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rangaleclickSoftware and s/w Development

Nov 4, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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TI KI SHA GRAHAM


DEBRA GREEN

MONI CA JONES YOLANDA SCOTT

RENELDA

WI NDHAM JOE YOUNG

Out
-
the
-
box





with Technology, Inc.

Impairment


Impairment:
Any loss of abnormality of psychological, or
anatomical structure or function.


Other
Health Impaired (OHI):
A disability
-
having a
chronic health problem which affects learning in school.


Visually
Impaired (VI)
An individual with diminished
eyesight
capabilities.


Hearing Impaired
-

An impairment in hearing, whether
permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's
educational performance but that is not included under the
definition of deafness.


Orthopedic impairment:
A severe orthopedic impairment
that adversely affects educational performance. The term
includes impairments such as amputation, absence of a limb,
cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, and bone tuberculosis.


Disabilit
y



Disability:
Any restriction or lack (resulting from an
impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the
manner or within the range considered normal for a
human being.

Handicap


Handicap is therefore a function of the relationship
between disabled persons and their environment. It
occurs when they encounter cultural, physical or
social barriers which prevent their access to the
various systems of society that are available to other
citizens. Thus, handicap is the loss or limitation of
opportunities to take part in the life of the
community on an equal level with others.


Assistive Technology




Assistive Technology (AT):
Any item, piece of
equipment, or system that helps kids with disabilities
bypass, work around, or compensate for specific
learning deficits.

Mainstreaming


Mainstreaming
:

A term which refers to the time a
special education student participates in
chronologically age
-
appropriate general education
activities, either academic or nonacademic (e.g.,
math and reading or lunch, recess, and art).

Inclusion


Inclusion
:

Bringing the services to the child rather
than bringing the child to the services. Involvement
in mainstream activities comparable to those
provided general education students is the
focus.

Assistive Technology Device


Assistive Technology devices
can help improve physical
or mental functioning, overcome a disorder or impairment,
help prevent the worsening of a condition, strengthen a
physical or mental weakness, help improve a person's capacity
to learn, or even replace a missing limb.


An assistive technology (AT) device

includes any item,
piece of equipment, or product system that is used to increase,
maintain, or improve the functioning of individuals with
disabilities. It may be purchased commercially off the shelf,
modified, or customized. The term does not include a medical
device that is surgically implanted, or the replacement of such
a device. AT devices range from low tech, such as a
magnifying glass to high tech, such as a computer that
responds to touch and allows a child to communicate more
effectively.


No tech, low tech, & high tech


high tech:
use of electronics or computers as a solution.
Computerized VOCAs that vary from single purpose appliance
-
like
systems to multipurpose computer
-
based communication aids.
Typically high
-
tech systems require training and ongoing support to
operate the devices (e.g., Video Cameras, Computers and Adaptive
Hardware, Complex Voice Output Devices).



low tech:
indicates use of low cost non
-
electronic solutions.
Simple paper or object based systems, i.e. do not require a battery.
(e.g., Talking Mats, Dry Erase Boards, Clipboards, 3
-
Ring Binders,
Manila File Folders, Photo Albums, Laminated PCS/Photographs,
Highlight tape).


No tech
: refers to any assistive device that is not electronic. No
-
tech items range from a piece of foam glued onto the corners of
book pages to make turning easier to a study carrel to reduce
distraction.




Alternative keyboard


Alternative keyboard:
may include enlarged, reduced,
varied key placement, one
-
handed, Braille,
chordic
, or
any other device for entering text on a computer. It may
be different from standard keyboards in size, shape,
layout, or function. They offer individuals with special
needs greater efficiency, control, and comfort. For
example, a traditional QWERTY keyboard may be
confusing to a child with a developmental disability and
can be replaced with a keyboard that lists letters A
-
Z in
big, bold letters and doesn’t contain a lot of “extra” keys.
This makes focusing on spelling and typing words a lot
easier.



FM amplification system


FM system:
a local wireless broadcast system that
consists of a microphone and transmitter for the
speaker and "walkman
-
like" receivers with
headphones for listeners with hearing impairments
or attention disorders.

Joystick


A joystick
-


may be used as an alternate input
device. Joysticks that can be plugged into the
computer’s mouse port can control the cursor on the
screen. Other joysticks plug into game ports and
depend on software that is designed to accept
joystick control.




Optical character recognition


Optical character recognition (OCR) software
works with a scanner to convert images from a
printed page into a standard computer file. With
OCR software, the resulting computer file can be
edited. Pictures and photographs do not require OCR
software to be manipulated.





Screen reader


Screen reader:
software that reads text on a
computer screen using a speech synthesizer. This
allows individuals with visual impairments or other
print disabilities to access text on the computer
screen.

Switch


switch:
a device that is like a single button of a keyboard or mouse.
Switches may be used by an individual with severe motor difficulties
by any controllable muscle in their body (head, hand, toe, eye,
breath, etc.) to operate any type of computer, communication or
environmental control device.


Switches
offer an alternative method of providing input to a
computer when it is not possible to use a standard keyboard or
mouse. Switches come in various sizes, shapes, methods of
activation and placement options. Some software programs have
been developed specifically for use with a switch and can employ
on
-
screen scanning. With on
-
screen scanning, the computer
highlights the options available to the user, who then selects the
desired action. When a visual or auditory prompt indicates a
specific keyboard or mouse function, the user activates the switch
and the desired function occurs. Other programs have built
-
in
options for switch use.



Web accessibility


Web accessibility
-

Universal accessibility to the
World Wide Web means that all people, regardless of
their physical or developmental abilities, have access
to Web
-
based information and services. Making Web
pages accessible is accomplished by designing them
to work with adaptive technologies, such as screen
readers. It also means making color, font size, and
page design decisions that make it possible for the
widest range of individuals to access the information.

Legal Directives


No Child Left Behind (NCLB)2001


NCLB represents legislation that attempts to accomplish standards
-
based
education reform. The law reauthorized federal programs meant to hold primary
and secondary schools measurably accountable to higher standards. It also
provided more opportunities to parents for school choice and placed a greater
emphasis on reading in schools. NCLB is written so that it requires 100% of
students (including special education students and those from disadvantaged
background) within a school to reach the same set of state standards in math and
reading by the year 2014.


Reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
(IDEA) in 1997 Public Law 105
-
17


IDEA

is a federal law that guarantees all students between the ages of 3 through
21 with disabilities the right to a free appropriate public education designed to
meet their individual needs. It also offers protections for the rights of students
with disabilities and their parents. Students are entitled to a free appropriate
public education, education in their least restrictive environment, have a fair
assessment, and received related services as well as have an individual education
plan and parent consent to the entire due process procedures.


Universal Design for Learning


What is it?


Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework for designing curricula that enable all
individuals to gain knowledge, skills, and enthusiasm for learning. UDL provides rich
supports for learning and reduces barriers to the curriculum while maintaining high
achievement standards for all.



Three parts of Universal Design for Learning


Multiple means of representation

to give learners various ways of acquiring information
and knowledge,


Multiple means of expression

to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they
know, and


Multiple means of engagement

to tap into learners' interests, challenge them appropriately,
and motivate them to learn.




UDL is used with technology with the intent to increase access to
learning by reducing physical, cognitive, intellectual, and
organizational barriers to learning, as well as other obstacles to
insure all students have the opportunity to learn.

10 Strategies for Technology Integration
Strategies for Special Education students



1.
Use text
-
to
-
speech products and readers


2.
Provide a range of tools to support student writers


3.
Use talking word processors


4.
Use digital cameras to capture images of objects and
environments



5.
Use specialized calculators


6.

Use alternative keyboards


7.

Use joysticks or switches instead of keyboards

8.
Use
voice recognition software and Use optical character
recognition


9.

Incorporate music and poetry for students to read and
listen to


10.

Create an Independent Project activity to explore a
special area of interest related to the topic being studied

Technology Integration Strategies for
Special Education Students


For individuals with mild cognitive disabilities:



Reading: Use reading skill software, text
-
to
-
speech products,
interactive storybooks.


Writing: Use voice recognition software and word prediction
software.


Mathematics: Use graphing software, drills, games, and tutorials.


For individuals with moderate to severe
cognitive disabilities:


Software helps teach/reinforce functional skills (e.g., money
management, daily living, employability).


Videos enhance acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of functional
and community
-
based behaviors.


Provide alternative methods of accessing keyboard, mouse, and/or
monitor.




Technology Integration Strategies for Special
Education Students cont…


Students with Physical Disabilities


Determine the best placement of adaptive technologies, and
provide training to ensure the student is able to operate it
independently.


Monitor function to ensure maximum level of participation is
obtained without undue physical demands.


Technology Integration Strategies for
Special Education Students cont


Sensory Disabilities


For individuals who are blind:


Use canes and sensor technologies to assist movement.


Use text
-
to
-
Braille converters.


Use screen readers.


For individuals who are visually impaired:


Use closed
-
circuit television(CCTV) magnification systems.


Use built
-
in computer screen magnification control panels.



For individuals who are hearing impaired:


Use FM amplification systems (assistive listening devices).


Locate software and websites that provide powerful and motivating
opportunities to engage in learning activities.




Technology Integration Strategies for
Special Education Students cont…


At
-
Risk Students:


Utilize electronic quizzes and other instructional materials that
provide immediate feedback on performance.


Locate starting point web pages to launch them into content
with appropriate challenges.


Students with Gifts and Talents:


Provide tools for engaging in self
-
directed research


Provide tools such as multimedia presentations, web page
design, and electronic portfolios to document learning
experiences.


Resources


http://www.icoe.k12.ca.us/NR/rdonlyres/C13A0938
-
D066
-
4A08
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BA7A
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1CF67D16F6E8/8952/DictionaryofSpecialEducationalTerms.pdf


http://www.accessiblesociety.org/topics/demographics
-
identity/dkaplanpaper.htm


http://www.rehabtool.com/at.html


http://www.fctd.info/show/glossary


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assistive_technology


http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Assistive_Technology/


http://www.education.com/reference/article/technology
-
strategies
-
special
-
education/


http://www.cast.org/


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Design_for_Learning


http://www.education.com/reference/article/top
-
ten
-
strategies
-
special
-
education/


http://k6educators.about.com/od/educationglossary/g/gnclb.htm