TI KI SHA GRAHAM
MONI CA JONES YOLANDA SCOTT
WI NDHAM JOE YOUNG
with Technology, Inc.
Any loss of abnormality of psychological, or
anatomical structure or function.
Health Impaired (OHI):
chronic health problem which affects learning in school.
An individual with diminished
An impairment in hearing, whether
permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's
educational performance but that is not included under the
definition of deafness.
A severe orthopedic impairment
that adversely affects educational performance. The term
includes impairments such as amputation, absence of a limb,
cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, and bone tuberculosis.
Any restriction or lack (resulting from an
impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the
manner or within the range considered normal for a
Handicap is therefore a function of the relationship
between disabled persons and their environment. It
occurs when they encounter cultural, physical or
social barriers which prevent their access to the
various systems of society that are available to other
citizens. Thus, handicap is the loss or limitation of
opportunities to take part in the life of the
community on an equal level with others.
Assistive Technology (AT):
Any item, piece of
equipment, or system that helps kids with disabilities
bypass, work around, or compensate for specific
A term which refers to the time a
special education student participates in
appropriate general education
activities, either academic or nonacademic (e.g.,
math and reading or lunch, recess, and art).
Bringing the services to the child rather
than bringing the child to the services. Involvement
in mainstream activities comparable to those
provided general education students is the
Assistive Technology Device
Assistive Technology devices
can help improve physical
or mental functioning, overcome a disorder or impairment,
help prevent the worsening of a condition, strengthen a
physical or mental weakness, help improve a person's capacity
to learn, or even replace a missing limb.
An assistive technology (AT) device
includes any item,
piece of equipment, or product system that is used to increase,
maintain, or improve the functioning of individuals with
disabilities. It may be purchased commercially off the shelf,
modified, or customized. The term does not include a medical
device that is surgically implanted, or the replacement of such
a device. AT devices range from low tech, such as a
magnifying glass to high tech, such as a computer that
responds to touch and allows a child to communicate more
No tech, low tech, & high tech
use of electronics or computers as a solution.
Computerized VOCAs that vary from single purpose appliance
systems to multipurpose computer
based communication aids.
tech systems require training and ongoing support to
operate the devices (e.g., Video Cameras, Computers and Adaptive
Hardware, Complex Voice Output Devices).
indicates use of low cost non
Simple paper or object based systems, i.e. do not require a battery.
(e.g., Talking Mats, Dry Erase Boards, Clipboards, 3
Manila File Folders, Photo Albums, Laminated PCS/Photographs,
: refers to any assistive device that is not electronic. No
tech items range from a piece of foam glued onto the corners of
book pages to make turning easier to a study carrel to reduce
may include enlarged, reduced,
varied key placement, one
any other device for entering text on a computer. It may
be different from standard keyboards in size, shape,
layout, or function. They offer individuals with special
needs greater efficiency, control, and comfort. For
example, a traditional QWERTY keyboard may be
confusing to a child with a developmental disability and
can be replaced with a keyboard that lists letters A
big, bold letters and doesn’t contain a lot of “extra” keys.
This makes focusing on spelling and typing words a lot
FM amplification system
a local wireless broadcast system that
consists of a microphone and transmitter for the
speaker and "walkman
like" receivers with
headphones for listeners with hearing impairments
or attention disorders.
may be used as an alternate input
device. Joysticks that can be plugged into the
computer’s mouse port can control the cursor on the
screen. Other joysticks plug into game ports and
depend on software that is designed to accept
Optical character recognition
Optical character recognition (OCR) software
works with a scanner to convert images from a
printed page into a standard computer file. With
OCR software, the resulting computer file can be
edited. Pictures and photographs do not require OCR
software to be manipulated.
software that reads text on a
computer screen using a speech synthesizer. This
allows individuals with visual impairments or other
print disabilities to access text on the computer
a device that is like a single button of a keyboard or mouse.
Switches may be used by an individual with severe motor difficulties
by any controllable muscle in their body (head, hand, toe, eye,
breath, etc.) to operate any type of computer, communication or
environmental control device.
offer an alternative method of providing input to a
computer when it is not possible to use a standard keyboard or
mouse. Switches come in various sizes, shapes, methods of
activation and placement options. Some software programs have
been developed specifically for use with a switch and can employ
screen scanning. With on
screen scanning, the computer
highlights the options available to the user, who then selects the
desired action. When a visual or auditory prompt indicates a
specific keyboard or mouse function, the user activates the switch
and the desired function occurs. Other programs have built
options for switch use.
Universal accessibility to the
World Wide Web means that all people, regardless of
their physical or developmental abilities, have access
based information and services. Making Web
pages accessible is accomplished by designing them
to work with adaptive technologies, such as screen
readers. It also means making color, font size, and
page design decisions that make it possible for the
widest range of individuals to access the information.
No Child Left Behind (NCLB)2001
NCLB represents legislation that attempts to accomplish standards
education reform. The law reauthorized federal programs meant to hold primary
and secondary schools measurably accountable to higher standards. It also
provided more opportunities to parents for school choice and placed a greater
emphasis on reading in schools. NCLB is written so that it requires 100% of
students (including special education students and those from disadvantaged
background) within a school to reach the same set of state standards in math and
reading by the year 2014.
Reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
(IDEA) in 1997 Public Law 105
is a federal law that guarantees all students between the ages of 3 through
21 with disabilities the right to a free appropriate public education designed to
meet their individual needs. It also offers protections for the rights of students
with disabilities and their parents. Students are entitled to a free appropriate
public education, education in their least restrictive environment, have a fair
assessment, and received related services as well as have an individual education
plan and parent consent to the entire due process procedures.
Universal Design for Learning
What is it?
Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework for designing curricula that enable all
individuals to gain knowledge, skills, and enthusiasm for learning. UDL provides rich
supports for learning and reduces barriers to the curriculum while maintaining high
achievement standards for all.
Three parts of Universal Design for Learning
Multiple means of representation
to give learners various ways of acquiring information
Multiple means of expression
to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they
Multiple means of engagement
to tap into learners' interests, challenge them appropriately,
and motivate them to learn.
UDL is used with technology with the intent to increase access to
learning by reducing physical, cognitive, intellectual, and
organizational barriers to learning, as well as other obstacles to
insure all students have the opportunity to learn.
10 Strategies for Technology Integration
Strategies for Special Education students
speech products and readers
Provide a range of tools to support student writers
Use talking word processors
Use digital cameras to capture images of objects and
Use specialized calculators
Use alternative keyboards
Use joysticks or switches instead of keyboards
voice recognition software and Use optical character
Incorporate music and poetry for students to read and
Create an Independent Project activity to explore a
special area of interest related to the topic being studied
Technology Integration Strategies for
Special Education Students
For individuals with mild cognitive disabilities:
Reading: Use reading skill software, text
Writing: Use voice recognition software and word prediction
Mathematics: Use graphing software, drills, games, and tutorials.
For individuals with moderate to severe
Software helps teach/reinforce functional skills (e.g., money
management, daily living, employability).
Videos enhance acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of functional
Provide alternative methods of accessing keyboard, mouse, and/or
Technology Integration Strategies for Special
Education Students cont…
Students with Physical Disabilities
Determine the best placement of adaptive technologies, and
provide training to ensure the student is able to operate it
Monitor function to ensure maximum level of participation is
obtained without undue physical demands.
Technology Integration Strategies for
Special Education Students cont
For individuals who are blind:
Use canes and sensor technologies to assist movement.
Use screen readers.
For individuals who are visually impaired:
circuit television(CCTV) magnification systems.
in computer screen magnification control panels.
For individuals who are hearing impaired:
Use FM amplification systems (assistive listening devices).
Locate software and websites that provide powerful and motivating
opportunities to engage in learning activities.
Technology Integration Strategies for
Special Education Students cont…
Utilize electronic quizzes and other instructional materials that
provide immediate feedback on performance.
Locate starting point web pages to launch them into content
with appropriate challenges.
Students with Gifts and Talents:
Provide tools for engaging in self
Provide tools such as multimedia presentations, web page
design, and electronic portfolios to document learning