key curriculum concepts in grades 8 - 12 science

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Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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Grade 8 Science Curriculum (Alberta Education)

Unit A: Mix and Flow of Matter

Unit B: Cells and Systems



WHMIS symbols and nomenclature



pure substances, mixtures and solutions



solute and solvent



concentration



solubility and saturation points



particle
model of matter



properties of fluids



viscosity and flow rate



mass, volume, density



pressure



buoyancy



organisms



cells



organs



tissues



structure and function



systems



response to stimuli



health and environmental factors


Unit C: Light and Optical Systems

Unit

D: Mechanical Systems



microscopes and telescopes



contribution of technologies to scientific



development



transmission and absorption of light



sources of light



reflection and refraction



images



vision and lenses



imaging technologies



design and
f
unction



systems and subsystems



transmission of force and motion



simple machines



mechanical advantage, speed ratios and

force ratios



hydraulics and pneumatics



measurement of work in joules






Science 9 Curriculum Key Concepts (Alberta Education)

Unit A:
Biological Diversity

Unit B: Matter and Chemical Change



biological diversity




species



diversity within species




habitat diversity



niches




populations



asexual and sexual reproduction inheritance



natural and artificial selection of genetic



Characteristics




cell division

includes binary fission and formation
of sex cells



chromosomes, genes and DNA



WHMIS and safety
-
chemical



nomenclature (introductory treatment)



endothermic and exothermic reactions



reactants and products



conservation of mass



factors affecting
reaction rates



periodic table



elements, compounds and atomic theory



substances and properties

Unit C: Environmental Chemistry

Unit D: Electrical Principles and Technologies



chemicals essential to life



substrates and nutrients



air and water quality



organi
c and inorganic material



acids and bases



ingestion and absorption of materials



concentration and dispersal



evidence of toxicity



stability and biodegradability



hazards, probabilities and risk assessment



uncertainties in environmental monitoring and in
assessing toxicity and risk



forms of energy



energy transformation



generation of electrical energy



electric charge and current



circuits



electrical energy storage



renewable and nonrenewable energy



measures and units of electrical energy



electrical resistance

and Ohm’s law



energy transmission

Unit E: Space Exploration




technologies for space exploration and observation



reference frames for describing position and motion
in space



satellites and orbits



distribution of matter through space



composition and
characteristics of bodies in space



life
-
support technologies



communication technologies





Science 10 Curriculum Key Concepts (Alberta Education)

Unit A: Energy and Matter in Chemical Change

Un
it B:
Energy Flow in Technological Systems



International
Union of Pure and Applied



Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature, ionic



and
molecular compounds, acids and bases



how chemical substances meet human needs



role and need for classification of chemical change



writing and balancing
equations



WHMIS and safety practices



evidence of chemical change



law of conservation of mass and the mole concept



forms and interconversions of energy



one
-
dimensional motion design and function of
technological systems and devices involving
potential and
kinetic



energy and thermal energy conversions



technological innovations of engines that led to the
development of the concept of energy



mechanical energy conversions and work



efficient use of energy, and the environmental
impact of inefficient use of



energ
y

Unit C:
Cycling of Matter in Living Systems

Unit D:
Energy Flow in Global Systems



microscopy and the emergence of cell theory



cell specialization in multicellular organisms; i.e.,
plants



use of explanatory and visual models in science



mechanisms of
transport, gas exchange, and
environmental response in multicellular organisms;
i.e., plants



cellular structures and functions, and technological
applications



relationship between cell size and shape, and
surface area to volume ratio



active and passive t
ra
nsport of matter



social and environmental contexts for investigating
climate change



solar radiation budget



relationship between biomes, solar energy and
climate



climate zones, transfer of thermal energy by the
hydrosphere and the atmosphere



hydrologic cycl
e and phase change



human activity and climate change




Science 14 Curriculum Key Concepts (Alberta Education)

Unit A: Investigating Properties of Matter

Unit B:
Understanding Energy Transfer
Technologies



safe handling, storage and
disposal of

household
chemicals



solutions and solubility of household substances



dilution and concentration



preparing solutions



elements and compounds



(WHMIS) and consumer product symbols



the periodic table: metals, nonmetals and metalloids



separating mixt
ures



acids and bases




corrosion and rusting




cooling and heating systems based on

radiation,
convection, conduction



methods to reduce the loss of heat from buildings,
our bodies and constructed devices



specific heat capacity



energy transfer (work), force
and distance



particle model of matter, temperature, thermal
energy and heat



simple machines as force or distance multipliers that
transfer energy



protection against thermal energy transfer



reducing reliance on nonrenewable energy sources

Unit C:
Investiga
ting Matter and Energy in Living
Systems

Unit D:
Investigating Matter and Energy in the
Environment



structures and functions of, and the relationship
between, the digestive and circulatory systems



diets and human nutritional needs



microscopy, structure an
d function of plant and
animal cell parts, and the cell theory



capture, storage and use of energy by living
organisms



photosynthesis and respiration



social influences on human dietary
-
induced
disorders and circulatory diseases



life functions common to
living systems



functions of cells in organs and organ systems



role of technology to monitor life functions



role of living organisms in cycling matter



food chains, food webs and energy pyramids



recycling of human
-
generated wastes



impact of modern agricultur
al technologies



field study of ecosystems



factors affecting population growth



flow of energy through the biosphere



maintaining equilibrium in the biosphere



biodegradable materials



biotic and abiotic factors and ecosystems



human impact on ecosystems





Science 2
0 Curriculum Key Concepts (Alberta Education)

Unit A:
Chemical Changes

Unit B:
Changes in Motion



electrolytes



nonelectrolytes



concentration






oxidation/anode



reduction/cathode



spontaneity



applications of oxidation
-
reduction reactions



voltaic cell



electrolytic cell



naming and drawing structural formulas for



saturated/unsaturated hydrocarbons
(containing up to eight carbon atoms in the parent
chain)



hydrocarbon reactions important to industry in
Alberta




displacement, tim
e, velocity, acceleration



conservation of momentum in one dimension



impulse and force



Newton’s laws of motion



application of laws of motion and principles of
momentum in the design of sports equipment a
nd
transportation safety device

Unit C:
The Changing
Earth

Unit D:
Changes in Living Systems



Earth’s internal structure



theory of plate tectonics



energy transmission in earthquakes



fossilization, radiometric dating and half
-
life



evidence of variations in Earth’s climate



major characteristics and life forms
of past eras



gradualism compared to punctuated equilibrium



mass extinctions



biotic and abiotic factors



population size



primary and secondary succession



habitat destruction, reclamation



species diversity



human interventions in biogeochemical (nitrogen,
carb
on, water) cycles



autotrophs, heterotrophs, food chains, food webs



trophic levels, biomass, energy and pyramids



human population growth, biodiversity and carrying
capacity



adaptation of organisms, natural selection



evidence for the theory of evolution




Science 24 Curriculum Key Concepts (Alberta Education)

Unit A: Applications of Matter and Chemical
Change

Unit B: Understanding Common Energy
Conversion Systems



commonly used materials, and chemical change in
everyday life




evidence of chemical change



writing and interpreting word and chemical
equations



describing and classifying combustion and rusting
reactions, acid

base reactions, and simple
composition and decomposition reactions



environmental effects of chemical change
Technologies



conservation of
mass in chemical change



chemical reactions at home and in the workplace



energy transformation and conservation



electrical household devices as converters of energy,
and energy consumption



rate of energy transfer and efficiency



formation, extraction and com
bustion of fossil fuels



generation and distribution of electricity



chemical and energy changes in chemical and
biological systems



living organisms as energy converters



fossil fuel based technologies and quality of life for
future generations

Unit C:
Disease Defense and Human Health

Unit D:
Motion, Change and Transportation
Safety



social impact on human health



role of environmental factors (toxins, pathogens)
and genetic factors on human health



human actions to reduce contamination by
pathogens



natura
l and artificial immunization



role of the human body’s defense systems



communicable and non
-
communicable diseases



impact of recent genetic research on societal
decision making



principles of simple inheritance



reaction time, speed and safe following distanc
e



collisions and conservation of momentum



transportation safety regulations



graphical and mathematical analysis of the
relationships among speed, distance and time



effects of lengthening and shortening duration of
collision



safety systems designed to reduc
e impact of
collisions






Science 30 Curriculum Key Concepts (Alberta Education)

Unit A:
Living Systems Respond to Their
Environment

Unit B:
Chemistry and the Environment



structure and function of the circulatory system



immune response and defense
mechanisms to
pathogens



cardiovascular health



principles of Mendelian genetics



composition of human blood tissue and the role of
blood



deoxyribonucleic acid DNA and protein synthesis



chromosomal behavior



mutations and gene therapy



acids and bases



stoichiom
etry and titration of strong monoprotic
acids and strong monoprotic bases



buffers and buffering capacity



sources, uses and environmental effects of organic
compounds



pH and hydronium ion concentration



sources and environmental impact of SOx, NOx, acid
depo
sition and photochemical smog



biomagnification and persistence of pollutants

Unit C:

Electromagnetic Energy

Unit D:
Energy and the Environment



devices based on electric and magnetic fields
(electric motors, generators and transformers)



the
electromagnetic spectrum, its properties and its
effects on living tissue



technologies used to study the structure and history
of the universe



basic properties of field theory for the comparison of
gravitational, electric and magnetic fields



principles of
field theory and applications in
technology



circuitry



global energy consumption and its impact on the
biosphere



sources of renewable energy



conversion of solar energy, fossil fuels and wind and
water power into thermal and electrical energy



heats of format
ion and Hess’s law



balancing energy use with sustainable development



fission and fusion, nuclear change



nuclear, wind, hydro, biomass, tidal, solar, fuel cell
and geothermal alternative energy technologies





Biology 20

Curriculum Key Concepts (Alberta Education)

Unit A:
Energy and Matter Exchange in the
Biosphere

Unit B:
Ecosystems and Population Change



biosphere



trophic levels



food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids
(energy, biomass and numbers)



equilibrium



water properties



carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and phosphorus cycles



ecosystem



niche



biotic/abiotic characteristics



evidence for evolution



limiting factors



binomial nomenclature



adaptation and variation



population



natural selection



species

Unit C:
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Unit D:
Human Systems



absorption of light by pigments



light
-
dependent and independent reactions



Krebs cycle



Glycolysis



electron transport systems



aerobic and anaerobic respiration



structure and function of major sys
tems: respiratory,
digestive, excretory, circulatory and motor



digestive enzymes



gas exchange



chemical nature of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids



chemical and physical digestion



renal function



composition of blood



immune response



muscle contraction





Biology 30 Curriculum Key Concepts (Alberta Education)

Unit A: Nervous and Endocrine Systems

Unit B:

Reproduction and Development



neuron




reflex arcs



sensory receptors



nerve impulse transmission



central and peripheral nervous systems



endocrine and
nervous system interactions



endocrine system and hormones



homeostasis and feedback systems



male and female reproductive systems



reproductive hormones



embryonic and fetal development



parturition



lactation



reproductive technologies

Unit C:
Cell Division, Ge
netics and Molecular
Biology

Unit D:
Population and Community Dynamics



cell cycle



karyotype



probability



polygenic and multiple allelic traits



replication



mutation



mitosis and meiosis



alternation of generations



Mendel’s laws of heredity



monohybrid,
dihybrid and sex
-
linked inheritance



transcription



genetic engineering



chromosome number



gene linkage



model of DNA



incomplete dominance and co
-
dominance



translation



Hardy
-
Weinberg principle



gene pool



succession



determiners of population size: natality,
mortality,
immigration, emigration



symbiotic relationships and other interactions



natural selection



r
-

and K
-
selected reproductive strategies



population growth rate and population growth
curves






Chemistry 20 Curriculum Key Concepts (Alberta Education)

Unit A: The Diversity of Matter and Chemical
Bonding

Unit B: Gases



chemical bond



ionic bond



covalent bond



polarity



electronegativity



intramolecular and intermolecular forces



hydrogen bond



Lewis structures



valence electron



valence
-
shell electron
-
pair
repulsion (VSEPR)
theory



electron dot diagrams



Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales



standard temperature and pressure (STP)



law of combining volumes



standard ambient temperature and pressure (SATP)



ideal gas law



absolute zero



real and ideal gases



Charles’s law



Boyle’s law

Unit C: Matter as Solutions, Acids and Bases

Unit D: Quantitative Relationships in Chemical
Changes



homogeneous mixtures



electrolyte/nonelectrolyte



monoprotic/polyprotic acid



dilution



indicators Arrhenius (modified) theory of
acids
and bases



hydroxide ion/pOH



solubility



concentration



monoprotic/polyprotic base



strong acids and bases



weak acids and bases



hydronium ion/pH



neutralization



chemical reaction equations



net ionic equations



limiting and excess reagents



actual, theoretic
al and percent yield



spectator ions



precipitation



reaction stoichiometry



titration curves for strong acids and bases



titration



end point



equivalence point






Chemistry 30 Curriculum Key Concepts (Alberta Education)

Unit A: Thermochemical Changes

Unit B:
Electrochemical Changes



enthalpy of formation



enthalpy of reaction



fuels and energy efficiency



activation energy



ΔH notation



molar enthalpy



energy diagrams



Hess’ law



Catalysts



calorimetry



oxidation
-
reduction (redox) reaction



oxidation number



disproportionation



standard reduction potential



standard cell potential



Faraday’s law



oxidizing agent



reducing agent



half
-
reaction



spontaneity



electrolytic cell



oxidation



reduction



voltaic cell



electrolysis



corrosion

Unit C:
Chemical Changes of Organic
Compounds

Unit D:
Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid
-
Base Systems



aliphatic and aromatic compounds



saturated/unsaturated hydrocarbons



combustion reactions



polymerization



functional groups identifying alcohols, carboxylic
acids, esters and halogenated h
ydrocarbons



organic compounds



naming organic compounds



addition, substitution



esterification



elimination



structural formulas



structural isomers



monomers



polymers



chemical equilibrium systems



Brønsted

Lowry acids and bases



conjugate pairs of acids and bases



equilibrium law expression



reversibility of reactions



Le Chatelier’s principle



amphiprotic substances



acid
-
base equilibrium



titration curves



buffers



equilibrium constants Kc , Kw , Ka , Kb



indicators





Physics 20 Curriculum Key Concepts (Alberta Educat
ion)

Unit A: Kinematics

Unit B: Dynamics



scalar quantities



vector quantities



uniform motion



uniformly accelerated motion



two
-
dimensional motion



Newton’s laws of motion



static and kinetic friction



gravitational field



Newton’s law of universal gravitation



Inertia



vector addition



gravitational force

Unit C: Circular Motion, Work and Energy

Unit D: Oscillatory Motion and Mechanical Waves



uniform circular motion



conservation of mechanical energy



mechanical energy



work
-
energy theorem



planetary and satellite
motion



power



Kepler’s laws



isolated systems



oscillatory motion



simple harmonic motion



oscillating spring, pendulum



mechanical waves

longitudinal and transverse



restoring force



mechanical resonance



acoustic resonance



universal wave equation



reflection



interference



Doppler effect





Physics 30 Curriculum Key Concepts (Alberta Education)

Unit A: Momentum and Impulse

Unit B: Forces and Fields



impulse



momentum



Newton’s laws of motion



elastic collisions



inelastic collisions



electric charge



interaction of

charges with electric and magnetic fields



vector fields



electric field



electric potential difference



conservation of charge



charge quantization

Millikan’s experiment



magnetic field



Coulomb’s law



electromagnetic induction

Unit C: Electromagnetic Radiation

Unit D: Atomic Physics



speed of EMR



propagation of EMR



total internal reflection



photoelectric effect



reflection



refraction



Compton effect



Diffraction



Interference



Snell’s law



charge
-
to
-
mass ratio (Thomson’s experiment)



classical model of the atom
(Rutherford, Bohr)



energy levels (states)



de Broglie hypothesis



Standard Model of matter



spectra: continuous, line emission and line absorption



quantum mechanical model



half
-
life



nuclear decay



nuclear reactions