Biotechnology 2nd Semester Review Part 2

rapidparentBiotechnology

Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

233 views

Biology 2
nd

Semester Review Part 2


Chapter 13 (Genetic Engineering)

Match the following terms with their correct definitions.

1.

___ clone

2.

___ gel electrophoresis

3.

___ hybridization

4.

___ inbreeding

5.

___ PCR (polymerase
chain reaction)

6.

___
recombinant DNA

7.

___ restriction enzyme

8.

___ selective breeding

9.

___ transgenic organism

a.

a method of improving a species by allowing only those individual organisms
with desired characteristics to produce the next generation

b.

the breeding technique that involv
es crossing dissimilar individuals to bring
together the best traits of both organisms

c.

the continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics

d.

the enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides

e.

the procedure used to separate and anal
yze DNA fragments by placing a mixture
of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage
to the gel

f.

DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources

g.

the technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a
pa
rticular gene

h.

a term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms

i.

a member of a population of genetically identical organisms produced from a
single cell

10.

How and when are restriction enzymes used?





11.

How does gel electrophoresis work? What is it used for?





12.

Explain the process of cell transformation.





13.

Why is hybridization and selective breeding better than inbreeding?





Chapter 14 (Genetic Analysis)

1.

What’s the difference between sex chromosomes

and autosomes?





2.

What is non
-
disjunction?





3.

Why are sex
-
linked disorders more common in males?





4.

What is a carrier? Why can’t males be carriers of sex
-
linked disorders?


5.

In the following pedigree, polydactylous (having extra fingers)
is dominant
and pentadactylous (having 5 fingers) is recessive.

a.

What is the genotype of the first generation parents (I
-
1
and I
-

2)?





b.

Does this pedigree show carriers? Why or why not?





c.

If individual III
-
4 were to marry a normal female, what are
the chances they
would have polydactyl children? Explain
with a Punnett square.




6.

Use the karyotyp
e below to answer the following:

a.

Is the individual male or female? How do you know?




b.

What genetic disorder is shown in the karyotype? How
do you know?






Chapter 15 & 17

(Evolution)

Match the following terms with their correct definitions.

1.

___adaptation

2.

___adaptive radiation

3.

___artificial selection

4.

___coevolution

5.

___common descent

6.

___convergent evolution

7.

___descent with modification

8.

___fitness

9.

___gradualism

10.

___index fossil

11.

___mass extinction

12.

___natural selection

13.

___punctuated equilibrium

14.

___radioactive dating

15.

___relative dating


a.

the selection of humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation
among different organisms

b.

the ability

of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment

c.

the inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival

d.

the process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment
survive and reproduce most successfully; a
lso called survival of the fittest

e.

the principle that each living species has descended, with changes, from other
species over time

f.

the principle that all living things have common ancestors

g.

method of determining the age of a fossil by comparing its placem
ent with that
of fossils in other layers of rocks

h.

distinctive fossil used to compare the relative ages of fossils

i.

technique in which scientists calculate the age of a sample based on the
amount of remaining radioactive isotopes it contains

j.

event in which m
any types of living things die out at the same time

k.

process by which a single species or small group of species evolves into
several different forms that live in different ways; rapid growth in the diversity
of a group of organisms

l.

process by which unrelat
ed organisms independently evolve similarities when
adapting to similar environments

m.

process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other

n.

pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief
periods of more rapid c
hange

o.

a slow, steady process of evolution

16.

What is the endosymbiotic theory?





17.

What evidence

have scientists found

to support evolution?





Chapter 18

(Classification)

1.

What is binomial
nomenclature?




2.

Which taxon is most inclusive and which is least inclusive?




3.

How are organisms classified?





4.

How has the classification of organisms changed over time?





5.

How are Eubacteria and Archaebacteria similar and different?







6.

How are Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals similar? How are they different?








Chapter 27.4 (Mollusks)

Match each of the following terms with their descriptions (1 point each)
1.

______ Foot

2.

______ Mantle

3.

______ Nephridia

4.

______ Radula

5.

______ Shell

6.

______ Siphon

7.

______ Visceral mass


a.


is muscular and used for moving, feeding, and capturing prey

b.

Provides structure and support

c.

Tissue covering most of the body

d.

Contains the internal organs

e.

Tongue
-
like structure used for feeding

f.

Structure use
d for filter feeding

g.

Nitrogen elimination tube

8.

What makes an animal a mollusk?





9.

How have the foot and shell changed/compare between each of the three classes of mollusks?





10.

Explain the main characteristics for each of the following classes of mollusks and give an example of
each.

a.

Cephalopods

b.

Gastropods

c.

Bivalves







Chapter 28 (Sections 1
-
3)

Arthropods

1.

What do all arthropods have in
common?




2.

Explain the main characteristics for each of the following classes
/subclasses

of
arthropods

and give an
example of each.

a.

Crustaceans





b.

Uniramians






c.

Insects





d.

Chelicerae





3.

What evolutionary
adaptations have arthropods gained over time?





4.

How and why do arthropods molt?





5.

How are complete and incomplete metamorphosis similar and different?