TELE 730 - Mason academic research system (mason.gmu.edu)

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Oct 30, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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TELE 730

Telecommunications Management

Spring, 2003


January 21






Week 1






TELE 730


Housekeeping



Instructor Intro



Student Intro



Review Syllabus



Survey Sheets



Intro to Telecom



Intro to Telecom Management


Four Areas of Study



Basic Principles of Telec
ommunications



Basics of Telecommunications Management



How They are Actually Implemented in Organizations



Integrate Knowledge of Technologies with Human Factors, Ergonomics, Communication, and
Organizational Behavior


Basic Topics



Basics of Transmission I



T
elecom Management Issues I: Planning



Telecom Management Issues II: Operations



PSTN & Switching



Customer Premises Equipment:



Telephony & Call Coverage



Call Processing & Call Centers



Managing Data Resources



Basics of Transmission II: Data



Telecom Management
Issues III: Cost Control


Telecom Mgmt. Responsibilities



Current & Strategic Planning



Monitoring Regulatory Changes



Managing Internal/External
Support

Systems



Managing and Monitoring Systems



Controlling Costs



Ensuring Security & Integrity of Systems


Overv
iew of Business Voice Technology



PBX



AA



Voice Terminal



VM



IVR



ACD



Call Center


2



CTI


Switching



Rationale for Switching



Explanation of Switching



Evolution of Switching



Mechanical Switches



Electrical



Electronic



Optical


Functions of Switching & Signaling



Add
ressing



Routing



Supervising



Alerting



January 28






Week 2






TELE 730


Housekeeping



Questions about the Syllabus?



Implicit and Explicit Course Agreements



Telecom Manager Contacts ?


Lecture



Wireless


Finn



Wireless


Shiv Bakhshi (IDC Analyst)



Febr
uary 4





Week 3






TELE 730


Housekeeping



Implicit and Explicit Course Agreements



All Set w/ Your Telecom Manager Contacts ?


Deliverables coming



FR1


2/18



RP1


2/25



Midterm exam


3/4


Lecture



Guest: Joy Hughes, GMU CIO



Telecom Planning Issues



Trend
s in Telecom & Computing



Trends in Telecom Management



Basics of Transmission




3

February 11





Week 4






TELE 730


Housekeeping



GMU Telecom Manager Contact:



Doris Rollins (703
-
993
-
3470)



drollins@gmu.edu



208 Thomps
on Hall



prefers meeting at 3 or 4 pm


Deliverables coming



FR1


2/18



RP1


2/25



Midterm exam

3/4



IC1


3/18


Lecture



Trends in Telecom & Computing



Trends in Telecom Management



Basics of Transmission


Trends in Telecom (& Computing) Equipment


1.

Miniaturizat
ion






Storage

2.

Digitization








of Voice, Video

& Transmission

3.

Increased Capacity




Transmission

4.

Increased Speed





Processing

5.

Decentralization





Networks

6.

Expansion of Options



VPNs, Wireless, Intranets

7.

Voice/Data Convergence

Integrated Tech

8.

End
User Control





Features, Intelligence

on the Desktop


Trends in Telecom Management


1.

Re
-
organization





Voice/Data Convergence

2.

Privatization






of National Telcos, &

of Services (VPNs, etc.)

3.

Blurring Distinctions


Intranets & the Internet

4.

Specializatio
n






Out
-
sourcing

5.

Cut Backs







Budget & People Cuts

6.

Globalization






Multi
-
nationals


Components of a Private Branch Exchange (PBX)



Electronic Switch



Cable Vault / Trunk Room



Wire Frame



Point of Demarcation (from CO / LEC)



Battery / Power Room(s)



Op
erations


4



Maintenance & Alarms



Moves, ADDs, and Changes (MACs)


Components of a Central Office (CO)



Electronic Switch



Cable Vault / Trunk Room



Wire Frame



Battery / Power Room(s)



Operations



Maintenance & Alarms



Moves and Changes



Connections out to IXCs (Long

Distance POPs)



CLEC Equipment


CO Ancillary Services



Voice Mail



CLASS Services



Call Waiting, Caller ID, Etc.



Data Transmission



Lottery Terminals, Bank ATMs



Traffic Signals



Private Line Data


T
-
1, T
-
3 (Digital Transmission Links)




Fixed
-
Bandwidth Transmis
sion Circuits



Standards Used in U.S., Canada, Japan



T
-
1 Capacity:



24 channels at 64 Kb/s, total 1.544 Mb/s)



i.e., 24 normal voice channels (advanced encoding gets more)



Uses Two Standard “twisted
-
pair” (4 wires)



T
-
3 Capacity:



28 T
-
1 Lines; total approx.
45 Mb/s



carried over fiber optics



Transmission Facilities


‘Physical’
Conduit

for Transmission


1)


Backbone Network



“Wired:” Fiber Optics (Some Coaxial Cable)



Wireless: Microwave, Satellite


2)


Local Loop / Last Mile / to the Desktop



“Wired:” Twisted P
air Wire, Coaxial



Wireless: Cellular, PCS, Microwave, Satellite,


5


Software Protocols

for Transmission


1)


Backbone Network



64 Kb voice channel


the building block



T1, T3 circuits



ATM



SONET


2)


Local Loop / Last Mile / to the Desktop



ISDN



xDSL family of
protocols



LAN Protocols (Ethernet, etc.)


Concepts in Financial Analysis



Feasibility Analysis



Payback Period



Present Value (the time value of $)

e.g.: a saving bond, buy vs. lease



Net Present Value (NPV)



the sum of (discounted) cash flows, minus the origin
al investment



Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
-

Table 4
-
5



$ that an investment returns to an organization



Sensitivity Analysis


Processing of Voice




History:



AT&T Monopoly



Reliable Network



Few User Options



Competition in LD, Equipment



Divestiture



Telecom Act

of 1996


LD, Local, and Cable vie




Today:



Interconnected Hardware



PBXs



Telephone Sets (Voice Terminals)



AAs & IVRs



VM



ACDs & Call Centers; CTI



Call Handling Sequences



Voice over IP is coming (VoIP)


Processing of Data




The Evolution:



Mainframes (IBM)


6



Min
is (DEC, HP)



Micros (IBM


Compaq, other clones)



Client / Server Architectures (esp. the Internet)




Today



Client / Server



LANs, MANs, & WANs



PCs



Intranets



The Internet



Wireless Data Systems



February 18






Week 5






TELE 730


Housekeeping



SNOWED OUT !
!!!



February 25






Week 6






TELE 730


Housekeeping

-

Deliverables coming



RP1


extended to 3/11 for most


(during spring break)



IC1 due 3/18



FR2 due 3/18


Lecture



How did the First Interview go?



Transmission Facilities (Review)



ISO’s OSI Model



PSTN


SONET Networks



SS7



The History of AT&T & Telephony Regulation




Voice & Data Transmission


Hardware Options
-

Wired



Twisted Pair



Coaxial Cable



Fiber Optics


Hardware Options
-

Wireless




Terrestrial vs. Satellite



Mobile vs. Stationary



Point to Point (vs
. Broadcast)



Physical Link vs. Intention


7


Software Options
-

Wired



Analog Telephony

Transmission





POTS (multiplexing)



Digital Telephony

Transmission



ISDN, DSL (ADSL, xDSL), SONET



Digital Computer

Transmission



Ethernet, IPX/SPX, TCP/IP, FDDI, ATM


Softwar
e Options
-

Wireless



Entire Electromagnetic Spectrum



Many “Bands” of Service



Microwave, Cellular, PCS



Emergency, Military, Short
-
wave, CB


Software Transmission Standards



Simplifies



Design



Interconnection



Allows Multi
-
Vendor Environments



ANSI (American Na
tional Standards Institute)



ISO (International Standards Organization)



CCITT (Consultative Committee on Int’l Telegraphy & Telephony
-

now ITU
-
T))



ITU (Int’l Telecommunications Union)



ISO’s ISO Model


7 Levels of ISO’s OSI:



Physical



(manages the transmis
sion of bits)



Data Link


(manages transmission of frames)



Network


(manages connection between nodes)



Transport


(manages data integrity)



Session



(manages user’s session attributes)



Presentation

(interprets the character stream)



Application

(manages i
nterface w/ apps)


Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)



ANSI, ITU Standard for digital transmission



Uses Two Standard “twisted
-
pair” (4 wires)



Out
-
of
-
Band Signaling



Compatible w/ SS7; data leads to applications



Transmission rates:



BRI: 2B+D (Two
64 Kb/s “bearer” channels & one 16 Kb/s “data” channel
-

for signaling)

E.g. Application: desktop videoconferencing



PRI: 23B+D ( essentially a 24 channel T
-
1 carrier)

“Enhanced T
-
1;” Out
-
of
-
Band is Preferred


Integrated Services Digital Network

BRI (Bas
ic Rate Interface)



Designed for The Desktop & Home


8



2B+D



Two (64 Kbps) Voice (“Bearer”) Channels



Circuit
-

Switched



Can Instead Carry a Similar Rate of Data Signals



One (16 Kbps) Signaling (“Data”) Channel



Packet
-

Switched



The “T” (or S) Version uses 4
-
wire



The “U” Interface uses 2
-
wire



Total Capacity: 144 Kbps


PRI (Primary Rate Interface)



For Switch & Voice Processing Traffic



23B+D
-

23 Voice & One Signaling Channel



European Standard is 30B+D



Digital Multiplexing Increases These Capacities



4
-
Wire Connecti
on



Total Capacity: 1.544 Mbps



This is Essentially a “T
-
1” Carrier



T
-
1 is 24 Digitized Channels of 64 Kbps Voice



T
-
3 is
28

Times the Size of T
-
1


ISDN



I Still Don’t Know



I Smell Dollars Now



It Still Does Nothing



Integrated Services Digital Network


SONET



Sy
nchronous Optical NETwork



For Inter
-
Switch Transmission



A Series of Fiber Optics Transmission Rates



Fiber is ALWAYS Digital



Basic Rate is 52 Mb/s; The Rest are Multiples



Optical Carries (OC) Signals, or Line Rates:



OC
-
1


52 Mb/s


28 T
-
1s



1 T
-
3



OC
-
12


622

Mb/s

336 T
-
1s


12 T
-
3s



OC
-
48


2.5 Gb/s


1,344 T
-
1s


48 T
-
3s



Etc.


Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)



ANSI & ITU * Standard for transmission over fiber optic cable



A “Frame Relay” (Variable Length) Protocol



Provides relatively high transmission rates (ap
prox. 52
-

9,953 Mb/s)



A better fit for the wide bandwidth of fiber than previous digital standards



* American National Standards Institute (ANSI)


International Telecommunications Union (ITU)


Advantages of SONET


9



Designed for Fiber’s Wide Bandwi
dth



Interoperability:



Provides High
-
Speed Interface Among Multiple Vendors of Fiber Networks



Provides High
-
Speed Interface For North American & European Fiber Traffic



Supports ATM and B
-
ISDN Switching Standards



Expected to be World
-
Wide Transport Standard
for 20
-
30 Years


Signaling System 7 (SS7)



SS7 is an Out
-
of
-
Band Signaling protocol



Each Carrier (IXC, LEC) has Own Signaling Network



Separate Packet
-
Switched Network & Databases for Signaling Data



Three Components:



SSP, STP, SCP


Signaling System 7 (SS7)



Service Switching Point (SSP)



A Tanden Switch in IXC Network



Service Request passed to an STP



Signaling Transfer Point (STP)



Packet Switching Nodes



Passes call Set
-
up request to an SCP



Service Control Point (SCP)



Databases of information



Responds to the S
TP Query


Two Major Advantages of SS7



Fast Call Set
-
Up



Through High
-
Speed Circuit
-
Switching



Digital Interface to Non
-
Network Databases, Which Allows:



Passing Calling and Called Party Information



CTI and Screen Pops



Digital Features Across the Entire Networ
k



Call Waiting, Transfer, Forwarding, Caller ID, etc.



SS7 Makes ISDN, DSL Possible



History Of Telephony Regulation,

AT&T, & Industry Structure


History of Common Carrier


Telegraph:


Invented 1844


Telephone:


Invented 1876


Intercom Uses


Music Uses


Inventi
on of Switching


Long
-
Distance


Rise of AT&T


AT&T’s “Natural Monopoly”



10


1913 Anti
-
Trust Action







Led to “Kingsbury Commitment”



AT&T Promised To:




Stop Unfair Practices (Refusal to Interconnect)



Pursue Universal Service




1925: Bell Labs Founded




AT&T

Made up of 4 Components:



22 BOCs






Local Phone Service



Long Lines





Long Distance Service



Western Electric



Equip. Manufacturing



Bell Laboratories


R&D



1949
-
56 Anti
-
Trust Action





Gov’t Stopped Effort To Break Up AT&T



AT&T Agreed To Stay Out Of
Computers



1968 Carterfone Decision



Competition In The Equipment Business



1969 MCI Decision





Competition In The Transmission (LD) Business



1974 Anti Trust Action Started


Vertical & Horizontal Monopoly


Gov’t Wanted AT&T To Give Up Western Ele
ctric (Equipment Business)



1981 Computer Inquiry II Decision


Computer Companies Were Transmitting Data Over Phone Lines


Could Continue Offering “Enhanced Services”
-

Unregulated


AT&T Could Offer “Enhanced Services” And CPE
-

Under A Separate Subsidiary



1974
-
82 Anti
-
Trust Action



1984 Divestiture


AT&T Keeps LD, WE, & Labs; Spin Off Bocs


AT&T Keeps 400,000 Employees, 600,000 Go With BOCs


AT&T Keep $40 B In Assets, Gives Up $60 B


22 BOCs Re
-
Organized Into 7 RBOCs


NYNEX, Bell Atlantic, Bell South, Amer
itech, US West, S. Western Bell, & Pacific Telesis




RBOCs Not Allowed To:



Manufacture Equipment


Get Into LD


Offer Enhanced Services


RBOCs Keep Yellow Pages, Pay Phones




11

We did not yet get to (so not on the exam):



Telecomm Act Of 1996


“Open Competition”


Re
-
Regulation (Not De
-
Regulation!)


Cable, Local Phone And LD Companies Can Offer Each Other’s Services


“Once there is Competition”


Comm Decency Act Of 1996


V
-
Chip (Television) Proposal


Banned “Indecency” On The Internet