raggedsquadNetworking and Communications

Oct 30, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)
































A and B roll editing:

The production of a master tape by assembling
segments from two tapes, A and B rolls, on the same input machine.

A and B rolls:

Two separated reels o
f video on which scenes are alternately
placed to perform special effects.

across mike:

Referring to the technique of speaking sideways to a
microphone, rather than directly into it, to reduce hissing, popping, and
explosive sounds.


A p
rogram or commercial scheduled at the same time
each day, generally Monday through Friday; also called


A live or taped news report broadcast from the scene, containing
the voice(s) of the newsmaker(s), as well as of the reporter.

ad hoc


A group of stations that is formed for a special purpose,
such as the showing of a one
time TV program or series. Ad hoc is Latin for
"for this."


Area of Dominant Influence.


A commercial or program preceding or following another

on a
radio or TV station or network, or the time period itself.


A notarized record of commercial and public service
announcements aired by a station, listing broadcast date and time, provided
to advertisers; also called an affidavit of perform


A station that contractually agrees to carry programs of the
network with which it is affiliated. The station may be owned by the
network but generally is independently owned.


The medium for radio and TV broadcasting. A station or p
rogram, when
broadcast, is
on the air


air check:

An audio or video transcription or recording, made from an
actual broadcast, of a radio or TV commercial or program. Technically, a
typed transcript is not an air check, although it sometimes is
called that.

air date:

The time of a broadcast.

air master:

A print of a film or a tape from broadcast use; also called an

air ready:

Describing a commercial, program, or other material completed
and available for broadcast use.

air show:

A TV program as actually broadcast; if taped, the final edited


Suitable for use on a radio or TV station (uncommon slang).


The broadcast of a record or tape. One measurement of a hit
recording is the number of airplays it rece


air time:

The scheduled day or period of a broadcast, described
by the beginning time; the length of an actual broadcast of a program or
segment, such as an interview.


Filming or taping of one moving aircraft from another.


The medium through which broadcasting signals are transmitted;
their pathways through the air.


Slang for a metal spring
clamp with serrated jaws used to attach
lights and other items; also called a
gator grip

bear trap
. It is used b
gaffers (electricians) and called a
gaffer grip
. The spring
loaded clamp has
serrations along the edges and resembles the jaws of an alligator.

AM station:

A station that broadcasts with an amplitude
modulated signal.
An AM signal is a long, direct radi
o wave that travels the earth's surface,
whereas a frequency
modulated (FM) signal is a straight broadcast signal
that travels only as far as the horizon.

American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA):

CIO union of broadcasting worker
s. Headquartered in New York, near
the offices of the major networks, it is the primary organization of broadcast
talent, with 30 locals. Performers who appear in TV and radio commercials
are required to be members of this union and/or other unions. Howeve
spokespersons and others who are retained by public relations practitioners
for talk shows and other radio and TV programs are not required to be union
members, since they are generally not paid for their services. The acronym,
AFTRA, is pronounced af

American Women in Radio and Television (AWRT):

An association in
Washington, DC, of women who work in all areas of broadcasting.

amplitude modulation (AM):

The encoding of a carrier wave (such as the
sound waves or audio signals of a radio station) b
y variation of its
amplitude, or power (not its frequency).


A method of data storage and transmission by continuous or
wavelike signals of pulses of varying (greater or lesser) intensity; in contrast
to digital transmission (on or off).


The key narrator of a newscast or other program; also called
anchorman or anchorwoman. Two or more individuals sharing these
functions are co
anchors. A local anchor works at a local station; a network
anchor, at a network. Specialized newscasters include

sports anchor, weather
anchor, and weekend anchor. A field anchor reports from a studio outside
the studio headquarters.


A "rough" of a TV commercial, resembling an animated cartoon,
produced on film or videotape from drawings that show the sta
ges in the


The process of creating static figures that appear to move and
seem alive, such as cut
outs or puppets filmed a frame at a time, each
slightly different in a sequence.


An artist who produces animation drawings,

or the person in
charge of an animation production.




A printed notice or a message during a broadcast. It may be
paid (commercial announcement) or free (public service announcement),
perhaps made by a performer (announcer
) in an
announcer's booth



A metallic device for sending or receiving electromagnetic waves,
formerly common on rooftops,now built into radio and TV sets for
receiving. The origin of the term is the sensory appendages on the heads
insects and other animals.

antenna farm:

The location for the transmitting antennas for most or all of
the TV stations in an area; sometimes also a cluster of radio transmitters.


Approval, commonly expressed by clapping. An
applause meter


a broadcast studio measures the sound volume of the applause, and it also
can be used to intensify the sound or provide canned applause (the recorded
sound of applause for a taped or filmed program).
Applause mail

is fan mail
commending a program or perfo
rmer. An
applause line
in a script, such as a
speech, indicates a pause in anticipation of applause.

appointment television:

A process in which TV viewers plan to view
specific programs, as if they were making appointments on their weekly
calendars, a hab
it that was common in the 1940s among listeners of network
radio programs and in the 1950s among audiences of network TV programs.


Average quarter hour rating.


A firm in New York, owned by Ceridian Corp., that measures the
size of broadcas
t audiences. Formerly called American Research Bureau,
Inc., it is famous for its use of an automatic electronic meter device (called
Arbitron, a name loosely based on the original corporate name) attached to
the TV sets of a sample of viewers. The TV serv
ice was terminated at the
end of 1993. Radio reports are provided for more than 2,200 counties in the
United States, based on diaries maintained by listeners. An Arbitron market,
called an area of dominant influence (ADI), was a cluster of counties
nting TV markets.


A mini
series within a regularly scheduled program, such as a two
parter, a three
parter, or several episodes with the same plot.


A curved movement, as in the circular motion of a TV pedestal
camera, for which the instructi
ons are arc left and arc right.

Area of Dominant Influence (ADI):

The geographic boundaries of TV
markets. The term ADI was coined by Arbitron to indicate the cluster of
counties in which TV stations have a greater share of viewing households
than those f
rom any other area. A non
ADI market is a county in which the
preponderance of TV viewers is not watching the local station or stations.
For example, viewers in Akron, OH, are more likely to view Cleveland
stations. An ADI rating was the percent of people
viewing a specific TV
program. Arbitron terminated its TV service at the end of 1993. The A.C.
Nielsen Company has a similar concept called Designated Market Area


The primary material, as opposed to B
roll. In film and tape editing,
te scenes are arranged on two reels (A
roll and B
roll) and then

assemble edit:

The recording of all tracks (audio, video, cue, and control)
simultaneously. It is different from insert edit.


The designation by the Federal Communications Commission
of the holder of a radio or TV frequency or of a broadcast license; the
designation of a photo or writing task by an editor. The assignment editor is
the person at a publication or broadcast station

who is in charge of assigning
reporters or broadcasters to attend or cover a specific event. The daily
assignments are listed in an
assignment book

(print media) or on an
assignment board

(broadcasting), or instructions may be given on an
assignment sheet


A group of spectators, listeners, viewers, or readers of a
performance, program, or work. Average audience is a number or rating
calculated by the Nielsen and other research services, based on specific

audience accumulation:

The a
ddition of new audiences to a publication,
television program, or other medium, as successive issues or broadcasts are

audience composition:

The number or percentage or characteristics
(demographics) of the men, women, children, or other groups
of viewers of
listeners of a specific TV or radio program or station; also called

audience profile
, or

audience duplication:

The number or percent of individuals or households
exposed more than once to the same message through the
same medium
(publication or broadcast) or different media over a measured period of time.

audience flow:

The extent to which listeners or viewers remember the
events on a radio or TV show from one program to another.

audience format:

A type of programmin
g on a station (generally radio,
which is more segmented than noncable TV) to appeal to specific listeners.

audience holding index:

A minute
minute or other detailed analysis of
the number of listeners or viewers of a program.

audience turnover:

A mea
surement of the frequency with which the
audience of a radio or TV program changes over a period of time;
specifically, the ratio of the net unduplicated cumulative audience over
several time periods to the average audience of one time period; also, the
mber of announcements required to reach half of a station's cumulative
audience in a specific time period. It is also called turnover or T/O.


The sound portion of a broadcast, film, tape, or other medium.
Audio, from the Latin audire, meaning "to h
ear," literally means "I hear."

audio billboard:

An identification at the beginning of an audio tape,
including a brief description of the event recorded, the name of the reporter,
and the number of the take.

audio news release (ANR):

A tape sent to radi
o stations by a public
relations source.

audio operator:

The person responsible for the technical quality of a
program's sound. The audio operator works in a control room or an audio
room and communicates by headset with the assistant audio operator and
thers on the floor of the studio.

audio receive only (ARO):

A small dish antenna used by radio stations to
receive sound from a satellite.


A magnetic strip on which are recorded electrical signals that
can be converted to sound.

audio/video (

Sound and sight, as in a script with the text of the
dialogue and a description of the accompanying visual action.

audiovisual (AV


Involving both sound and sight.


A somewhat derogatory, though affectionate, slang term for the
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).

automatic dialogue replacement (ADR):

A technique for recording a
replacement dialogue track in which the performer is cued by electronic
beeps and oth
er techniques. The
ADR editor
supervises the post
alterations of the dialogue tracks.

average audience (AA):

The number of households tuned to a radio or TV
program during a minute or other period, as expressed in an AA rating.

average quarter
hour (AQH):

The audience during a typical (average) 15
minute period of a radio or TV program, the smallest unit of time used by
rating services. AQH Persons is the estimated number of individuals who
listened to a station during an average quarter
hour. A
QH Share represents
the AQH Persons of a station expressed as a percent of the total persons
listening to radio or TV during that time period. Average quarter
audience is an average of the number of people listening to a specific station
or network fo
r at least five minutes in each quarter
hour over a specified
period of time, such as a day or week. The AQH rating is the AQH persons
divided by the population in the listening area.

back announce:

A recap or summary by a disc jockey or announcer of th
records, tapes, or discs broadcast during the preceding period.


1 Background action:

a part of a picture or scene that appears
in the distance or rear, a position of relative inconspicuousness or less
importance than the foreground. A backgr
ound plate is a rear projection
slide or film against which foreground action is photographed.
2 Background

subdued music or other sound faded to a lower or background level.
To background the sound is to reduce or fade it, as with a music backgroun
for a voice


back timing:

A technique in live news, variety, or other
programs in which the last segment is rehearsed and timed. Thus, in the
actual broadcast, as the time to begin this segment approaches, the director is
prepared to
stretch it, speed it up, or replace it. In TV news programs,
backtime is the clock time (the actual time) at which the last segment should
begin if the program is to end on time.



A thin strip; grooves on a record or disk with an entire song,
ent, or other section.

A range of radio
spectrum frequencies
(broadcast band), including AM, FM, UHF, VHF, VLF, ham, police,
commercial, and CB. The use of letters for these bands was started by the
military during the second World War. Letters, as in K
and S bands, are not
designations of the Federal Communications Commission, though the letters
are commonly used in the broadcasting and communications industries.


The amount of information that can be transmitted over a
computer network at a g
iven time. The higher the bandwidth, the more data
can pass over the network.

barker channel:

A cable TV channel used to list or promote programs on
other channels.


A reference signal recorded on the beginning of a videotape for the
purpose of alig
ning the playback of that tape. Most often, an audio reference
(tone) is usually recorded at the same time as the bars.

basic cable service:

A cable TV company's package of channels, including
the broadcast channels, which excludes certain "premium" or pay channels.

basic set:

A film, TV, or stage set with furniture and scenery but without


An editing room.


A big close
up of

a picture in photography, film, or television. ECU is
an extreme close


An audio signal used for alerting or warning, as on the soundtrack of a
videotape for editing or notice of the forthcoming beginning of a scene,
program, or commercial.


A telephone interview. Radio stations used to be required to insert a
beep (audio signal) on recorded interviews to indicate that they were not
live. Though this is no longer necessary, the term still is used to describe an
interview conducted over th
e telephone rather than in the studio. It is also
used to describe any long
distance interview. With the use of satellites, it is
now possible to conduct long
distance interviews over television. A beeper
line is a phone line connected to a tape recorder.

beginning of tape (BOT):

The place on an audiotape or videotape at which
the leader ends and the sound and/or picture begins; also called the load


A type of 1/2
inch videotape and videocassette recorder (Betamax)
made by Sony and others, pri
marily for home use but also used at TV


Brand name of Sony broadcast
quality half
inch videotape and
recorders. A standard in news and low

to medium
budget video
productions, the camera and recorder are contained in one lightweight uni
The recorder also has a Dolby encoder, an audio limiter, and the ability to
record address track time code. Even slow
motion playback of this format is

big fat wide shot (BFWS):

An instruction to a photographer or camera
operator for a wide


The opening or closing credits or an announcement of a
forthcoming program or segment, as on a news or interview program; an
announcement related to a sponsor or advertiser, perhaps not paid for, such
as "this portion of the program is b
rought to you by ..."


A listing of performers and others on a program, marquee, sign, or
advertisement, with position and size of type as indications of importance.
Top billing

is the number
one position;
bottom billing

is the lowest.


A co
mmunications satellite. Birding is slang for radio and TV
transmission via satellite. The news value of a potential story for satellite
transmission, especially overseas, is called its birdability. To lose the bird is
to suffer an interruption of transmiss


A tweeting noise due to malfunctioning sound equipment.


A spotlight with a reflector back invented by Clarence Birdseye
1956), who is better known for developing methods for quick
freezing foods.


A short segment, or a
take, such as a 15
second sound bite that is
repeated on network radio and TV news programs. The major excerpt from
an interview, a very quotable sentence or two, is called the
news bite

the day
. A
strong bite
, the opposite of a
weak bite
, is dramatic. To
pull a

is to find a usable short section in a longer tape.

bite off:

The premature cutoff of a commercial, record, or program.

black (BLK):

Very dark. Pitch black or pure black means totally without
light. Television black reflects

a very small amount of light from the screen,
about 3
percent reflectance. Blank tape is not black tape.

black and coded tape:

A videotape on which a video signal of black (7.5
IRE units) and time code has been recorded.

black clipping:

A video control
circuit that regulates, or clips, the bottom,
or black level, of the picture signal so that it does not appear on the
transmitted picture.



Suppression, as of a video signal. Line blanking, or horizontal
blanking, is a standard procedure in tel
evision transmission in which the
video signal is suppressed during the brief interval while the electron beam,
or scanning spot, is retracing its path, that is, returning from the end of one
line to begin another line.
Field blanking
, or
vertical blanking
, is the
suppression of the video signal during the brief interval when the beam
finishes scanning one area, or field, and returns to the top to begin scanning
the next area. The interval during which the signal is suppressed is the
blanking period
. The pu
lses added to the video signal to suppress it are the
blanking signals

The interval between picture frames. The standard TV
signal transmits 30 frames per second, with intervals so brief that the eye
merges them to produce an illusion of motion; the sam
e concept applies to
film (moving pictures).


A sudden rush or explosion. In broadcasting,

is excessive
sound through a microphone.


A brief segment, such as a musical transition.


A small amount of space at the edges of a s
hot to compensate for any
loss between the picture as it appears on the studio monitor and on the home


Audio from an unwanted source.


The bleeding through of the high
pitched whine of time
code onto the production track of

inch tape.


To flash. A blinker is a light that flashes to convey a message or
warning, such as a signal to people in a studio. The off
on speed is the
blink rate


A brief interruption of sound on a program or tape; to inte
rrupt or
delete sound, as in blipping an expletive from a TV program.


A group of consecutive time periods. Block programming is the
scheduling of programs with similar audience appeal. Air time set aside for
special programming or deliberately not
sold is
blocked out
. A
news block

a segment devoted to news, such as a one
minute segment in a TV program.


The planned movement of performers or the camera.

blocking tape:

On film, stage, and TV sets, tape affixed to places on the
floor to indicate where a performer should stand.


A halo or flare on the screen caused by reflections from a shiny
object such as jewelry or lights, or a whitening in an overbright area; a
called blooming, blossom, or puddling.

board fade:

Lowering of the intensity of music or other sounds, the board
being the audio or video console or control panel. It is also called a
production fade

but is different from a
studio fade
, in which the s
ound is
reduced in the studio.

body brace:

A camera support that attaches to the shoulders and waist of a
camera operator.


A radio or TV commercial with an open area in the middle for
insertion of a local dealer tie
in or other material; also ca
lled a

has a hole in the middle). A
bookend commercial

also is a split, usually 30
seconds before one or more other commercials and 30 seconds after.

booking board:

A calendar posted on a wall or bulletin board on which is
written the names o
f interview guests and other information about
forthcoming programs.


A long movable stand, crane, arm, or pole for mounting and moving
a microphone (
boom microphone
) or camera. The
boom arm
is the circular
arm on a camera platform that controls the
vertical position of the camera.
Thus, to
boom up

is to raise the dolly boom arm and camera in order to
obtain a tilt down, or downward shot. The opposite is a
boom down
, or tilt
up, shot, in which the dolly boom arm is lowered. A boom shot is a
continuous single shot involving various movements of the camera boom.
These shots also are called crane shots. The
boom operator
(formerly called
boom man) handles the microphone
boom and associated equipment.



Signals bounced off the ionosphere, satellites, or other bounce
A sudden, unanticipated brightness in the picture.

box set:

A film or TV setting in which a complete room or area is
realistically reproduce
d except for one wall and the ceiling, to allow for the
camera to enter.

Bozo box:

Audio equipment linked to a TV camera, so simple that even
Bozo the Clown could operate it. A
Bozo filter

eliminates or reduces the
priority of incoming E
mail or voice mai



Intermission; a time segment
a few seconds or minutes
during, or after a radio or TV program or other activity; an interruption, as in
a station break.

To move or relocate a camera.

breaking news:

Currently happening or impending
news; also called a
breaking story.
breaking news is even more "of the moment."


A single radio or TV program; the transmission or duration of a
program. Any message that is transmitted over a large area, not necessarily
by a broadcast stati
on, is said to be broadcast. For example, facsimile
transmission of a document to more than one fax machine is called

broadcast day:

The period between the sign
on and sign
off of a radio or
TV station.

broadcast editor:

A member of the edi
torial staff of a publication who
provides a report on a radio or television station, such as a health news
report based on material from a health magazine.

broadcast home:

A household with one or more radio or TV sets.

broadcast hours:

The total number
of hours broadcast by a station during a

broadcast quality:

The technical specifications of the video signal and the
actual look of that signal. A technically perfect video signal might look
terrible. For instance, a VHS tape, properly doctored thro
ugh a digital effects
generator, might meet a station's technical requirements but might be
rejected because it is not a broadcast
quality picture. Each broadcast
company, network, or station has its own level of quality.


Supplementary or backup m
aterial. With video news releases, the B
roll generally follows the primary material on the same cassette. In film and
tape editing, alternate scenes are arranged on two reels, an A
roll and a B
roll, and then assembled.


Best time available.


hind the scenes interviews and other filmed or taped material about
the production of a film or TV show, for publicity use.


Business television.

bulk eraser:

A large electromagnet that demagnetizes and wipes
entire tape without running t
he tape through the recorder, a degausser.



To cancel a guest or segment.

A photo or brief segment to
announce or tease a forthcoming segment of a program, usually with the
words "coming up next."

sound bump

is a blip or other irregularity,
erhaps due to poor recording or editing.
Bumping up

means transferring
from a narrow tape, such as 1/2", to a wider one, such as 3/4".


A transitional device, such as fadeout music or "We'll return after
these messages," between story action and a
commercial; also called a
program separator

bumper list:

A list of musical selections to be played before a break, such as
to lead into (bump) commercials.

time code:

Time code is made visible or "burned
in" to a dub. A
dub with a burned
me code can be provided to a client so that they can
choose the exact location of a shoot or soundbite in advance of an edit
saving substantial time and money. Frequently recorded on VHS so you can
"pencil edit."


A central connection for several audi
o sources or a row of buttons on a
video switching panel; also spelled buss.

business television (BTV):

Videos and TV programs sponsored by
companies, generally about their business and transmitted free via closed
circuit or other distribution.


A strong musical or sound effect, such as the end of a commercial,
or a bit of music between segments of a program; also called a


A purchase, such as of time or space in the media; approval or
acceptance of a proposal.

buy rate:

In pay
view TV, the percentage of subscribers that purchase a


A transition phrase used by a broadcaster to indicate a locale
change, such as "That's all from here in Chicago, and now a report from Los

cable penetration:

The percentage of homes that subscribe to cable
television, generally within a specified area.

cable puller:

A person responsible for setting up and handling power,
sound, and picture cables. Generally one cable puller is allocated to each


television (cable tv


A television distribution system whereby
TV signals are transmitted via cable (insulated wire), rather than through the
air, to TV sets of subscribers in a community or locality. Cable television
systems are generally called

cable systems; the companies that own and
operate them are known as
cable system operators



Programming carried on cable television, as opposed to over
air broadcasting; also called
cable origination

call letters:

name of a radio or TV station. Most stations east of the
Mississippi River have call letters beginning with W; west of the
Mississippi, call letters usually begin with K. Canadian stations begin with
C; Mexican stations, with X. All U.S. radio stations exc
ept a few of the
oldest ones have four letters.


A combination TV camera and videotape recorder in one
portable unit.

camera cue:

A red light or buzzer indicating that a TV camera is shooting a
scene for transmission, live or taped; also called

cue light
tally light
, or
warning light

camera left (

camera right):

The left (or right) as seen from the camera
operator's or viewer's position, as opposed to that of the performer; hence,
the left (or right) of the image when viewed.

camera orig

A first
generation videotape from the original camera

camera rehearsal:

A full
dress rehearsal, one with costumes, at which the
movements of the camera are blocked; more advanced than a reading or
script rehearsal.

camera shot:

That part of

the subject matter that is viewed and
photographed by the camera.

camera talk:

A situation in which a performer looks directly into the lens to
deliver a message to the audience.


The process of superimposing subtitles at the bottom of a TV


Short form of cartridge, a case containing magnetic tape. A

is a tape
cartridge playback machine, used with a stack of perhaps a
dozen cartridges, mostly to store and broadcast commercials and public
service announcements on radi
o stations. In radio, a
cart directory

is a
listing of cartridges in a rack or other storage, containing information about
the cartridge number, title, artist, and running time. Television talk shows
often post notices in the middle of a program to recruit

participants for future
shows; the announcement is called a cart, akin to a cart in an aisle.

cast commercial:

A broadcast advertisement featuring the performers in the

chalk off:

To mark (with chalk, or more generally, tape) positions on the
e floor for use as reference by the performers.
Chalking off

a scene is
generally called
blocking a scene

channel (ch, ch,



A frequency band assigned to a radio or TV
station. Radio channel names generally are referred to with the word station
llowed by the call letters, particularly with AM stations. FM stations
typically use the frequency number as identification. TV stations are mostly
referred to by their channel numbers.

character generator:

An electronic typewriter that creates letters an
symbols in video, usually available for rent in editing bays.

Chromakey, Chroma


chroma key:

An electronic process that
alters the background scene without affecting the foreground, also called
separation overlay (abbreviated CSO). In the C
hromakey system, a
saturated color (usually blue) forms a hole in the background picture so that
a second video source (such as a camera) can fill this area.


The portion of a TV signal that produces the sensation of
color or hue, as distingui
shed from luminance (brightness).

Chyron Corporation:

A major manufacturer (based in Melville, NY) of
electronic image and character generators and TV graphics systems,
particularly those commonly used by many TV stations and producers for
lettering and g
raphics. The systems are so common that the company name
sometimes is used generically or as a verb (to chyron an identification).

circle wipe:

An optical effect in which an image first appears as a dot in the
center and then grows to full size while cove
ring (wiping out) the preceding


An optical effect in which a picture diminishes and disappears as
it is replaced by a second picture that grows in a circle from the center; the
opposite of a circle
out. It is also called
iris in

(whose opposite is
iris out

class (cl.):

A division of broadcast time. Class A time is the prime time
period, or the period of maximum audience, such as 8:00
11:00 p.m. on TV.
Advertising during Class A time is charged at the highest rate, followed by
B, C, and D.

channel station:

An AM radio station authorized by the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) to dominate its frequency. Such a
station generally has the maximum power (50kW) and is protected (has no
other stations at its frequency) for a distance of up to 750 miles. Man
y clear
channel stations can be heard at greater distances on clear nights. Clear
channels are specific frequencies to which the FCC has assigned a limited
number of stations.


The person directly responsible for paying for and/or supervising a
sion, project, or other entity.


A short segment of a program.

up (CU):

A tight photograph or shot, generally of the face and
shoulders; a close shot.

closed circuit:

A term referring to audio and/or video transmission for
controlled receptio
n, such as to theaters, hotels, meeting places for sports
events, conventions, and other one
time transmissions. Closed
transmissions are also regularly sent to stations for their own personnel or
for reviewers. Closed
circuit television (CCTV) is
transmitted over cable to
specific sites or broadcast in a scrambled format to sites that are provided
with unscramblers.

color bar:

A strip of gradation of primary colors and black, used for TV
testing and for color standardization and accuracy.

color b

A reference signal transmitted with each line of a video
between the end of the line's sync and the picture signal. The burst consists
of a few cycles of chroma signal of known phase.

color correction:

The changing of color shadings in a video pictu
re. The
process of color correction is time
consuming, so it is much wiser to get the
color balance right during the production. Color correction can be as simple
as changing the hue on a time base corrector or as complicated as using a
machine that breaks

down the video signal into its original components and
then adjusts certain elements of those components. A video signal might
require color correction because (1) the camera was not white
balanced; (2)
one of the camera's color pickup tubes was not worki
ng correctly; (3) a
playback was not properly set up to bars during an original edit, requiring
the shot be fixed to balance the color of one or several shots; (4) a color shot
must be made black

color corrector:

A machine that is capable of dr
astically altering the color
levels of a video signal.

comet tail:

A streak, generally caused by an overloaded camera tube. Comet
tails can be prevented or minimized by means of an anti
comet tail (ACT)
gun in the tube.

commercial break:

An interruption
in radio or TV programming for
broadcast of one or more advertisements (commercials).

commercial load:

The maximum amount of advertising time available
during a broadcast time period, such as eight national minutes and four local
minutes per hour; the tot
al time of commercials actually broadcast during an
hour or other specific time.

commercial pool:

A selection of television or radio commercials that an
advertiser has available for airing at any one time.

component video recording:

A technical method of

recording a color
picture on videotape that separates the black
white portion of the signal
from the chroma. This method is used in half
inch professional video
formats such as Betacam, Beta SP, MII, and D1.


The encoding of complete video
information into one signal.
Originally designed for broadcasting, this process was used extensively in
postproduction until the late 1980s when component switchers, recorders,
and other devices allowed for the creation of totally component signal paths.
omponent is a more accurate signal.


A process of automatic adjustment of variation in audio

computer edit:

Either an edit performed by a computerized editing system
or the generic term for a computer on
line edit.

computer editing s

A computerized process in which a time code
locates specific positions on the playback and record tapes.


A quality of a script, giving the broadcaster a continuous flow of
spoken words. A
continuity acceptance department

) reviews programming and advertising to eliminate
unsubstantiated claims and illegal or objectionable material. Also, the
impression that events, scenes, and shots flow smoothly and naturally in
proper sequence, without any inconsisten
t transitions (
continuity flaws

continuity book:

A daily file of all commercials, in chronological order, to
be broadcast on a radio or TV station.

control room:

The room in which the director, engineer, and others adjust
sound and/or video.

control t

A series of evenly spaced electronic blips or spikes (called
sync pulses
) on videotape that function like the sprocket holes of film. The
control track is essential in editing videotape.

correspondent (cor., corr.,


A reporter who is a f
time or
time employee of one of the media (not a stringer or freelancer) and
who is based elsewhere than the headquarters of the employer.

cost per point (CPP):

The cost of purchasing or delivering one gross rating
point (GRP). It is a measure of

media efficiency and is determined by
dividing the cost of the advertising by the gross audience rating points.

cough button:

A switch used by a radio announcer to cut off the
microphone during a cough.


A leader at the beginning of a program,

which counts backward
until two seconds before the program. At two seconds, a brief audio beep is
recorded as part of the countdown.

cover shot:

A wide or long
distance view, such as generally begins a
sequence, to establish the location. Also, a video t
hat covers, or replaces, as
when the audio part of an interview continues and the video is of a relevant
event; also called
cover footage

coverage (cvg):


[journalism] Media treatment, the extent to which an
event is reported.
[broadcasting] The geogra
phical area (usually counties)
in which a station is received by viewers or listeners, as indicated on a
coverage map.

[film, television] The photographing of a scene from
various views and using various exposures.

cow catcher:


A series of comments made before the introduction of a
show or broadcast to capture attention.

A commercial preceding or at the
beginning of a program.


A vehicle with a movable arm or boom (generally hydraulic) that
moves a platform on which are a camera and a crew; sometimes called a
. A crane typically has three seats, for the director, camera operator,
and camera assistant or focus puller. The b
ase of the vehicle is called a
trolley. Cranes are ubiquitous on movie sets. A
crane shot

boom shot
is a
shot taken from a crane.


A body of typed information, such as a news bulletin, promotional
message, telephone number, or cast credits, that
is transmitted in a
continuous flow across all or part of a TV screen (often the bottom); also
called a crawl roll. The effect is produced by mounting the text on a
drumlike mechanism, the

crawl roll
. The crawl can be horizontal (across the
top or bottom o
f the screen) or vertical (from the bottom, moving up). It is
positioned in the
crawl space


Acknowledgment of work done. Credits may come at the beginning
of a program (


head credits
) or the end (


tail credits
). A
sequence starts a film or TV program before the title appears.


A group of workers on a site or production, as distinguished from
performers (cast).


Live conversation between broadcasters, as between an
anchorperson and an on
site report


A signal in words or signs that initiates action, dialogue, effects, or
other aspects of a production, such as an indication from a director for a
performer or interview subject to begin or end. Exact timing is one cue. Cues
may be given with a c
ue light, such as an On The Air sign or a warning light.
A return cue is a verbal or other signal to return to the studio from a remote
broadcast, such as a sports event. To cue ahead is to move a tape to the next
broadcast or edit point.

cue card:

A larg
e card containing lines to be spoken by a performer, often
used off
camera on TV; also called a
flip card, idiot card
, or
idiot sheet

cue channel:

A track or channel on a tape for audio information related to
the production and other signals that are not

to be part of the soundtrack they

cue in:

To begin or initiate action, music, dialogue, or effects.

cue track:

One of the audio tracks on videotape, or a separate track for
recording with cuing information to be used in editing; also called a
address track

cue up:

To prepare and set in position a record or tape for immediate
recording or playback.


The total accumulated or cumulative audience (not total combined
audiences, which would be duplicated repeatedly) of a radio or TV station

during a broadcast day or time period, such as 6 a.m. to midnight, Monday
to Friday.


A transition (or transition point) from one scene to another (a visual cut)
or one soundtrack to another (a sound cut). A late cut is made (generally
y) slightly after the indicated moment, whereas a delayed cut is
intentionally withheld so as to create suspense or for other effects. Also, an
instruction to end a scene or to shift from one scene to another. The symbol
for this command is an index finger

drawn across the throat.


A reaction shot or a shot of an action, object, or person not part of
the principal scene; an insert, such as between two scenes of an interview
subject, usually a brief sequence that shows the interviewer.


insertion of a local commercial or announcement in a broadcast.

only editor:

An editor that performs only cuts.

daily electronic feed (DEF):

A news service from a network to affiliated
stations for possible subsequent broadcast. Also called
d electronic
, it may be a morning and/or afternoon transmission.


Digital audio tape.


A programming segment of a broadcast schedule, such as morning
and afternoon drive time and night watch for radio, and morning, afternoon,
early, and
late fringe for television.

is the scheduling of
programs at specific parts of the day, targeted to specific audiences that are
predominant during those times.

daytime station:

An AM radio station restricted by its FCC license to
broadcasting b
etween 15 minutes before sunrise and 15 minutes after sunset;
also called a

dead air:

A broadcasting term for silence, perhaps resulting from a dead
mike (inoperative microphone).

dead roll:

A technique of starting a taped program or a film at its scheduled
time on a station but not broadcasting it, so that the preceding program,
specifically a live sports or news event, is continued. When the live program
ends, the dead rolling tape or film
is telecast at the point it has rolled to,
usually with the announcement, "We now join the program already in

dead spot:

An area where broadcast reception is weak; also called
. A dead spot is also a broadcast commercial or program no
t aired,
sometimes called
black space


On deck

is to be ready; an
deck camera

is a TV camera whose
picture is currently not being transmitted despite its readiness to become an
air camera.

delayed broadcast (D.B.):

The broadcast of a radio or

TV program at a time
later than its original transmission, a common procedure in the Pacific time


Demonstration, as in a demo record, or reel of a record or tape
produced for an audition.

demographics (demos):

The external characteristics of

a population, such
as TV viewers, as related to age, sex, income, education, marital status, and
other quantifiable descriptions.

Designated Market Area (DMA):

A Nielsen Media Research term for a
group of counties in which a TV station obtains the greate
st portion of its
audience. Each U.S. county is part of only one DMA. The Designated
Market Area Rating is the percentage of TV homes within the area viewing
an individual station during a particular time period.

detail set:

A part of a set used for close
ups; also called an insert set.


The primary method of data storage and transmission, in which each
code is given a unique combination of bits and each bit generally indicates
the presence or absence of a condition (on or off, yes or no, true or false,
open or closed). A digital camera r
ecord images as pixels.

digital effects generator:

A device that produces electronic optical
illusions. Common brands are ADO and DVE.

digital video:

A video picture that recorded digitally. Some machines can
store single frames and short segments of vid
eo digitally on disks. There are
also tape machines that can store large amounts of video digitally. Multiple
generations of digital video look exactly like the camera original because the
picture is recreated by digital signals rather than by copying the


Not bright; unclear. To dim or dim down is to reduce the light
intensity; to dim up or dim in is to increase the light gradually, and to dim
out is to reduce the light to blackout.

direct broadcast satellite (DBS):

A high
powered satellite f
or broadcasting
directly to homes.


A supervisor; generally refers to the person responsible for all
visible components of a program, film, or show, whereas the
producer is responsible for the financial and other behind
scenes aspect
The production director selects and manages the suppliers.


Soiled; muddy, as a dirty tape.

dirty tape:

Tape that has unwanted audio and other distortions under the
desired recording. This usually happens when an engineer or producer fails
to ad
equately erase the tape before using it.

disc jockey (d.j.):

A radio or TV performer whose program consists mainly
of records (discs) or other recordings; also called a

dee jay


A microwave transmitter or receiver with a concave (dishlike)
reflector to concentrate and focus signals. A small dish can be attached to a
microphone to pick up from a large area; a large dish can be set atop a tower
or roof to transmit or pick up from a satellite. A communications satellite
sometimes is called a


big dish

(in the sky).


An optical technique to produce a gradual change in scenes. The
progressive blending of the end of one shot into the beginning of the next is
produced by the superimposition of a fade
out into a fade
in or by putt
the camera gradually out of or into focus (a cross
dissolve). When the
images are both at half
strength, they overlap; the effect is called a lap, lap
dissolve, mix, or cross
lap. An out
focus dissolve is a transition in which
one shot is faded out
of focus while another shot is faded in. Dissolve in is to
fade in; dissolve out, to fade out. Dissolve
lapse is a series of brief shots
filmed at different times and linked with fast transitions, similar to a time

distance shot:

A view in which th
e subject is a long distance from the
camera or appears to be far away; also called a
long shot

distant signal:

In cable TV, a station "imported" from a market other than
the one in which the cable system is located.

ditty bag:

A small container, origin
ally used by sailors to carry toilet
articles; also called a
ditty box
. The ditty bag used by camera crews is a cloth
or canvas bag containing small items, sometimes attached to a tripod.

dj copy:

A record with a recording on only one side, for use by a r
adio disc


A mobile platform with three of four wheels for carrying a
microphone, camera, or other items. A
dolly shot

(the process is called
dollying, tracking
, or
) shifts the viewpoint of the camera, often by a
crew member called
dolly pusher


dolly grip,

and is taken while the dolly
is in motion. To
in, dolly up
, or
camera up

is to move the camera
platform closer toward the subject; to

is to move it away and is
also called
camera back, dolly
back, truck back
, or
pull back


A commercial distributed to stations with a blank central section to
be "filled" with a local advertiser's message, which generally is live; also
called a doughnut commercial.


The portion of a signal from the satellite do
wn to the receiving
point, such as a dish (sometimes called a
down link

drive time:

Morning and afternoon hours when many radio listeners drive to
and from work. The hours vary depending on the area and time of year
generally 6 to 10 a.m. and 4 to 7 p.
m. on weekdays.

drop frame time code:

A system that keeps the time of a videotape accurate
by dropping two numbers every minute to make up for the small error that
results from assuming that video runs exactly 30 frames per second (video
actually runs 29.
97 frames per second).

in ad:

A local commercial inserted into a national program, or, more
generally, an advertising message inserted into a larger advertisement, as for
a local dealer or retailer, or a phrase, such as a public service slogan, or
mbol; also called a
hike ad.



A defect in a tape resulting in a black flash, color
loss, or other gap. This signal loss can be concealed by a


A dupe or duplicate; an insert in an audiovisual medium; al
so used as a
verb, as in to dub something into the body of a radio or TV program or
motion picture. Material to be dubbed may consist of a different language
soundtrack, new or updated material, or other editing, or combining. When a
duplicate tape is made

at a different speed or width from the original, the
process is called
dubbing down

if the dub is slower or narrower than the
original, or
dubbing up

if the dub is faster or wider. An editor may use a
dubbing mixer


A person who duplicates a film

or tape (makes a dub); a machine
such as an audio playback machine used to make a copy of a tape; a
performer who lip
synchs or inserts dialogue into an existing film or tape,
such as a translation (a



The process of recording, s
uch as making a duplicate of a film or
tape or replacing dialogue or a soundtrack with new material, as in a
different language or with a singer, actor, or other performer replacing the
original. The process may require a
dubbing cue sheet

with the existin
g and
new versions and be recorded at a
dubbing session

in a
dubbing studio
or at
looping stage

Dubner CBG:

A character background generator, a device that creates and
manipulates characters and graphic images on TV, named after Harvey
Dubner of Fort L
ee, NJ.


Short for duplicate, a copy of a radio or TV tape or other audiovisual
material, also called a
. Duping is duplicating.

ear prompter:

A tiny ear plug connected to a small audio recorder, enabling
a performer to hear a recorded script w
hile on stage or on camera.

ear shot:

A close
up of a person in profile.

early fringe:

A time period in TV broadcasting, preceding prime time,
usually 5 to 8 p.m. on weekdays.


A device, akin to a miniature loudspeaker, that reproduces
sound and is worn over the ears; more commonly called

or a

earth station:

Equipment for transmitting or receiving satellite
communications, such as a parabolic or dish antenna

that sends or receives
TV signals over the air directly from satellites or other sources. Owners of
earth stations include cable systems and individuals, who thus bypass cable
systems. Also called a
ground station

edit decision list (EDL):

A record of a
ll times on a video at which
selections or other editing is to be produced.

editing room:

The room in which a film is edited or cut; generally called a
cutting room
; also a room in which videotape is edited, often called an


A device for revising film, tape, or other materials, including the
actual cutting and splicing, or joining, which is done mechanically or
electronically under the supervision of a person also called an editor (or
sound editor
, or

tape editor


A technique or device for producing a visual or auditory illusion,
such as
sound effects
special effects
, or
optical effects


Property, impression.
Special effects

are optics (
optical effects
) or
visual effects

to produce illusions.
Sound effects

are audio devices for
simulation of a specific sound. The abbreviation is FX or sometimes, EFX,
or as with video effects, E.


charge, as of a TV production.

eight ball:

A nondirectional, small, round microphone.

t microphone:

An electrostatic microphone, such as a small lapel

electronic camera:

A filmless camera in which images are recorded on a
computer disk and instantly transmitted to computer screens; also called a
digital camera.

electronic character
generator (ECG):

A typewriterlike machine that
produces weather reports, sports scores, identifications, and other lettering as
part of a TV picture.

electronic cue:

An audio or video signal indicating the end of a tape or other

electronic e

The use of a computer or control board, rather than
manual splicing, for the editing, or cutting, of tape.

electronic field production (EFP):

The use of equipment (generally
portable, such as a minicam, or electronic camera) outside a TV studio to

produce nonnews material, such as programming or commercials.

electronic journalism (EJ):

Live transmission or videotaping from a
location away from the television studio, by an EJ camera crew.

electronic news gathering (ENG):

The use of an electronic,
portable TV
camera (minicam) to videotape or broadcast news from outside the studio.
By eliminating film, ENG has produced considerable savings in time and
personnel and added a mobility to the news operations of TV stations.

electronic setup (ESU):

The p
rebroadcast time during which equipment is
set up and tested.

electronic sports gathering (ESG):

The use of cameras, mobile units, and
other equipment to produce a telecast of a sports event.

electronic still store (ESS):

An electronic still
frame storag
e device, with a
storage area of photographic slides, titles, and other stills that can be selected

electronic viewfinder (EVF):

A small screen for monitoring while
operating a video camera. It may be built in or separate.


The proc
ess of encoding, as in the scrambling of TV signals.
TV transmission often is encrypted, and subscribers have devices that
decrypt, or unscramble.


The last few words
generally four
of a taped report or interview,
an important guide to the en
gineer, producer, director, and newscaster; also
called an


A notation at the end of a broadcast script or other item, similar to
# # # and other notations.


Electronic news gathering.

engineering setup (ESU):

A TV technique to freez
e an image on the screen.
It is most frequently used, by an ESU operator, to project an image over the
shoulder of the anchor, or news broadcaster, during the lead
in of a news


A process that attempts to enhance the quality of a recording

filtering out distortions and other undesirable elements.

establishing shot:

An opening comprehensive view, a long or wide shot to
set the scene or acquaint the audience with the setting, characters, or plot,
followed by details and closer action; als
o called an orientation shot.

extreme close
up (ecu


A tight camera shot, close in and limited to
one part of the subject.

eye bounce:

A technique, recommended to speakers on TV programs, in
which the eyes do not move horizontally. Instead, to achieve a side
movement, the speaker looks down and then to the side. Eye bounce avoids
a glaze or an appearance of being shifty

e contact:

The practice of looking a person in the eyes. In film and TV,
eye contact is achieved by looking directly into the camera.


The direction the eyes are looking. In TV, a cheated eyeline

when a performer does not look directly at a subject, such as another
performer, but turns somewhat toward the camera. Clear the eyeline is a cue
to remove any people who are in the actor's line of vision, other than
performers who are supposed to
be in the scene.

eyewitness news:

A TV news format featuring on
scene reporters,
generally shot with a minicam, a portable electronic camera.

face time:

The amount of time that the head of a TV newscaster or other
person is shown on the screen.


To vary in intensity, as a gradual change of audio or video, as in fade
to white (an instruction to change from dark to white), fade to black, or fade
to red. A

is the fading out of one element while fading in another.

fade down:

To graduall
y decrease the audio level of a recording.

fade under:

A direction, such as to reduce music or sound effects
sufficiently that they're heard only in the background.

fade up:

To gradually increase the audio level of a recording.

in (FI):

A shot that

begins in darkness and gradually lightens up to full
brightness; also called a
. The opposite is

fade to black.

In relation to sound, fade
in can mean the gradual heightening of volume.

fade bar:

A video switch
control device to dissol
ve and fade the picture.


Broadcasts sent by radio and TV networks to local stations or by a
local station or medium to the headquarters office or other media. The
origination point is called the feed point.


A loud noise, squeal, or howl f
rom a microphone or speaker,
caused by improper placement, circuit noise, accidental closing of the
circuit, or another error or problem.


In satellite broadcasting, a part of a receiving antenna
a dish
that collects the signal reflected from t
he main surface reflector and channels
it into a low
noise amplifier.


The part of a scene
field of view, field of action

action field
that's visible at any given moment or the area of a video screen on which
identification titles or oth
er text or art may be inserted. A field pickup is a
remote transmission, not from the studio. In TV transmission in the United
State, 60 fields are transmitted per second, each one containing either the
odd or even scanning lines of the picture (odd or eve
n fields), so that one
field equals half of a picture frame.

field producer:

A person who works outside the headquarters studio
in the
to supervise the production of programs or segments, as of a news

file film:

Stock footage from the li
brary, or file, of a TV station or other
source. When used as background material in a TV newscast, file film
generally is identified by a line at the top or bottom of the screen with the
date on which it was originally taken.


An adjustment. A TV

fitting is a type of rehearsal, generally of a
forthcoming live news event such as a political convention, in which stand
ins are used to test camera angles and other technical details.

five and under:

A TV role in which a performer has a maximum of five

lines. A larger number requires a higher payment.

flagship station:

The principal or showpiece station of a broadcast network
or group.


An advertising campaign, generally for radio or TV, that runs for a
specific period, such as four weeks.

p card:

A board or card with a title, name, or message, used on TV or in a
show or presentation; also called a
cue card



A transitional optical effect, akin to turning over a
page; also called a
flip, flip frame, flip wipe, flipover

wipe, flopover, optical
, or



A type of small loudspeaker commonly used in a TV studio or on
a stage so that performers can hear music or other sound; also called


follow shot:

A movement of a camera to follow the actio
n; also called a
following shot, action shot, moving shot, running shot,

tracking shot


Length. A portion of a film is called
, such as
daily footage

news footage


The general character of the programs, such as all
news, classical,
or country
western music.


A complete scanning of an image (525 lines in the U.S. system),
requiring 1/60 of a second each for the odd

and even
numbered lines for a
total of 1
/30 of a second. A half
picture, consisting of either the odd

numbered lines, is called a
. The
frame frequency

is the number of
times per second the picture area is covered or scanned. In TV, it is 30
cycles per second (cps).


time code:

A process, established by the Society of Motion Picture
and Television Engineers, of identifying each frame of a videotape. The
in frame time code

counts 30 frames per second, but omits (drops) two
frames every minute as the actual speed i
s slightly less.

frame up:

A director's command to adjust the picture.

freeze frame:

A technique in which a single frame is repeated or reprinted
in sequence to give the effect of frozen, suspended, or stopped motion. Also
hold frame

stop frame
, the technique often is used at the end of a
theatrical of TV film as a final scene that remains motionless for a short

frequency modulation (FM):

The encoding of a carrier wave, such as the
sound waves or audio signals of a radio or TV station,
by the variation
of its frequency, resulting in little or no static and high fidelity
in reception. FM radio stations, from 88 to 108 megahertz produce reception
superior to that of AM or amplitude modulation stations, particularly of
music in

the high
frequency range.

fringe area:

The outermost or weakest area of a broadcast signal or a
publication's distribution.

fringe time:

A transitional period of a broadcast schedule, immediately
before or after the peak period (prime time).

from the t

From the beginning, a show
business expression. The
opposite is
from the bottom
. The term originates from the days when each
scene in a script started at the top of a page.



Special effects, a motion
picture term for animation, objects, and
other techniques and devices that are not real; also, an abbreviation for
sound effects. The name of the cable TV channel FX is based on its owners,
Fox Broadcasting Company.


The head electrician.


Increase of signal power, particularly so
und volume. The control that
regulates the volume or another level is called the gain, as in

turn up the
. To
ride the gain

is to monitor the control indicator. To
is to
digital gain

is a feature on video cameras that electronicall
stores an image for a fraction of a second to accumulate light so that a dark
picture can be lightened.

gallows mike:

A gooseneck microphone hung from a support base and used
on a broadcasting table.


A class of objects derived from a preced
ing class. In films and
tapes, the master, or original, is the first generation. Any copy made from the
master is
second generation,

called a
copy, dupe
, or

and a copy of a
generation dupe is of the
third generation


An electricity gene
rator, particularly a portable generator on a film
or TV set.


A mishap, error, or malfunction, as in mechanical, electrical, or
electronic equipment.


A command to execute, such as
go theme
, an instruction from the
director to the audio
control operator or sound engineer to start the theme

go to black:

To let the image fade out entirely; a direction in film and

going off:

Speaking while moving off
stage, off
camera, or o

green room:

A room or waiting area for guests.


A general assistant in a stage, broadcast, or film production.
Originally, the person had to have a firm grip to carry or push equipment,
though the job is made easier by a
grip chain

and a
ip truck
. Types of
grips include
dolly grip, key grip,
lighting grip

gross rating point (GRP):

A unit of measurement of broadcast audience
size, equal to one percent of the total potential audience universe.

inch video:

Two types of half

video are available
video for home
use and broadcast
quality video. VHS and Betamax are the two home use
formats. They have been used for broadcast video, but they have very poor
resolution and usually wide blanking. Betacam and MII are the two major
quality half
inch video formats. This term is commonly used to
describe VHS dubs.

happy talk:

A format of TV news programs, featuring light banter among
an ensemble of newscasters.

hard news:

Reports of events of timeliness and/or importance. A
show set

generally has the newspersons, or anchors, at a desk; a
show set
such as the magazine
style daytime programs
often has a
couch or other furniture suggesting a living room.


The projecting part
for instance, the head of a
tape recorder, which
records and plays back the magnetic signals; the designation of parts of a TV
camera. The camera consists of the camera head (the lens, tubes, viewfinder,
and cable), panning head or pan head (platform and handle, for turning), and


The title or description at the top of a page in a book or atop a
news release or article, as a synopsis or to attract attention; called a

, or
. Headlines are used in broadcast and other media, in
addition to newspapers.
For example, the lead item or indication of a
forthcoming item on a broadcast may be referred to as a headline. The
preliminary indication sometimes is called a


A radio or telephone receiver held to the ear or ears by a band
over the



The field of vision between the top of a performer in a film or
TV program and the top of the motion picture or TV screen. In a close
the headroom is diminished.


An earphone, generally with an attached mouthpiece transmitter

definition television (HDTV):

A system with higher resolution, or
pictorial clarity, and other qualities that are superior to techniques currently
used by U.S. television stations. In HDTV, more lines per picture frame are
transmitted than is stand
ard (525 lines per frame in the United States),
resulting in sharper, more vivid images.

holdover audience:

That portion of a television or radio audience for one
program who were tuned to the previous program on the same station; also
called an inherited audience or a carry
over audience.

homes using television (HUT):

A Nielsen Media Research term for the
seholds, located in a specific area, that use one or more TV sets during a
specific time period.

hot box:

A box in which lighting cables are plugged; also called a

. Hot refers to electricity.


One or more individuals who live toget
her in an apartment,
house, or other dwelling unit, a common unit for classifying population data.
A TV household is a dwelling unit with one or more TV sets.


HyperText Markup Language, the coding language typically used
in the development of Web pa

human interest (h.i.):

A feature about a personality, a story with colorful
details and emotional appeal; any work that is not strictly hard news.

incue (ic


The first few words
generally four
of a taped report or
interview, written on
a script to help the engineer identify the tape and use it.

independent station:

A radio or TV station not owned by a national

industry standard:

A machine, format, or other entity that is commonly


An audio or video segment that combines advertising with
information, sold as a commercial and available on some cable networks and
other broadcast media.


A combination of information and entertainment, such as that
provided by some of the
television services.

inherited audience:

The segment of the audience of a radio or TV program
that stays tuned and is carried over to the next program; also called
. The inheriting program thus benefits from the preceding program.


Referring to a division or unit that is part of or within a company
organization, as differentiated from a vendor or an outside agency.


The beginning, or first frame, of a video edit; also called


insert earphone:

A small rece
iver that fits in one ear, as used by

insert edit:

In videotape editing, the independent editing of the audio and
video tracks, separately or together, without affecting the control track. Also,
to put a scene between two other scenes.

rt set:

A part of a set, or scene, used for close
ups in film and TV; also
called a

detail set

insert studio:

A small TV studio, sometimes used for interviews.


A rapid series of shots, generally of the same scene, taken
from different angl
es. A shot, called an intercut, of part of the scene may be
inserted between two shots of the entire scene.

International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Intelsat):

organization in Washington, DC, that owns and operates the international
ellite system that provides the majority of telecommunications services
outside the United States to over 100 member countries. It was formed in
1964. Comsat is the U.S. signatory.

interruptible feedback line (IFB):

A telephone line for a producer or a
rector to talk to a newscaster or an interviewer during a broadcast.

interstitial programming:

The placement of short programs between full
length programs. For example, Home Box Office (HBO) and other movie
channels schedule programs of about 2 to 25 min
utes between the full

iris in:

To begin a scene by opening the camera from a completely closed
position, so that the scene appears within an expanding circle. The opposite
iris out
. The terms are also called
circle in

circle out.


Integrated Services Digital Network

digital, high bandwidth
telephone lines that can deliver data over the Internet. Data, including
encoded audio and video, travels at 128K bits per second over an ISDN line.

join in progress (JIP):

An instruction

to a station to cut in and start
broadcasting a program already started, such as live coverage of a news

jump cut:

A transition in a film or TV program that breaks continuous time
by skipping forward from one part of an action to another, obviousl
separated from the first by a space of time. Also, a transition in which an
object moves (jumps) from one place to another.

junction box:

A unit that connects several electrical sources.

key station:

The station from which a program in a network or g
broadcast originates; also called a
master station

kilocycle (kc):

1,000 cycles per second, or 1,000 alterations of current or
sound waves per second; also called a kilohertz (kHz or khz). The number of
kilocycles determines a radio station's freque
ncy, and thus its position on the


A film of a transmitted television picture; also called

pronounced KIN
ney. Kinescopes, which have been replaced by videotape,
are no longer common. Originally, kine

was a synonym for picture

Ku band:

An audio frequency in the 12
gigahertz range. Part of the K
band, it is used by radio and TV stations for satellite transmission. The
communications satellite that operates in the Ku band is the
Ku satellite
; its
relays can be received with a relatively small dish, or microwave transmitter,
such as those next to small homes. The dishes are also seen atop TV news
Ku trucks
which are mobile units for satellite transmission. The
vehicle is sometimes cal
led a

14 unit
, after the gigahertz

lamppost interview:

An interview in which the interviewee is unidentified.

lap dissolve:

An optical effect or type of transition in which one scene is
gradually replaced by a new image; also called a lap, cross lap, cross
dissolve, or mix.

lapel mike:

A small microphone clipped to a lapel, necktie, shirt, or
elsewhere, or worn hanging around

the neck; also called a lavaliere.


A throat microphone, attached more closely to the neck than
a lapel mike; pronounced la

last telecast (LTC):

A term used at a TV station to indicate the last program
of the broadcast day or

the final time of a schedule of commercials or

late fringe:

The time period following prime time, usually after 11 p.m.

laugh track:

The audio component of a TV situation comedy or other
program on which audience laugher is inserted, from tape

cassettes with
various types of actual or artificial laughter.

lavaliere (lav):

A microphone worn like a necklace.

lead off:

The first item in a newscast, or the first program in a series.


magnetic strips of tape (either paper or plastic) a
t the beginning
and end of audio cassette or reel
reel tape.


An introduction, such as by a newscaster preceding a report or a
brief segment at the beginning of a sitcom or other program.

letterbox format:

The ratio of width to height (the asp
ect ratio) used in
showing a film on TV so that the film has the same relative dimensions as it
did when shown in a widescreen movie theater. Films shown on a TV screen
generally do not have their original aspect ratio.


The degree of sound volume.
A radio engineer or recording
technician may ask for a level
that is, request that the performers speak in
order to determine a general setting of the volume controls.


A portion of a radio or TV commercial for use as a shorter, separate
ercial. For example, to save on production costs, a 30
commercial can be produced with a 10
second lift within it, for use as a
separate 10
second identification.

lift microphone:

A directional microphone with an acoustical transmission
line in fro
nt of the transducer, often with a pole at least 2 feet long.
Commonly used in film and TV studios, it sometimes is called a shotgun

liner cards:

Large index cards with typed copy, for use by radio announcers
and disk jockeys. The cards contai
n slogans, information about current
promotions and upcoming programs, and other on
air remarks, messages,
and chatter.


The arrangement of items in a newscast; a group of stations