NASA Vision and Mission

rangebeaverMechanics

Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 3 months ago)

59 views

1

NASA Vision and Mission

NASA’s Mission


To understand and protect our home planet


To explore the Universe and search for life


To inspire the next generation of explorers



…as only NASA can.

2

NASA Headquarters Organization

Education

Code N

NASA ADMINISTRATOR
-

Sean O’Keefe

Deputy Administrator

Chief of Staff

Chief Engineer

Chief Financial Officer

Chief Scientist
-

John Grunsfeld

Chief Technologist

Chief Health and Medical Officer
-

Rich Williams


OBPR

Biological and
Physical Research


Code U

Aerospace
Technology

Code R

Space Flight

Code M

Earth Science

Code Y

Space Science

Code S

Safety and Mission
Assurance

Code Q

3

7

Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR)

OBPR Research Plan

ReMaP
Task Force Priority Ranking
ReMaP
Task Force Priority Ranking
1st
Priority
Environ.
Monitoring
& Control
Advanced Life
Support (& parts
of Gravitational
Ecology)
Propulsion
& Power
Physiology
(Combine
Integrated & Organ
System)
Radiation
Health
Clinical/
Operational
Medicine
Behavior &
Performance
Cell & Molecular Biology
(Combined with Molecular
Structures & Interactions and
Cell Science & Tissue Engineering)
Organismal /
Comparative
Biology
2nd
Priority
Human Factors
Engineering
Fire Safety
Developmental
Biology
Commercial Engineering
Research & Technology
(6 areas)
Phase
Transformation
Fluid Stability
& Dynamics
Kinetics,
Structure &
Transport
Fundamental
Laws
Energy
Conversion
Condensed
Matter
Radiation
Protection
Thermophysical,
Physiochemical &
Biophysical Properties
Structural
Biology
Biotechnology
3rd
Priority
Bio-inspired/
Microfluidics
Technology
Indicates
Commercial Program
Extravehicular
Activity
Biomolecular
Technology
& Sensors
Mission
Resource
Production
Environmental Health
(& parts of
Gravitational Ecology)
Evolutionary
Biology
Materials
Synthesis &
Processing
Agribusiness
Advanced
Materials
4th
Priority
Consider
Termination
Medical
Biological
Physical
ReMAP

NASA Strategic Plan

Then

Robust Strategy for Sci entific Discovery:
Stepping Stones to Human and Robotic Exploration
We are developing a robust, integrated expl orati on strategy to guide our i nvestments.
Through our new buildi ng-block capabil ities and scienti fic discoveri es, we create stepping-stones to the future while
steadil y increasing our abil ity to conduct ever more chal lenging robotic and human missi ons.
OBPR Enterprise

Strategy

How can we
educate

and
inspire

the next generations to take

the journey?

How does life
respond

to gravity and space environments?

What new opportunities can our research bring to
expand

our

understanding of the laws of nature and
enrich

lives on Earth?


What technology must we create to
enable

the next explorers to go

beyond where we have been?

How can we assure the
survival

of humans traveling far from Earth?

The Organizing Questions

…The OBPR Mission

Humans will extend the exploration of space.

To prepare for and hasten the journey, OBPR

must answer these questions through its

research,
principally on the ISS
:

NASA Advisory Council
(NAC), September, 2002:
“NASA’s Office of Biological
and Physical Research
(OBPR) made good use of
the ReMaP report. OBPR
further prioritized the high
priority research programs
defined by ReMaP, as NAC
had requested…The process
by which OBPR did this was
clear and credible.”

10 years

25 years

http://spaceresearch.nasa.gov/research_projects/resplans.html

5

How can we
educate

and
inspire

the next generation to

take the journey?

How does life
respond

to gravity and space environments?

What new opportunities can our research bring

to
expand

our understanding of the laws of nature

and
enrich

lives on Earth?

What technology must we create to
enable

the next

explorers to go beyond where we have been?

How can we assure the
survival

of humans traveling far

from earth?

OBPR’s Organizing Questions



Humans will extend the exploration of space.

To prepare for and hasten the journey, OBPR

must answer these questions through its

research:

(http://spaceresearch.nasa.gov/general_info/strat_lite.html)

6

Organizing Question 1.

How can we assure the survival of humans traveling far from Earth?

Research

Targets

Mitigate and
manage human
adaptation risks

55 risks identified for
outcome
-
driven research

Today

2004
-
2008

2009
-
2016

Promising countermeasures
identified and studied

Knowledge obtained using
ground
-
based mechanistic
studies

Characterize and assess
critical risks

Advance understanding of
mechanisms

Develop and test candidate
countermeasures w/ ground
analogs and space flight

Evaluate and validate system
-
targeted countermeasures to
prevent or reduce risks

Complete initial in
-
flight testing of
optimized set of countermeasures
(artificial gravity with other
countermeasures)

Reduce
uncertainties and
prevent exposure to
space radiation
environments

Maintain
behavioral health
and optimal
function of crews

Develop
autonomous
medical care
capabilities

Uncertainties exist in
estimating radiation risks

Study of mechanistic effects
in work

Exposure mitigated using EVA
scheduling and dose limits

Reduce uncertainty by one
-
half

Expand mechanistic
understanding using other
models

Develop and test new
countermeasures

Psychosocial functioning and
behavioral health status
studied for individuals

Sleep protocols implemented

Psychosocial function and
performance studied for small
groups in remote settings

Assure at a 95
-
percent
confidence interval crewmembers
will not exceed radiation risk
limits for longer
-
duration missions

Test and evaluate biomedical and
operational countermeasures

Identify key psychosocial and
psychological stressors

Develop and test assessment
methods, tools, and models

Develop and test optimized
countermeasures through
ground and space research

Identification and increased
understanding of psychosocial
and behavioral health issues

Validate assessment methods
and tools

Verify and validate
countermeasure strategies

Stabilize and return medical
care model developed

Screening and select
-
in
criteria in place for current
mission scenarios

Develop standardized approach
to track health status

Determine clinical trends and
define acceptable levels of risk

Perform research to enhance
medical capabilities, including
screening, countermeasures,
and treatment regimens

Determine acceptable levels of
risk for longer
-
duration missions,
and test and validate
countermeasures

Identify and assess crew
screening and certification for
longer
-
duration missions

Demonstrate autonomous
medical care capabilities

Research

Capabilities

Ground labs including
analogs, Shuttle, ISS

Ground labs including
analogs, Shuttle, ISS

Ground labs including analogs
and integrated testing, Shuttle,
ISS, free flyers

Ability of
humans to
retain function
and remain
healthy during
and after long
-
duration
missions
beyond low
-
Earth orbit

O
U
T
C
O
M
E

7

1)
How does the human body adapt to space flight and
what are the most effective/efficient ways to counteract
those adaptive affects when hazardous?

2)
How can we limit the risk of harmful health effects
associated with exposure of human space explorers to
the space radiation environments?

3)
How can we provide an optimal environment to support
behavioral health and human performance of the crew
before, during, and after space flight?

4)
How can we enable autonomous medical care in
space?


8

Past and current areas of NASA/NIH collaboration


Flight
-

NIH missions, Neurolab, STS
-
95, physiological effects of sex
differences


Ground
-

Spaceline with NLM, joint NSCORTs and jointly
-
funded RFPs in a
variety of disciplines, NIH AO, NASA shared use of NIH GCRCs


Potential areas for NASA/NIH collaboration


Research to develop therapeutics, procedures, techniques, and equipment
needed to address flight medical, safety, and performance issues.



Examples of specific topic areas of possible mutual interest for ground
-
based or flight research


Improved strategies to prevent bone and muscle loss and other
physiological “pathologies” in space


Prediction, understanding and treatment of radiation damage


New technology for quickly and accurately monitoring crew health


Technologies for autonomous medical diagnosis and treatment in remote
locations


Behavioral health of isolated small groups working under stressful
conditions


9

Organizing Question 2.

How does life respond to gravity and space environments?

Research

Targets

Determine how
genomes and cells
respond to gravity

Data on various cell
types collected in short
-
term studies

Today

2004
-
2008

2009
-
2016

Develop physical and genetic
models of cellular responses
to space environments for at
least two cell types

Develop cell
-
based model
assays to identify cellular
systems affected by space;
Integrate biological effects with
cell communications

Determine how gravity
affects organisms at
critical stages of
development and
maturation

Understand
interactions among
groups of simple
and complex
organisms

Determine how Earth
-
based life can best
adapt to different
space environments
through multiple
generations

Incomplete life cycle and
ground
-
based data
gathered from short
-
duration flights

Use ground
-
based simulators,
nanosatellites and ISS to
determine gravity responses
for a wide variety of
organisms

Ground
-
based virulence
studies performed, lack
systems supporting
mixed organisms in
space

Determine gravity thresholds
and developmental responses
in space using centrifuges on
ISS

Model effects of space
environments on pathogenic
and cooperative interactions
among species

Identify microorganisms that
become pathogenic or
otherwise alter function in
space environments

Preliminary multi
-
generation flight research
performed on plants

Raise species from multiple
kingdoms through several
generations in flight; focus on
reproductive success

Raise mammals through
multiple generations in flight;
investigate developmental
adaptations and critical issues

Research

Capabilities

Ground labs, Shuttle, ISS

Ground labs, Shuttle, ISS,
nanosatellites

Ground labs including analogs
and integrated testing, Shuttle,
ISS, free flyers

Ability to
predict the
responses of
cells,
molecules,
organisms,
and
ecosystems
to space
environments

O
U
T
C
O
M
E

10

1)
How do space environments affect life at
molecular and cellular levels?


2)
How do space environments affect organisms
throughout their lives?


3)
How do space environments influence
interactions between organisms?


4)
How can life be sustained and thrive in space
across generations?


11

Potential areas for NASA/NIH collaboration


Research to elucidate fundamental mechanisms underlying
molecular, cellular, developmental, and physiological


responses to gravity, radiation, other environmental stresses.



Examples of specific topic areas of possible mutual interest for
ground
-
based or flight research


Genomics research


Mechanistic understanding of bone and muscle loss, vertigo,
neurological disorders, virulence and pathogenicity, cancer, blood
cell regeneration, and altered immune responsiveness.


Molecular and cellular basis of radiation damage and repair


Cell structure formation and adaptation


Microbial ecology, evolution, pharmaceutical production


New technologies for
in situ

biological research


Development of handheld biodetection devices


Nanosatellites .



QuickTime™ and a
Video decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
12

Organizing Question 3.

What new opportunities can our research bring to expand




understanding of the laws of nature and enrich lives on Earth?

Research

Targets

Determine how
space environments
change physical and
chemical processes

Research hampered by
gravity
-
driven effects; gravity
effects not understood in
many technologies

Today

2004
-
2008

2009
-
2016

Conduct ground and flight
research to develop and
validate models for fluid,
thermal, combustion, and
solidification processes

Test extended range models
for heat transfer and
microfluidic control, turbulent
and high
-
pressure combustion
validation; nanotechnology
-
based materials with enhanced
and adaptive properties

Understand how
structure and
complexity arise in
nature

Understand the
fundamental laws
governing time
and matter

Identify the
biophysical
mechanisms that
control the cellular
and physiological
behavior observed
in the space
environment

Limited experimental data
collected on self
-
assembly,
self
-
organization, and
structure development
processes

Conduct ground and space
research in solidification
dynamics, colloidal photonics,
carbon nanostructures

Data of unprecedented
accuracy obtained in
microgravity

Research new technologies for
advanced photonic materials

Conduct research in dynamics
of quantum liquids, atomic
clock reference for space

Test Bose
-
Einstein condensates
atom laser theories

Results obtained from
Earth
-
based bioreactor and
space
-
based tissue culture
need validation; space
-
based improvements in
protein crystal structures
need validation

Conduct tissue
-
based
research and engineering in
space test models for fluid
-
stress and cellular response
mechanisms

Test control strategies for
cellular response to fluid
stresses

Research

Capabilities

Ground labs, Shuttle, ISS,
KC
-
135 aircraft

Ground labs, Shuttle, ISS,
KC
-
135 aircraft

Ground labs, Shuttle, ISS,
KC
-
135 aircraft, free flyers

Application of
physical
knowledge to new
technologies and
processes,
particularly in
areas of power,
materials,
manufacturing,
fire safety

New insights

into theories on
fundamental
physics, physical/
chemical
processes, and
self
-
organization
in structure

O
U
T
C
O
M
E

Test solidification models
using industrial systems

Conduct flight investigations in
turbulent combustion, granular
material systems, and flows

Develop technology for
nanogravity satellite relativity
experiments

Use satellite experiments to test
second
-
order models of general
relativity

Quantify key physiological
signals

Complete space
-
based
flight research and establish
validation of impact on
structural biology

Integrate NASA technologies
and research with biomedical
needs

13

Organizing Question 3.

What new opportunities can our research bring to expand




understanding of the laws of nature and enrich lives on Earth?

Research

Targets

How can research
partnerships
-
both
market
-
driven and
interagency
-
support
national goals, such
as contributing to
economic growth
and sustaining
human capital in
science and
technology

RPC
-
built hardware flying;
research spans broad range
relevant to Earth
-
based
industrial applications

Today

2004
-
2008

2009
-
2016

Increase focus on NASA needs,
while maintaining industrial
partnership


Direct research towards Earth
-

and Space
-
based applications


Apply capabilities and
experience of RPCs in building
space fllight hardware to new
ISS facilities

Achieve backing by industrial
partnerships towards
exploration opportunities


Apply RPC approach to new
flight opportunities in LEO and
beyond

Research

Capabilities

Ground labs, Shuttle, ISS,
KC
-
135 aircraft

Ground labs, Shuttle, ISS,
KC
-
135 aircraft

Ground labs, Shuttle, ISS,
KC
-
135 aircraft, free flyers

Application of
physical
knowledge to new
technologies and
processes,
particularly in
areas of power,
materials,
manufacturing,
fire safety

New insights

into theories on
fundamental
physics, physical/
chemical
processes, and
self
-
organization
in structure

O
U
T
C
O
M
E

14

NASA
-
OBPR Strategic Question 3:


What new opportunities can research bring to expand understanding of the laws of nature and enrich
lives on Earth?


a)
How do space environments change physical, chemical, and biophysical processes, the essential building
blocks of many critical technologies?

b)
How do structure and complexity arise in nature?

c)
Where can our research advance our knowledge of the fundamental laws governing time and matter?

d)
What biophysical mechanisms control the cellular and physiological behavior observed in the space
environment?

e)
How can research partnerships
-
both market
-
driven and
interagency
-

support national goals, such as
contributing to the economic growth and sustaining human capital in science and technology?


Interdisciplinary Research Program for Space Exploration

The output of research in Question 3 impacts other OBPR research

questions through the acquisition of knowledge and the development
of new technology

15

NASA
-
OBPR Strategic Question 3

Relevance to NIH

NASA/OBPR focused strategic research sub
-
question addressed:

What biophysical mechanisms control the cellular and

physiological behavior observed in the space environment?




The program pursues scientific answers and develops focused technologies
required for the implementation of human space exploration missions


The program uniquely leverages advances in physical sciences and
engineering to enable progress in space biomedical care and life support
capabilities


The research program has three primary elements:


1.
Cellular Biotechnology: Space
-
based research


2.
Technology Development: Biomedical Engineering and Biomolecular Physics
and Chemistry

3.
Private Sector Teaming and Academic Research: NASA Research
Partnership Centers and NASA Bioscience and Engineering Institute












16

PRIVATE SECTOR PARTNERSHIP RESEARCH


SUPPORTING ORGANIZING QUESTIONS

1.
How can we assure the survival of humans traveling far from earth?


Research in osteoprotegerin to mitigate bone loss in astronauts and terrestrial application for patient populations


Pathogen detection and mitigation


Remote medical diagnostic capability


Closed environment system development and advances


Plant growth research


Environmental monitoring including food and water quality


2.
How does life respond to gravity and the space environment?


Genomics research


Protein crystal growth and structure based drug design


Cell structure formation and adaptation


Microbial research including bacterial growth patterns, with terrestrial application in pharmaceutical production


3. What new opportunities can research bring to expand understanding of the laws of nature and enrich lives on Earth?


Improved ceramic materials for hip and knee transplants


Fire suppression technology for spacecraft systems and environmentally safer fire suppression capabilities


Zeolite crystal growth research for chemical and refining industries and potential medical applications


Research in thermophysical and metallurgical properties towards improved alloys and casting processes.


Adaptation of remote sensing technology for hyperspectral scanning to identify early stages of skin disease or wound
severity


4. What technology must we create to enable the next explorers to go beyond where we have been?


Communication technology development


Spacecraft systems development


Power and propulsion


High definition, space
-
hardened communication systems



17

Organizing Question 4.

What technology must we create to enable the next explorers



to go beyond where we have been?

Research

Targets

Increase efficiency
through life
-
support
system closure

Current ISS baseline is a
90
-
day resupply

Today

2004
-
2008

2009
-
2016

Components with improved
efficiency are the focus

Develop technologies that lower
Equivalent System Mass (ESM)

Perform integrated testing of
lower ESM life
-
support
technologies and subsystems in
relevant environments

Perform on
-
orbit validation of
critical components and
certification of life
-
support
technologies for missions
beyond LEO

Enable engineering
systems and
advanced materials
for safe and
efficient space
travel

Enable self
-
supporting and
autonomous
human
-
systems
for performance
in habitable
environments

Develop
advanced
environmental
monitoring and
control systems

High
-
mass/cost, low
-
performance materials
used

Understanding of low
-

and
partial
-
gravity issues
incomplete

Develop and test low
-

and
partial
-
gravity fluid and thermal
engineering systems

Develop and test design tools
for advanced materials and in
-
space fabrication, and validate
on ISS

Predictive methods and
models limited for habitability
analysis, information
management, crew training,
multi
-
agent team task
analysis, integrated human
systems engineering

ISS experiments to test
prototype engineering systems

Complete development of
advanced materials for
radiation
-
shielding solutions

Validate prototype low
-

and
partial
-
gravity resource
-
generation technologies

Define and develop habitats
that optimize human
performance

Develop tools and models for
human
-
systems integration

Validate habitat designs for
multiple missions

Validate human
-
system design
simulation

Deliver validated design require
-
ments and integrated simulation
tools for multiple missions

Technologies exist for
partial monitoring of ISS
environment

Individual sensors developed

Develop sensing capabilities for
90% of existing air Spacecraft
Maximum Allowable
Concentrations (SMACs)

Develop miniaturized,
reali
-
time, efficient sensing
capabilities for air and
water

Validate integrated systems

Research

Capabilities

Ground facilities, simulators,
Shuttle, ISS, KC
-
135 aircraft

Ground facilities, Shuttle, ISS,
KC
-
135 aircraft

Integrated ground test
facilities, Shuttle, ISS, KC
-
135
aircraft, free flyers

New
technologies
that provide for
more efficient,
reliable, and
autonomous
systems for
sustainable
human
presence
beyond low
-
Earth orbit

O
U
T
C
O
M
E

Develop sensing capabilities
and SMACs to monitor water

Develop autonomous controls
architecture design

Perform integrated testing of
life
-
support systems with
humans in the loop

18


1.
How can we enable the next generation of autonomous,
reliable spacecraft human support subsystems?

2.
What new reduced
-
gravity engineering systems and
advanced materials are required to enable efficient and
safe deep
-
space travel?

3.
How can we enable optimum human performance and
productivity during extended isolation from Earth?

4.
What automated sensing and control systems must we
create to ensure that the crew is living in a safe and healthy
environment?


19


Potential areas for NASA/NIH collaboration



Examples of specific topic areas of possible mutual interest


Advanced Environmental Sensor technologies


Monitoring the microbial environment


Near term example: Lambert group at JPL creating multiplexed
quantum dot lateral flow assays for pathogens in water


Longer term example: Sayler of U. Tennessee developing
bioluminescent detection of pathogens by genetic modification of
bacteriophages


Related work: AEMC has funded Allen(PSI Inc, past) and Tittel(Rice
U., past and present) for optical monitoring of trace gases in air. They
are also a team, near the end of their funding by NASA/NCI for optical
monitoring of trace gases in exhaled breath as a minimally invasive
diagnostic tool.


Plant growth research

Environmental monitoring including food and water quality