Artificial Intelligence & Applications

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Oct 15, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)



Artificial Intelligence & Applications

A. S. Md. Kamruzzaman

Binghamton University


When an ordinary person thinks
about a computer, he would immediately say that
computer is a machine with programs that cannot
act like a human brain. If a
computer is asked to
make a decision on certain aspects, it gives the
result. It should be impossible for a machine to
act like a human intelligence. But in fact, when
“Deep Blue” (International Business Machines
[IBM] software) defeated, Gerry Kesparov,

Champion Chess Grandmaster for six times
within ten rounds, it was a big surprise. The idea
of acting computers like a human being came
from Artificial Intelligence (AI). The most
common and important areas of AI are searching
(for solutions), exp
ert systems, natural language
processing, pattern recognition, Robotics, machine
learning logic, uncertainty and “fuzzy logic”. AI
provides a wide range of ideas of how software
can simulate human behavior. Artificial
Intelligence deals with a specific k
ind of software
that relates to human activities. This is a branch
of Computer Science that is mostly concerned
with the study and creation of computer systems
that exhibit some forms of intelligence: systems
that learn new concepts and tasks. AI has sys
that can reason and draw useful conclusions about
the surroundings, systems that can understand a
natural language or perceive and comprehend a
visual scene, and systems that perform other types
of feats that require human types of intelligence.
AI h
as some terms that should be understood
from the Artificial Concepts such as, intelligence,
knowledge, reasoning, thought, cognition, and

The Turing machine is considered the first
Artificial Intelligence that works on the stored
program computer
s. During the early age of
computers, there were actually machines that
literally had to be rewired to solve different
problems. Turing’s recognition was that those
programs could be stored as data in the
computer’s memory and could be executed later.
ll modern computers are formed on the basis of
those programs. The storing of programs allowed
the computer to change function quickly and
easily by running a new program. This capability
implies that a computer might be able to think
and learn by itself

AI mostly came from the thinking perspective
of a computer. A computer can think of itself and
can produce decisions. Dealing with a decision
accordingly, a computer can exhibit behavior
similar to a person. The key point is some
programs are definite
ly intelligent. The problem
is whether a machine can think or a program
running on a computer can be intelligent. Most
programs do not perform the same tasks in the
same way that a person does. An intelligent
program should act like a human being and
hibit behavior when confronted with a similar
problem. It is not necessary in the same way that
the programs actually solve, or attempt to solve
problems that a person would.

This paper will provide an overview survey of
AI while focusing on areas of res
earch and
applications. A history of Artificial Intelligence
will be given to readers to overview ideas. This
paper will also provide the visual parts of
Artificial Intelligence related to human beings.
The paper will conclude on future perspectives
eloped by AI.

. A robot is taking solution from an
AI machine [1]



Humankind has given itself the scientific
Homo Sapiens,
which means, “man


= =

Kamruzzaman, Artificial Intelligence & Applications


the wise.” This is so because h
uman mental
capacities are so important to everyday life.
The field of AI attempts to understand
intelligent entities. Thus, one reason to
study AI is to learn more about humankind.
But unlike Philosophy and Psychology,
which are also concerned with int
AI strives to build intelligent entities as well
as understand them. Another reason to
study AI is that these constructed intelligent
entities are interesting and useful in their
own right. AI has produced many
significant and impressive resul
ts even at
this early stage in its development.
Although no one can predict the future in
detail, it is clear that computers with the
level of human intelligence would have a
huge impact on the future course of
civilization. In Figure 1,

This idea is il
lustrated visually.

: Agents interact with

through sensors and effectors

In terms of Philosophy, AI has inherited
many ideas, viewpoints, and techniques
from other disciplines. T
he story of AI
began around 450BC [2].” When Plato
reported a dialogue in which Socrates asks
Euthyphro, "I want to know what is
characteristics of piety which makes all
actions pious ... that I may have it to turn to,
and to use as a standard whereby to
your actions and those of other men.” [2]
Dualism which is part of the mind (or soul
or spirit), is outside of nature exempts from
physical laws. The mind or brain holds the
entire world which operates according to
physical laws. It is also possib
le to adopt an
intermediate position in which one accepts
that the mind has a physical basis, but denies
that it can be explained by a reduction to
ordinary physical processes. Philosophers
staked out most of the important ideas of AI,
but to make the lea
p to a formal science
required a level of mathematical
formalization in three main areas:
computation, logic and probability. In
computation theorem, intractability,
reduction, NP (Non Probabilistic)
completeness and decision theory has a great
impact on
AI which arose from Math.
Psychology plays another major role in AI.
Behaviorism started discovering animals’
brain and cognitive psychology started on
brain possesses and processing information.
Kenneth Craik [2] made a connection
between stimulus and
response. The three
key steps of a knowledge based on agent; (1)
the stimulus must be translated into an
internal representation; (2) the
representation is manipulated by cognitive
processes to derive new internal
representations, and (3) these in turn ar
retranslated back into action. Computer
Engineering catalyzed ideas of AI. The
computer has been unanimously acclaimed
as the artifact with the best chance of
achieving AI. The Turing idea changed the
vision of AI. The idea of knowledge
n (the study of how to put
knowledge into a form that a computer can
reason with) was tied to language and
informed by research in linguistics that was
connected to philosophical analysis
language. Figure 2 can make the ideas more
clear. It shows how AI
could be described
in terms of the environment and an agent.

An agent is anything that can be viewed as
perceiving the environment through sensors
and acting upon that environment through
effectors. A human agent has eyes, ears and

Kamruzzaman, Artificial Intelligence & Applications


other organs for senso
rs, and hands, legs,
mouth, and other body parts for effectors. A
robotic agent substitutes cameras and
infrared range finders for the sensors and
various motors for the effectors. Software
agent has encoded bit strings as percepts and
actions. A generi
c agent is diagrammed in
Figure 2.


It is difficult to pinpoint an exact starting
date for the invention of AI. It began to
emerge as a separate field of study during
1940 and 1950s when the computer became
a commercial reality. Here is the

subdivision of some part of AI history.

The gestation of AI (1943

Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts
(1943)[2] drew on three
source knowledge
of the basic physiology and function of
neurons in the brain. They proposed a
model of artificial neuro
ns in which each
neuron is characterized as being “on” or
“off”, with a switch to “on” occurring in
response to stimulation by a sufficient
number of neighboring neurons. This work
was arguably the forerunner of both the
logicist tradition in AI and the c
tradition. In the early 1950s, the invention
of neural network computer opened another
new field of AI. Newell and Simon wrote a
reasoning program which is capable


numerically, and solved the
body problem. The name of A
Intelligence came from the Dartmouth
Workshop [2].

Early enthusiasm great expectations

Newell and Simon’s [2]
early success was followed up with the
General Problem Solver or (GPS). This was
probably the first program to embody th
“thinking humanly” approach. Starting in
1952 [2], Arthur Samuel wrote a series of
programs for checkers (draughts) that
eventually learned to play tournament level
checkers. He discovered the idea that
computers can only do what they are told to
Early work building on the neural
networks of McCulloch and Pitts also
flourished. The work of Winograd and
Cown (1963) showed how a large number of
elements could collectively represent an
individual concept, with a corresponding
increase in robustness a
nd parallelism.

A dose of reality (1966

Weizenbaum’s ELIZA program (1965) [2]
which could apparently engage in serious
conversation on any topic, actually just
borrowed and manipulated the sentences
typed into it by a human. The illusion of
ited computational power was not
confined to problem
solving programs.
Early experiments in machine evolution
(new called genetic algorithms) were based
on the undoubtedly correct belief that by
making an appropriate series of small
mutations to a machine

code programs, one
can generate a program with good
performance for any particular simple task.
This idea, then, was to try random mutations
and then apply a selection process to
preserve mutations that seemed to improve
behavior. During this time there

was certain
difficulties. The first difficulty was that
programs had insufficient knowledge of
their subject matter. Secondly the
intractability of many of the problems that
AI programs worked by representing the
basic facts about a problem and trying o
ut a
series of steps to solve it. The theory of NP
completeness brought the problem. This
theory could not able to bring the solutions
for problems. Third difficulty came from
fundamental limitations on the basic
structures being used to generate intell

Knowledge based systems (1969

The widespread growth of
applications to real
world problems caused a
concomitant increase in the demands for

Kamruzzaman, Artificial Intelligence & Applications


workable knowledge representation
schemes. A large number of different
representation lan
guages were developed.
Some were based on logic. For example the
Prolog language became popular in Europe,
and the PLANNER family [2] in the United

Neural Networks (1986

Some disillusionment was occurring
concerning the applicability

the expert
systems technology derived from MYCIN

type systems [2]. Many corporations and
research groups found that building a
successful expert system involved much
more than simply buying a reasoning system
and filling it with rules. Some predicted a
“AI Winter” in which AI funding would be
squeezed severely.

Recent events (1987


technology and the related field of level
written character recognition are already
making the transition to widespread
industrial and consumer application
s. An
elegant synthesis of existing planning
programs into a simple framework. There
have been a number of advances that built
upon each other rather than starting from
scratch each time. Probabilistic Reasoning
in Intelligent Systems marked a new
tance of probability and decision
theory in AI, following a resurgence of
interest in formalism was invented to allow
efficient reasoning about the combination of
uncertain evidence. This approach largely
overcomes the problem with probabilistic

systems of the 1960s and 1970s.
It also has come to determined AI research
on uncertain reasoning and expert systems.
Similar revolutions have occurred in
robotics, computer vision, machine learning
(including neural networks) and knowledge
on. A better understanding of
the problems and their complexity
properties, combined with increased
mathematical sophistication, has led to
workable research agenda and robust
methods perhaps encouraged by the progress
in solving the sub problems of AI,
esearchers have also started to look at the
“whole agent” problem again.



AI is a branch of Computer Science
concerned with the study and creation of
computer systems. AI exhibits some form
of intelligence: systems that learn new
concepts and tasks, systems that can reason
and draw useful conclusions about the
world. AI systems can understand a natural
language or perceive and comprehend a
visual scene, and systems that perform other
types of feats that require human types of
lligence. Intelligence is the integrated
sum of those feats which gives us the ability
to remember a face not seen for thirty or
more years, or to build and send rockets to
the moon [3]. The intelligence requires
knowledge. AI is not the study and creat
of conventional computer systems.

From the perspective of intelligence: AI
makes machines "intelligent"

acting, as
we would expect people to act. The
inability to distinguish computer responses
from human responses is called the Turing
test. Inte
lligence requires knowledge Expert
problem solving

restricting domain to
allow including significant relevant
knowledge [4].

From a research perspective: artificial
intelligence is the study of how to make
computers do things which, at the moment,

do better. One way to measure the
success of AI within computers is to
interrogate it by a human via a Teletype.
The computer passes the test if the
interrogator cannot tell whether there is a
computer or a human at the other end. The
computer needs to

posses the following
capability [4].

Kamruzzaman, Artificial Intelligence & Applications


Natural language processing

to enable
it to communicate successfully in English
(or some other human language).

1.Knowledge representation

to store
information provided before or during the

d reasoning

to use the
stored information to answer questions and
to draw new conclusions.

3.Machine learning

to adapt to new
circumstances and to detect and extrapolate

4.Computer vision

to perceive objects
and robotics to move them about.

A computer program has to think like a
human. The interdisciplinary field of
cognitive science brings together computer
models from AI and experiment techniques
from psychology to try to construct precise
and testable theories of the workings of the
n mind. The rational thought which
govern the operation of the mind, and
initiated the field of logic. Acting rationally
is another part of the definition of AI which
means acting so as to achieve one’s goals,
given one’s beliefs. An agent is something
that perceives and acts. If we look at AI
impressive achievements, it is still
impossible to produce the brain abilities of a
old child. These include the
ability to recognize and remember numerous
diverse objects in a scene, to learn new
ds and associate them with objects and
concepts and to adopt readily to many
diverse new situations.


AI has performed a vital role in so many
fields. Researchers are devoting their time
and effort to establish a good performance
AI. The features of AI can illustrate
some ideas of AI performance.

Knowledge representation:
It is a
design for knowledge

based agent. A
simple logical language for expressing
knowledge and showing how it can be used
to draw conclusions about the world
and to
decide what to do. The language is capable
of expressing a wide variety of knowledge
about complex worlds. It could be
represented several ways.

1.Knowledge Acquisition

knowledge and implementing knowledge
bases are major tasks in the

construction of
large AI systems. The hundreds of rules and
thousand of facts required by many of these
systems are generally obtained by
interviewing expert in the domain of
application. Representing expert knowledge
as facts or rules is typically a te
dious and
consuming process. Techniques for
automating this knowledge acquisition
process would constitute a major advance in
AI technology. Knowledge acquisition can
automate in three ways [5]. Firstly, special
editing systems might be built that
persons who possess expert knowledge
about the domain of application to interact
directly with the knowledge bases of AI
systems. Secondly, advances in natural
language processing techniques will allow
humans to instruct and teach computer
systems t
hrough ordinary conversations.
Thirdly, AI systems might learn important
knowledge from their experiences in their
problem domains.

Representational Formalisms:

2. Commonsense reasoning

Many of the
existing ideas about AI techniques have
been refined on
“toy” problems, such as
problems in the ‘block worlds’, in which the
necessary knowledge is reasonably easy to
formalize. Representing Prepositional
Attitudes [5]

San knows that
Pete is a lawyer

San does not believe that
John is a

Pete wants i
t to rain.

John fears that Sam believes that
morning star is not Venus.

Kamruzzaman, Artificial Intelligence & Applications


The underlined portions of these
sentences are propositions, and the relations
know, believe etc. refer to attitudes of agents
toward these propositions. A logical
formalization f
or expressing the appropriate
relations between agents and attitudes.

3. Meta


A good solution
to the problem of reasoning about the
knowledge of others ought also to confer the
ability (or reasons about one’s own

Expert systems:

se constitute most
of AI’s commercial success. Expert
Systems are programs that mimic the
behavior of a human expert. They use
information that the user supplies to sender
an opinion on a certain subject. The expert
system asks user questions until it c
identify an object that matches with the
answer from the user.

For example:

Expert: Is it green?

Users: No.

Expert: Is it red?

Users: Yes.

Expert: Does it grow on a tree?

User: No.

Expert: Does it grow on a cane?

User: Yes.

Expert: Does the cane have


User: Yes.

Expert: It is a raspberry.

Every expert system has two parts [6]:
the knowledge base and the reference
engine. The knowledge base is a database
that holds specific information and rules
about a certain subject. The inference
engine is

the information that the user
supplies to find an object that matches. It
has two branches. 1.Deterministic, and

The interface engine can also be defined
as the forward
chaining method and the

chaining method.

The Forward
ning Method:

chaining is sometimes called “data
driven”[6] because the inference engine uses
information that the user provides to move
through a network of logical AND and OR
until it reaches a terminal point, which is the
object. In Figure 3, a
fruit knowledge base
creates a Forward chaining interface engine.

: Forward Chaining to the object

The engine would arrive at the object apple,
when it is given the proper attributes
shown in Figure 3. A Forward
system essentially builds a tree from the
leaves down to the root.

The Backward
Chaining Method:
Backward chaining is the reverse of forward
chaining. A backward
chaining inference
engine starts with a hypothesi
s (an object)
and request information to confirm or deny
it. In Figure 4, the fruit Question is an
apple, applying backward
inferences to the fruit knowledge base. As
the diagram shows, Backward chaining

a tree.

Natural Language processi

Language Processing (NLP) tries to make
the computer capable of understanding
commands written in standard human
languages. NL processor extract
information from any given input. The core
of any NLP system is the parser. The parser
is the se
ction of code that reads each
sentence, word by word and decide what is

There is an example of a parser: The

Kamruzzaman, Artificial Intelligence & Applications


machine parser uses the current state of
the sentence to predict what type of word
may legally follow. Figure 5 shows the state
ne that is a directed graph that shows
the valid transitions from one state to
another. For example, a noun can
followed by a verb or a
preposition. A state
machine is shown in Figure 5.

Vision and Pattern Recognition:
Vision systems can be implemen
ted in two
ways. First method tries to reduce an image
to the lines that form the outline of each
object. This method uses various filters to
remove information from the image, and
contrast enhances to make all parts of the
image either black or white.
They are called
binary image because of every paint in the
image is either black or white. Second
method attempts to give the computer a
more humanlike view of the image. This
method gives to the computer information
about the brightness of the part of t
he image.
It allows the computer to derive two
important features from the image that are
not possible with a light contrast image
because of surfaces and shadows. It is easy
to interpret an image but correctly
identifying the objects or features that ma
up the image. There are several ways to do
it. Firstly, computer can do it by controlled
hallucination [6]. Recognition of object is
also another issue in the pattern recognition.

: There are two types of robots.
Industrial assembly robots
are used in a
controlled environment. It can perform only
programmed task.


are two ways to
teach a new task to a robot: using teach pendant, or

2.programmed by using a Robotic
control language.

Teach pendant is a hand
held control
box that a
llows an operator to move the
various joints of the robot. It is linked
through the robot's main control computer.
Moving each joint can do it and computer
records each position [6]. For complex jobs
Robotic Control Language s are used. It is a
r program used to control a robot.

Autonomous Robots: It is much more
complex than industrial robots. It sensors
that allows to hear and see and understand
natural language and what the language
means. It can also solve problems. It can be
implemented b
y parallel processing but it is
still under research.

Machine learning:

Two types of
learning: role learning and cognitive

Role learning is something from
memorization. In terms of computer, it is a
set of instruction programmed in a database,
hich can easily follow a procedure or store
some item of information in a database.
Role does not require any generalization to
be derived or any high level thinking.

Cognitive learning

This form of
learning requires analyzing, organizing, and
ng specific pieces of knowledge.
The product of this mental effort is the
creation of class descriptions. The ability to
learn class description is fundamental to the
creation of a computer that thinks the way
that human does.

Logic and uncertainty
: Log
ic lies at the
heart of computer programming. A
programming language is simply an

: Backward
chaining to the object apple

implementation of a special form of
knowledge. One of the most pl
aspects of logic is that it is certain. Things
that are represented by logic are ‘true’ or
Figure 3. Forward
chaining to the
object apple [9]

Figure 3. For ward chaining to the
object apple[9]

Kamruzzaman, Artificial Intelligence & Applications


‘false’. Resolving or dealing with
uncertainty is critical to machine
intelligence because it is required for
successful interfacing with the real world.
uzzy logic deals with the evaluation of
logical expression that contain uncertain
values probabilistic systems utilizes the
probability of the occurrence of various
events in order to arrive at an answer [6].

Appearing human:

The idea is to make
a computer

appear to be like a person. It is
completely integrated program which
appears to be human. The name of this
program is ELIZA. If a human is compared
with a computer (program), the human has
the emotions and the personality. In terms
of computer, a mac
hine can not act like a
human. The program which is created by
the human being, can do whatever the
programmer wants. It can appear to have
emotions and personality because the
programmer built the program with those
functions in it. This way the comput
shows that it has emotions and personality.

V. A


The distinction between a computer
“user” and a computer “programmer” is that
the user provides new input, or data (words
or numbers), while the programmer defines
new operations, or pr
ograms, as well as new
types of data [7].

The GPS developed in 1957 by Alan
Newell and Hervert Simon, embodied a
grandiose vision. A single computer
program that could solve any problem, given
a suitable description of the problem GPS
caused quite a stir

when it was introduced
and some people in AI felt it would sweep in
a grand new era of intelligent machines. It
is much easier to implement a GPS in steps.
There are few steps which are [7]


Describe the problem in vague term


Specify the problem in algo


Implement the problem in a
programming language.


Test the program on representative


Debug and analyze the resulting
program and


Repeat the process.

The main programming languages used
in AI are Lisp and Prolog. Both have
which make them suitable for AI
programming, such as support for list
processing, pattern matching and
exploratory programming. Both are also
widely used
Prolog especially in Europe
and Japan, and Lisp in the US. This wide
use within the field is anothe
r reason to
choose Lisp or Prolog for AI
implementation [8].

: The state
machine of the restrictd
grammar [9]


AI is the field where human brain and
machine talks together
. The importance of
AI is very wide. Human brain can be
transformed into a machine format and all
the research is done through AI. Cognitive
Psychology and AI are very related.
Cognitive Psychology discusses on human
behavior and AI deals how to transf
machine close to human.

The invention of supercomputers is one
of the great inventions of AI which changed

Kamruzzaman, Artificial Intelligence & Applications


the view of AI. With a combined budget of
about one billion dollars [3], the Japanese
are determined to realize many of their
goals, namely, to

produce systems that can
converse in a natural language, understand
speech and visual scenes, learn and refine
their knowledge, make decisions and exhibit
other human traits. The Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has
increased it’s fundin
g for research in AI. In
addition, most of the larger high
companies such as IBM, DEC, AT&T have
their own research programs.



Lots of plans have taken to improve the
research of AI. At the same time, funding is
increased t
o improve its standing.
Researchers are trying to get the
Autonomous Robots which will change the
entire AI field.

: (1) Reducing the time and cost of
development is a big plan for AI.

(2) Allowing students to work
collaboratively is another plan from

One important research issue is reducing
the time and cost in order to develop such
systems. Current strategies for doing this
include the development of authoring tools
and creating systems in a modular fashion.
Solving this problem will be

an enormous
breakthrough in ITS research, since more
systems could be constructed and thus more
research into the effectiveness of computer
based instruction could be performed [9].

AI is trying to discover some desirable
property P; There are number of c
hoices for
p which are,

Perfect rationality:

the classical notion
of rationality in decision theory. A perfectly
rational agent acts at every instant in such a
way as to maximize its expected utility,
given the information it has acquired from
the environ

Calculate rationality: the notion of
rationality that has used implicitly in
designing logical and decision theoretical
agents. A calculative rational agent
eventually returns what would have been the
rational choice at the beginning of its
tion. This is an interesting property
for a system to exhibit because it continues
an “in
principle” capacity to do the right

Bounded optimality:

A bounded
optimal agent behaves as well as possible
given its computational resources. That is,
the e
xpected utility of the agent program for
a bounded optimal agent is at least as high
as the expected utility of any other agent
program running on the same machine.

Philosophy has also seen a gradual
evolution in the definition of rationality.
There has
been a shift from consideration of
act utilitarianism

the rationality of
individual acts

to rule utilitarianism, or the
rationality of general policies for acting.

Another area is game theory, a branch of
economics that began widespread study of
ion theory. Game theory studies
decision problems in which the utility of a
given action depends not only on chance
events in the environment but also on the
actions of other agents. The standard
scenario involves a set of agents who make
their decisions

simultaneously, without
knowledge of the decisions of the other


A computer is a game device to a child,
but it can be used in different ways
depending on the user’s needs.
Programmers build all kinds of programs to
satisfy the
needs of the growing number of
users. It will not be surprising to utilize
Figure 5. The state
machine of the
restricted grammar [9]

Kamruzzaman, Artificial Intelligence & Applications


computers with highly developed artificial
intelligence capabilities a few years from
now to do thee tasks. Computers will have
the ability to create a program that can
create ano
ther program and thus simulate the
behavior of the human brain. The best
example thus far of these capabilities was
documented by Deep Blue in a chess game
that serves as a technological landmark for
the future. The shear knowledge of a
computer adapting

and functioning faster
than the human mind though programmed to
do so by humans is in essence a frightening
reality that needs to be confronted.
AI just finished with its period of infancy, it
has ramifications that yet remain unknown
to everyone.

The effort and research can
bring the surprising innovations that the
majority crave and desire but there are also
results which cannot be foreseen when the
computer begins to think for itself.


[1] I created the picture.

[2] Norvis, Pet
er &Russel, Stuart
Intelligence: A modern Approach,

Prentice Hall, NJ,

[3] Patterson, Dan W.
Introduction to Artificial
Intelligence and Expert Systems
, Prentice Hall of
India Private Limited New Delhi, 1998

[4] Brown, Carol E. and O'Lear
y, Daniel E.
Artificial Intelligence / Expert Systems Section of the
American Accounting Association


[5] Nilsson, Nils J.
Principles of Artificial
, Narosa Publishing House New Delhi,

[6] Schildt, Herbert
Artificial Intelligence Using C
Osborne McGraw Hill Berkeley, Ca
lifornia, 1987

[7] Norvig, Peter
Paradigms of Artificial Intelligence
Programming Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San
Mateo, California 1992

[8] Cawsey, Alison Databases and Artificial
Intelligence 3 Artificial Intelligence Segment,

08/ 19/1994

[9] Beck, Joseph, Stem, Mia and Haugsiaa
“Applications of AI in Education”
The ACM's First
Electronic Publication

02/13/ 2000

received an Associate in Science
from LaGuardia C. College/
CUNY in Computer Science in
August 1999

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