxic
passive immunity.

8.

Choose the preparations using for specific prophylaxis and therapy of diphtheria.
Explain he principles of using.

9.

Explain the principle of

enzyme
immunoassay
.

R
ead

the results of enzyme immunoassay for

serological
diagnosis

of HIV infection.

10.

Explain the principle of serological identification of microorganism, name components, which are
necessary for its performance. Explain the principle of obtainment.

11.

Explain the

principle

of

serological

diagnosis

of

infectious

diseases
,
name

components
,
which

are

necessary

for

its

performance
.
Explain the

principle

of

obtainment
.

12.

Explain the

principle

of

virus isolation for influenza diagnosis.
Hemagglutination test for
d
etection

of influenza v
irus
.

Read the results, m
ake up conclusion.

13.

Explain the

principle

of

influenza virus isolation.
Read the results of hemagglutination inhibition
test (HAIT) for serological identification of isolated virus.

Make up conclusion

about type of
v
irus.

14.

Read

the

results

of

hemagglutination

inhibition

test

(
HAIT
)
for

serological

diagnosis of

influenza

with

pair

serums

of

patient
.
Make up valid conclusion.

15.

Explain the

principle

of

virus isolation for
poliomyelitis

diagnosis. Detect virus by CPE and
plaque formation. M
ake up conclusion.

16.


R
ead the results of

virus neutralization test for serological identification of
poliomyelitis

viruse.

M
ake up conclusion.


Explain

the principle

of virus detection. Viral inclus
ions. Types and evaluation for viral

disease
diagnosis





List of theoretical questions to the


final module

control

№1 dentist faculty


“Morphology and physiology of microorganisms. Infection. Immunity”

Introduction to
microbiology.

4.

Definition of microbiology as sciences.
Branches of microbiology.

Subject and tasks of
medical microbiology. Basic

characteristic and development

tendency of modern
microbiology.

5.

Discovering of microorganisms by А.Leeuwenhoek. Stages of development of micr
obiology.
Contribution of L. Pasteur and R. Koch in microbiology.




Morphology and structure of prokaryotes and parasitic monocelled eukaryotes. Staining of
microorganisms. Microscopy
.

5.

Basic differences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Bacterial forms with the defect of synthesis of
cellular wall, protoplasts, spheroplasts. L
-
forms of bacteria.

6.

Morphology and structure of bacteria. Role of

certain
structures for the vital functions of bact
eria and
in pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Vegetative forms and spores.

7.

Classification and morphology of fungi

8.

Methods of microscopy. Preparation of bacterial smear. Dyes and staining solutions, simple and
complex staining methods.


5. Complex metho
ds of

microorganisms staining. Gram staining technique. Factors, which determine
Gram staining of microorganisms. Properties of Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms.
Practical importance of Gram staining method.


6.
Principles of organiza
tion, apparatus and mode of operations of bacteriological, serological and
virology laboratories.

7. Bacterioscopic research method. Stages.


Physiology of microorganisms (prokaryotes). Evolution and classification of microorganisms.

9.

Types and mechanisms
of nutrition of microorganisms. Mechanisms of penetration of
nutrients in a bacterial cell. Chemical composition of microorganisms. Value of making
components. Nutrient media, requirements to them. Classification of nutrient media which
are used in microbi
ology.

10.

Oxygen requirements of microorganisms. Aerobic and anaerobic type of respiration. Enzymes and
structures of cell which take part in the process of respiration. Methods of growing of anaerobic
bacteria.

11.

The enzymes of microorganisms, their role in the exchange of matters. Use for differentiation of
bacteria. Enzymes of pathogenicity.

12.

Growth and method of reproduction of bacteria. The mechanisms of cellular division, phases of
reproduction of bacterial cul
ture in stationary terms.

13.

Bacteriological method of research. Principles, methods and stages of isolation of pure cultures of
bacteria and their identification.

14.

Influencing of physical, chemical and biological factors on microorganisms. Sterilization, meth
ods of
control of sterilization. Asepsis. Antisepsis.

15.

Origin and evolution of microorganisms. Modern classification of prokaryotes. Basic taxones.
Systematization and nomenclature of bacteria. Species as basic taxonomical unit.

16.

Systematization and nomen
clature of bacteria. Basic principles of systematization. Classification
of bacteria. Characteristic of species.


Genetics of microorganisms.

6.

Material basis of heredity. Genotype and phenotype. Types of variability. Non
-
inherited variability.

7.

Inherited va
riability. Mutations and their varieties. Physical, chemical and biological mutagens.
Genetic recombination: transformation, transduction, conjugation.

8.

Nonchromosomal factors of heredity of bacteria. Plasmids, their basic genetic functions. Mobile
genetic
elements. Role of mutations, recombinaton and selection in the evolution of microbes. Basic
factors of evolution.

9.

The importance of genetics in development of general and medical microbiology, virology, molecular
biology. Microbiological bases of the gene

engineering.

Achieving the gene engineering, use of gene
engineering preparations is in medicine.


Microbiological bases of antimicrobial chemotherapy.

4.

Chemotherapy and chemotherapeutic drugs. Chemotherapeutic index. Mechanisms of antibacterial
action of sulfonamides. Role of P.Ehrlich and G.Domagk in development of studies about
chemotherapy.

5.

Phenomenon of antagonism of microbes Antibiotics, definition,
principles of obtainment,
Classification , units of activity.

6.

Drug resistance of microbes, mechanism of formation of resistant forms. Methods of determination of
sensitiveness of microbes to the antibiotics. Minimum inhibit (
М
IC) and minimum bactericidal
(
М
BC) concentration. Practical importance.

Infection.

5.

Infection.
Conditions of infectious process genesis.
The role of microorganisms in an infectious
process. Pathogenicity, virulence, the units of measurement, methods of determination. Virulence
factors
of microorganisms, their description.

6.

Toxins of microbes (exo
-
, endotoxins). Classification of exotoxins on functional properties.
Properties and chemical composition, obtainment ,

Units of measuring of exotoxin activity.

Role of
toxins in pathogenesis
and immunogenesis of infectious diseases.

7.

Phases of development of infectious process. Mechanisms of infection by pathogenic
microorganisms. Bacteremia, toxemia, sepsis. Periods of infectious disease.

8.

The role of macroorganism in an infectious process. Im
munological reactivity of organism of child.
Influence of environment and social factors on development of infectious process in human.
Persistence of bacteria and viruses. Concept about the relapse, reinfection, superinfection.


Immune system of organis
m. Reactions of non
-
specific defense of organism from
microorganisms
.

7.

Doctrine immunity. Stages of development of immunology. Types of immunity and form of its
display.

8.

Non
-
specific factors of organism defense against microbial agents. Complement, its prop
erties, ways
of activating. Phagocytosis, types of phagocytes. Stages of phagocytosis. Completed and
uncompleted phagocytosis.

9.

Immune system of organism, its organs. The role of thymus in an immune response. Cell of the
immune system, their varieties (
Т
-
,
В
-
cells and macrophages). Their role in cellular and humoral
immunity.

10.

Phases of immune response. Immunological reactions. Immunological tolerance, reasons of its
development. Immunological memory, its mechanisms.

11.

Hypersensitivity immediate and delayed typ
e, its mechanisms, differences. Practical value.

12.

Three
-
cellular system of cooperation in immune response. Role of certain cells of the immune
system, their cooperation. Interleukins.


Antigens. Antibodies.

10.

Antigens, their definition. Complete and incomplete antigens. Antigen structure of bacteria. Practical
importance of studies about the antigens of microbes. Self
-
antigens.

11.

Antibodies, their definition. Place of synthesis, dynamics of antibodies products.

Antibodies structure,
self antibodies

12.

Antitoxins, their properties, mechanism of action. Principles of antitoxic serum obtainment.
Units of
measuring,
practical importance.

13.

Serological reactions, their definition, basic types, practical using

14.

Reaction of agglutination, its mechanism, types . Practical using.

15.

Serological reactions. Reaction of precipitation, its mechanism. Using in medical practice. Reaction
of precipitation in gel.

16.

Serological reactions. Reactions of lysis. Reaction of complem
ent fixation, its practical using.

17.

Reaction of complement fixation (CFT), mechanisms, principle of perfoming, reding the result and
interpret
,

practical using.

18.

Reactions with the labeled antibodies or antigens. Principles and practical use of immun
ofluorescence
assay,
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA).


Reactions of immunity. Immunopathology
.

12.

Forms and types of the immune reactions.
Humoral immune response and its phases

.

13.

Primary and second immune responses. Cooperat
ion of cells of the immune system in the process of
immune response.

14.

Cellular immune response and its stages


15.

Hypersensitiveness immediate and delayed type. Mechanism of development of these reactions.

16.

Monoclonal antibodies, their preparation and use in me
dical practice.

17.

I
mmunodeficiency

condition
s
. Autoimmune processes. Complex estimation of immune status of
organism.

18.

Vaccines. History of obtainment. Classification of vaccines. Corpuscular, chemical, synthetic, geno
-
engineering and antiidiotyping

vaccines.

19.

Living vaccines, principles of obtainment. Control, practical use of living vaccines.

20.

Chemical vaccines and toxoids, principles of obtainment. Associated vaccines. Adsorbed vaccines,
principle of «depot».

21.

Toxoids , principles of obtainment ,

uni
ts of measuring,
practical importance

22.

Corpuscular vaccines from the killed microbes. Principles of obtainment, control
.



General virology.


20.

Viruses. Difinition. Main characteristics that differ from other living creature. Morphology and
ultrastructure

of viruses. Types of symmetry of viruses. Chemical composition, functions of virus

components.

21.

Bacteriophages. Structure, classification of bacteriophages. Practical use of bacteriophages.

22.

Forms of cooperation of bacteriophages with a bacterial cell. Viru
lent and temperate bacteriophages.
Description of productive interaction. Lysogeny and lysogenic conversion.

23.

Modern

view on nature and origin of viruses. Place of viruses in the system living.

24.

Principles of classification of viruses. Basic properties of v
iruses of human and animals.

25.

Methods of cultivation of viruses and their evaluation.

26.

Reactions of viral hemagglutination and hemadsorption.

Mechanism, practical use, diagnostic value.

27.

Serological tests using in virology. Reaction of virus neutralization,
mechanism, principles of the use,
diagnostic value.

28.

Reaction of inhibition of hemagglutination,

its mechanism, conditions of conducting, principles of the
use, diagnostic value.

29.

Reaction of complement fixation, evaluation, using in viral infections.

30.

Reacti
ons with the marked antibodies and antigens in virology.
Е
nzyme linked immunosorbent assay
(ELISA)
.

31.

Use of cell cultures in virology. Classification of cell cultures. Nutrient media for cell cultivation.

32.

Types of cooperation of viruses and cells. Descript
ion of productive co
-
operation. Stages.

33.

Peculiarities of viral infections pathogenesis. Acute and persistent viral infections.

34.

Immunological features of viral infections. Factors of antiviral immunity.

35.


Methods of viruses cultivation, their evaluation. Ce
ll culture, difinition. Principle of classification.
Types of cell culture.

36.

Methods of viruses cultivation, their evaluation. Chicken embryo and animal model for virus
cultivation. Their evaluation.

37.


Detection viruses in cell culture and their evaluation.

С
ytopathic effect


of viruses, its types.

38.


Detection viruses in chicken embryo animal .Reaction of hemagglutination .

39.


Nonspecific factors of defense of macroorga
nism from viral agents, their description. Interferons,
mechanism of action, interferonogenes.

40.


Viral vaccines, classification, principles of obtainment , requirements , control, evaluation .





Questions for 2
-
nd modular control for students of
stomatological


faculties



1.

Evolution of coccal group. General characteristics of cocci. Staphylococci. Classification.


Biological features. Methods of laboratory diagnosis. Practical signifi
cance. Preparations


for specific prevention and therapy.


2. The staphylococci. The role in human pathology. Pathogenesis of staphylococcal disease.


Role in the etiology of nosocomial infections. Immunity associated with



staphylococcal diseases. Methods of laboratory diagnosis. Preparations


for specific prevention and therapy.


3. Streptococci. Classification. Biological features. Pathogenic toxins and enzymes.


Role in human patholo
gy. Pathogenesis of streptococcal diseases. Formation of immunity.


Laboratory diagnosis of streptococcal infections.


4. Streptococci. Classification. Etiological and pathogenetic role of streptococci group A in


resp
iratory infections, beshihe, sore throat, scarlet fever, acute glomerulonephritis,


rheumatic disease, sepsis. Pathogenesis. Methods of laboratory diagnosis.


5. Streptococcus pneumoniae. Biological characteristics. Pathogenic toxins and enz
ymes.


Role in human pathology. Methods of laboratory diagnosis.


6. Streptococci. Classification. Pathogenic toxins and enzymes. Oral streptococci.


It’s etiologycal role and pathogenesis of dental caries and other diseases


of oral cavity. Methods of laboratory diagnosis.


7. Meningococci. Biological natures, classification. Pathogenesis of meningitis.


Laboratory diagnosis of meningitis. Differentiation between the


meningococcal

and gram
-
negative diplococci of nasopharynx. Methods of laboratory


diagnosis.


8. Gonococci. Biological characteristics. Pathogenesis of acute and chronic


gonorrhea. Laboratory diagnosis of acute and chronic gonorrhea.


Prevention
and specific treatment.


9. Classification and biological properties of Enterobacteriaceae. Evolution of


Enterobacteriaceae. Antigens. Pathogenic toxins and enzymes. Pathogenic and conditionally
-


pathogenic causes. Prevalence and ability to surv
ive in the environment.

10.Escherihia coli. Biological characteristics. The physiological and sanitary role. Antigens.


Pathogenical groups and serotypes. Pathogenesis of colienterities. Laboratory diagnosis of


colienterities.

11. The Salmonell
a species. Biological properties. Classification. Pathogenicity for humans and


animals. Typhoid fever. Pathogenesis. Laboratory diagnosis.

12. Salmonella as causative agents of typhoid fever and paratyphoid A and B. Biological


properties. A
ntigenic structure. Immunity Pathogenesis of typhoid fever and paratyphoid A and


B. Bacteriocarrier. Immunity. Laboratory diagnosis. Prevention


and specific treament.

13. Salmonella as causative agents of acute gastroenteritis. Biological
properties. Principles of


classification. Pathogenesis of gastroenteritis. Immunity. Laboratory diagnosis.

14. The Shigellae. Biological characteristics. Classification. Pathogenic toxins and enzymes.


Pathogenesis of dysentery. Immunity.
Laboratory diagnosis.

15. Klebsiella species. Biological properties. Klebsiella pneumoniae and it’s role in human


pathology. Klebsiella ozaenae, Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. Pathogenesis. Laboratory diagnosis


and prevention.

16. Proteus spe
cies. Biological properties. Role in human pathology. Pathogenesis if the diseases.


Laboratory diagnosis.

17. Vibrio cholerae. Biological variants. Biological properties. Pathogenicity factors. Pathogenesis


of enterotoxins
, the mechanism of action. Laboratory diagnosis and prevention.

18. Corynebacterium diphtheriae. History of studying. Biological properties. Biological


classification. Pathogenic and conditionally
-
pathogenic causes. Diphtheria toxin. Genetic



determinants of toxigenicity. Pathogenesis of the disease. Laboratory diagnosis. Specific


preventive and treatment.

19. Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Pathogenic toxins and enzymes. Pathogenesis of the disease.


Immunity. Bacteriocarrier.

Laboratory diagnosis. Methods for determining the toxigenicity of


Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Specific preventive and treatment.

20. Mycobacterium species as causes of human diseases. Saprophytic Mycobacterium. Pathogenic


and conditionally
-
pathogenic causes. The causes of tuberculosis. Biological properties.


Pathogenic toxins and enzymes. Pathogenesis of the disease. Tuberculin skin test. Laboratory


diagnosis and specific preventive.

21. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Biological

properties. Prevalence of a tuberculosis in modern


conditions. Laboratory diagnosis. Specific preventive and treatment.

22. Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Biological properties. Pathogenesis of


the disease. Laboratory

diagnosis. Specific preventive.


23. Pathogenic species among Clostridium. Biological properties. Resistance to environment


factors. Toxigenicity of Clostridium. Genetic control of toxigenicity. Role in human pathology.

24. Clostridium


t
he causes of myonecrosis and gas gangrene. Species. Biological properties.


Pathogenic toxins and enzymes. Pathogenesis of the disease. Antitoxic immunity. Laboratory


diagnosis, specific prevention and treatment.

25. Clostridium tetani.
Biological properties. Pathogenic toxins and enzymes. Pathogenesis of


the disease. Laboratory diagnosis, specific prevention and treatment.

26. Clostridium botulinum. Biological properties. Pathogenic toxins and enzymes.


Pathogenesis of
the disease. Immunity. Laboratory diagnosis, specific prevention and


treatment.

27. Clostridium difficile. Biological properties. Pathogenic toxins and enzymes.


Pathogenesis of the pseudomembranous colitis. Laboratory diagnosis.

28
. Bacill
us anthracis. Biological properties. Resistance. Pathogenecy for human and animals.


Pathogenic toxins and enzymes. Pathogenesis of anthrax. Immunity. Laboratory diagnosis and


prevention.

29. Aerobic conditionally
-
pathogenic Bacillus spe
cies. Biological properties. Pathogenic toxins and


enzymes. Role in human’s pathology. Laboratory diagnosis of the diseases.

30. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica. Biological and psychrophilic


properties. Pathogenesis o
f the diseases. Laboratory diagnisis.

31. Yersinia pestis. Biological properties..The part of famous scientists in studying of the plague.


Pathogenesis of the disease. Laboratory diagnosis and prevention of plague.

32. The Brucellae species. Biologic
al properties. Factors of pathogenicity. Pathogenicity for human


and animals. Pathogenesis of the brucellosis. Immunity. Laboratory diagnosis and prevention of


brucellosis.

33. Francisella tularensis. Biological properties. Pathogenesis of t
he disease. Immunity.


Laboratory diagnosis and prevention of tularemia.

34. Rickettsia. Classification. Biological properties. Causes of epidemic typhus and Brill
-
Zinsser


disease. Pathogenesis. Laboratory diagnosis and prevention.

35. Cause o
f Q fever. Biological properties. Pathogenesis of the disease. Immunity.


Laboratory diagnosis and prevention.

36. Chlamydiae. Biological properties. Classification. Biological properties. Factors of


pathogenicity. Cause of ornithosis. Pathog
enicity for human and birds. Pathogenesis of the


disease. Immunity. Laboratory diagnosis of chlamydial infections.

37. Cause of trachoma. Pathogenicity for human. Inclusion conjunctivitis of newborn. Urethritis.


Cervicitis. Pathogenesis of t
he disease. Laboratory diagnosis and prevention.

38. Mycoplasmas. Biological properties. Significance for a human pathology. Causes of


pneumoniae, acute respiratory diseases, urethritis, lung disease in premature infants, pregnancy


pathology
. Pathogenesis of the disease. Immunity. Prevention. Mycoplasmas of oral cavity.

39. General characteristic of spirochetes. Classification. The cause of syphilis. Biological


properties. Pathogenesis of syphilis. Immunity. Laboratory diagnosis, pre
vention, specific


treatment.

40. General characteristic of spirochetes. Classification. The causes of pinta and yaws. Biological


properties. Pathogenesis of the diseases. Epidemiology. Laboratory diagnosis.

41. Borrelia. Causes of epidemic
relapsing fever. Biological properties. Pathogenesis. Immunity.


Laboratory diagnosis, specific prevention.

42. Causes of endemic relapsing fever. Biological properties. Pathogenesis. Laboratory diagnosis,


specific prevention.

43. Leptospira.

Causes of leptospirosis. Biological properties. Pathogenicity for human and


animals. Pathogenesis of leptospirosis. Immunity. Laboratory diagnosis, specific prevention.

44. Campylobacters


the causes of inflammatory diseases and acute intestinal

diseases. Biological


properties. Species. Pathogenesis. Laboratory diagnosis.

45. Discovering of Helicobacter pylori


the causes of gastroduodenal diseases. Biological


properties. Pathogeneses of the diseases. Laboratory diagnosis. Urease’s

activity. Modern


methods of treatment.

46. The Bacteroides species. Biological properties. Pathogenicity for human. Immunity. Laboratory


diagnosis.

47. The Prevotella species. Biological properties. Pathogenicity for human. Immunity. Labo
ratory


diagnosis.

48. The Fusobacterium species. Biological properties. Pathogenicity for human. Immunity.


Laboratory diagnosis.

49. Bordetella pertussis. Biological properties. Factors of pathogenicity. Pathogenicity of pertussis.



Immunity. Laboratory diagnosis and prevention. Differentiation between causes of pertussis


and parapertussis.

50. Pseudomonas species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biological properties. Pathogenicity factors.


The role in pyo
-
inflammatory diseases and nosocomial infection. Methods of microbiological


diagnosis. Treatment.

51. Haemophilus species. Biological properties of haemophilus species. Haemophilus influenzae,


Haemophilus ducreyi. The role in human patholog
y. Methods of microbiological diagnosis.

52. Pathogenic fungi. Classification. Biological properties. Resistance. Pathogenicity factors.


Sensitivity to antibiotics.

53. Dermatophytes as causative agents of dermatomycosis (epidermophytosis, trichop
hytosis,


microsporosis, favus). Biological properties. Pathogenesis of the diseases. Methods of


microbiological diagnosis.

54. The causative agents of deep mycosis: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis.


Biological propertie
s. Pathogenesis of the diseases. Methods of microbiological diagnosis.

55. Fungi of genus Candida. Biological properties. Pathogenecity for human. Methods of


microbiological diagnosis.

56. Causes of Aspergillosis and Penicillosis. Biological prope
rties. Pathogenecity for human.


Methods of microbiological diagnosis.

57. Actinomycetes. General features. Cause of actinomycosis. Biological properties. Pathogenesis


of the disease. Immunity. Methods of microbiological diagnosis.

58. Path
ogenic protozoa. Classification. Biological properties. Plasmodium malariae. Development


cycle. Pathogenesis of malaria. Immunity. Laboratory diagnosis, specific prevention.

59. Toxoplasma, Entamoeba, Lamblia, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Trichomonas,
Balantidium.


Biological properties. The role of human pathology. Laboratory diagnosis.

60. Causes of opportunistic infections. Prevalence. Occurrence conditions of the diseases.


Polyetiology. Features of a pathogenesis.

Exogenous opportunistic infections (legionellosis,


pseudotuberculosis, listeriosis, serratiosis). Endogenous opportunistic infections. Role of normal


microflora in development of opportunistic infections. Laboratory diagnosis.

61. Nosocomia
l infections, it’s etiological structure. Nosocomial strains and ecovariants


conditionnary
-
pathogenic bacteria. Nosocomial infections linked with medicine procedures.


Pathogenesis and formation of immunity. Methods of microbiological diagnos
is. Prophylaxis.

62. Normal microflora of oral cavity, it’s role in human body. Changes of microflora composition in


the oral cavity associated with aging, the development of diseases, tooth loss. Nonspecific


protection

factors in the oral cavity. Microflora of dental plaque. The role of microflora in the


development of dental caries.

63. The role of microflora in the etiology and pathogenesis of dental caries, pulpitis, periodontitis.


Causes of periodo
ntal diseases, diseases of the oral mucosa, of hard and soft tissues of the


maxillofacial part (phlegmons, abscesses, cysts).

64. Damage to oral mucosa in various viral and bacterial infectious diseases. Stomatitis caused by


fungi. Methods of

microbiological diagnosis of oral infectious diseases.

65. Clinical Microbiology. Significance in the practice of the physician. Objects of study.


Opportunistic microorganisms. Criteria for microorganisms
-

causative agents of opportunistic



infections. Species of microorganisms causing the opportunistic infections.

66. Normal microflora of a human body. Eumicrobiocaenosis. Auhtonny and allochthonous


microflora of the person. Microflora of the skin, respiratory tracts, of the digestiv
e


(gastroenteric) tract and urogenital system. Role of a normal microflora of a human body.


Influencing Factors for the quantitative and qualitative composition of a normal microflora.


Gnotobiology.

67. Dysbacteriosis. Causes of the beg
inning. Implications of dysbacteriosis. Microbiological


diagnosis and treatment of dysbacteriosis. Probiotics.

68. Sanitary microbiology. Tasks and methods. Sanitary
-
indicative microorganisms of soil, water


and air. Microbial quantity. Quantit
ative titer, quantitative index of water. The role of water, soil


and air in the transmission of infectious diseases.

69. Sanitary microbiology. Tasks and methods. The roles of water, soil, air in the transmission of


viral pathogens. The most
frequently detected viruses in the environment. Sanitary and


bacteriological study of water.

70. Family Orthomyxoviridae. Human influenza virus. Features. Antigenic structure. The


mechanism of antigenic mutability. Pathogenesis of influenza.

Immunity. Methods of


laboratory diagnosis. Prevention.

71. Family Paramyxoviridae. Human parainfluenza virus. Mumps virus. Features. Pathogenesis of


the diseases. Immunity. Methods of laboratory diagnosis. Prevention.

72. Family
Paramyxoviridae. Virus of measles and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Respiratory


syncytial virus. Features. Pathogenesis of diseases. Immunity. Methods of laboratory diagnosis.


Prevention.

73. Family Picornaviridae. Characteristic of t
he viruse’s family. Genus of Enterovirus. Virus of


poliomyelitis. Coxsackieviruses. ECHO viruses. Features. Pathogenesis of diseases. Immunity.


Methods of laboratory diagnosis. Prevention.

74. Role of Enterovirus

in poliomyelitis’s pathology. Pathogenesis of poliomyelitis. Immunity.


Methods of laboratory diagnosis. Prevention. The problem of global eradication of


poliomyelitis.

75. Genus Rhinovirus. Features. Pathogenesis of the disease. Immunity. M
ethods of laboratory


diagnosis.

76. Genus Aphtovirus. Features. Pathogenesis of the foot
-
and
-
mouth disease. Immunity. Methods of


laboratory diagnosis. Prevention.

77. Family Retroviridae. Human immunodeficiency virus. Features. The mechanism

of antigenic


mutability. Pathogenesis of AIDS. AIDS
-
associated infections (opportunistic infections,


neoplasms, tumors). Immunity. Methods of laboratory diagnosis. Treatment.

78. Family Retroviridae. Human immunodeficiency virus. Features.
Human T
-
lymphotropic virus.


Pathogenesis of AIDS. Immunity. Methods of laboratory diagnosis. Treatment.

79. Family Reoviridae. Genus Rotavirus. Features. Pathogenesis of the disease. Immunity. Methods


of laboratory diagnosis.

80. Family Aren
aviridae. Pathogenic for human viruses: lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and


hemorrhagic fevers viruses. Features. Pathogenesis of the disease. Immunity. Methods


of laboratory diagnosis.

81. Family Rabdoviridae. Genus Lissavirus. Virus of
Rabies. Features. Pathogenecity for human


and animals. Pathogenesis of the disease. Methods of laboratory diagnosis. Preventoin.

82. Family Rabdoviridae. Genus Vesiculovirus. Vesicular stomatitis virus. Features. Pathogenesis


of

the disease. Methods of laboratory diagnosis.

83. Family Coronaviridae. General characteristics of the family. Features. Role in human’s


pathology. Methods of laboratory diagnosis.

84. Family Caliciviridae. Norwalk virus


the cause of gastroenteri
tis. Features. Role in human’s


pathology. Methods of laboratory diagnosis.

85. Family Togaviridae. Genus Rubivirus. Rubella virus. Features. Pathogenesis of rubella..


Methods of laboratory diagnosis. Prevention.

86. Family Flaviviridae. Virus

of spring
-
summer encephalitis. Features. Pathogenesis of


encephalitis. Methods of laboratory diagnosis. Prevention.

87. Family Bunyaviridae. Virus of Crimean
-
Congo hemorrhagic fever. Genus Hantavirus. Features.


Role in human pathology. Metho
ds of laboratory diagnosis.

88. Family Filoviridae. Features. Marburg virus. Ebola virus. Role in human pathology. Methods of


laboratory diagnosis.

89. Ecologic group of arboviruses: Russian spring
-
summer encephalitis virus, virus of Crimean
-



Congo hemorrhagic fever, Japanese B encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever with kidneys syndrome.


Features. Pathogenesis of the diseases. Methods of laboratory diagnosis.

90. Family Poxviridae. Genus Orthopoxvirus. Human smallpox virus. Features. Methods o
f


laboratory diagnosis.

91. Family Papillomaviridae. Features. The role in human pathology. Human Papiulloma virus


(HPV
-
16, HPV
-
18). Laboratory diagnosis.

92. Family Polyomaviridae. BK
-
virus, JC
-
virus. Features. The role in human pathology.

Laboratory


diagnosis.

93. Family Parvoviridae. B
19
-
virus. Features. Pathogenesis of diseases. The methods of laboratory


diagnosis.

94. Hepatitis A virus. The history of studying. Features. Pathogenesis of Hepatitis A virus diseases.


Immunity. The methods of laboratory diagnosis of Hepatitis A virus diseases.

95. Hepatitis B virus (Family Hepadnaviridae). The history of studying. The structure of virion.


Features. Antigens. Resistance to the physical factors. Pathogenesis of He
patitis B virus


diseases. Virus persistence. Immunity. The methods of laboratory diagnosis. Specific


prophylactics.

96.The causative agents of Hepatitis virus diseases: C, D, E, G, TTV, SENV, it’s taxonomic


position. Properties.
Pathogenesis of Hepatitis virus diseases. The methods of laboratory


diagnosis.

97. Family Herpesviridae. The general characteristic, classification. Features. The role in human


pathology. Oncogenis features of Herpesviridae. The mechanism of
herpes virus’s persistence.


Laboratory diagnosis of diseases.

98. Family Adenoviridae. Classification. Human adenovirus. Features. Pathogenesis of the diseases.


Methods of laboratory diagnosis of adenovirus diseases.

99. Stages of discovery
of the viruses carcinogenesis. Transforming mechanisms of oncogenic


viruses. The definition “oncogens”. The theories of oncogen’s genesis. Genetic theory about


tumor origin by L.O. Zilber.

100. Oncogenic DNA
-

and RNA
-
viruses (families Polyo
maviridae, Papillomaviridae,


Herpesviridae, Hepadnaviridae, Retroviridae, etc). General characteristic. Role in human


virus carcinogenesis.




101. Prions. The normal prion’s cellular protein (PrP
C
) and infectious prion’s protein (PrP
Sc
).



Physical and chemical features. Prion diseases of animals (Scrapie, Bovine spongiform


encephalopathy) and human (Kuru, Creutzfeldt
-
Jakob disease etc.). Pathogenesis of prion


diseases. The methods of postmorbidity and vital diagnos
is.





The practical tasks

for 2
-
nd modular control for students of stomatological


faculties

.


1.

Explain the bacteriological diagnosis of acute gonorrhea. Describe the smear from patient

with
acute gonorrhea. Make conclusion.

2.

Explain the bacteriological diagnosis of tuberculosis. Describe the smear from patient with
tuberculosis. Make conclusion.

3.

Explain the bacteriological diagnosis of diphtheria. Describe the smear from patient with
dip
htheria. Make conclusion.

4.

Explain the serological diagnosis of typhoid fever and paratyphoid. Describe the indirect
agglutination test. Make conclusion.

5.

Explain the serological diagnosis of typhoid fever and paratyphoid. Describe the Widal test.
Make concl
usion.

6.

Explain the serological diagnosis of syphilis. Describe the Wasserman test. Make conclusion.

7.

Explain the bacteriological diagnosis of typhoid fever and paratyphoid. Describe the biochemical
and serological identification of patient blood culture. Ma
ke conclusion.

8.

Explain the bacteriological diagnosis of dysentery. Describe the biochemical and serological
identification of coproculture isolated from patient with dysentery. Make conclusion.

9.

Explain the serological diagnosis of brucellosis. Describe the

Wright's reaction. Make conclusion.

10.

Explain the virological diagnosis of influenza. Describe the agglutination test for virus
determinination. Make conclusion about presence of virus and its titer.

11.

Explain the virological diagnosis of influenza. Describe
the hemagglutination inhibition test

for serological identification of virus. Make conclusion about virus type.

12.

Explain the serological diagnosis of influenza. Describe the hemagglutination inhibition test


with paired serum from patients. Make
conclusion about antibodies titer.

13.

Explain virological diagnosis of poliomyelitis. Determine the virus in cells culture, infected with
patient speciment, according cytopathic action and plaqes forming. Make conclusion.

14.

Explain virological diagnosis of poli
omyelitis. Describe the neutralization virus test for
serological identification of virus, isolated form patients. Make conclusion about virus type.

15.

Explain virologycal microscopy in virological diagnostics. Describe the smear of a cerebral tissue
from pat
ient (for finding of Negri bodies in).

16.

Explain the serological diagnosis of AIDS with ELISA.

17.

Explain the serological diagnosis of Hepatitis A with ELISA.

18.

Explain the serological diagnosis of Hepatitis B with ELISA.

19.

Explain the genetic method of laboratory
diagnosis of infection diseases with using polymerase
chain reaction technigue (PCR).

Explain the serological diagnosis of virus diseases. Give the examples of serological reactions used in
virology.